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  • highly conserved
  • Genome structure and content followed the ancestral angiosperm pattern and were highly conserved in the Proteales, whilst size differences were largely explained by the relative contraction of the single copy regions and expansion of the inverted repeats in Macadamia . (biomedcentral.com)
  • genus
  • Though interesting, information on chloroplast DNA from the genus Chlorella was fragmentary. (pnas.org)
  • The present study shows that chloroplast genome of G. firma could serve as a key link to the full resolution of Gracilaria sensu lato complex and recognition of Hydropuntia as a genus distinct from Gracilaria sensu stricto . (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2014) found that a genus of Rafflesia is the first parasitic plant studied containing no recognizable remnants of the chloroplast genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • green algae
  • It is generally believed that land plants evolved from green algae ( 8 ) and that during this evolution, extensive rearrangements occurred within the chloroplast genomes. (pnas.org)
  • The chloroplasts of glaucocystophytes, red algae, and green algae are thought to be direct products of this primary endosymbiotic event, and secondary endosymbioses involving the capture of photosynthetic algae have been postulated for the origin of heterokont, cryptophyte, and euglenophyte chloroplasts ( 12 , 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • circular
  • The circular complete cp genome of G. compressum was 157,959 bp in length and contained a large single copy region (86,809 bp), a small single copy region (18,560 bp) and two short inverted repeat (IRa and IRb) regions (26,295 bp). (springer.com)
  • ancestral
  • This observation suggests the conservation of division mechanisms during evolution of chloroplasts from their ancestral prokaryotes. (pnas.org)
  • organisms
  • Both chloroplasts and mitochondria originated more than a billion years ago, when bacteria colonized early single-celled organisms, establishing a symbiotic relationship that has allowed plant cells to get energy from sunlight and both plant and animal cells to produce energy efficiently. (berkeley.edu)