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  • Nature
  • It examined some theological implications, such as: humans as the image of God, God as the creator of life, the changed role of miracles and healings in religion, the sacredness of nature, life and the genome. (scielo.org.za)
  • Analysis
  • CSHL's transformative discoveries over many years in such areas as cancer, autism and other neuropsychiatric disorders, genome analysis, plant biology, and biofuels have significant commercial applications that will improve diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in the clinic as well as in agriculture and energy production," said CSHL President Bruce Stillman. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Genes
  • It is now possible to scour complete human genomes for the presence of disease-associated genes without revealing any genetic information not directly associated with the inquiry, say Stanford University researchers. (stanford.edu)
  • Apart from comparing the genome homology, size and G + C content, we also showed the presence 10 different CRISPR-cas genes in the CNS strains. (omicsonline.org)
  • Human genomes include both protein-coding DNA genes and noncoding DNA . (wikipedia.org)
  • The estimate of the number of human genes has been repeatedly revised down from initial predictions of 100,000 or more as genome sequence quality and gene finding methods have improved, and could continue to drop further. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome includes both the genes (the coding regions) and the noncoding DNA, as well as the genetic material of the mitochondria and chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another source of genome instability may be epigenetic or mutational reductions in expression of DNA repair genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenovirus genomes are linear, non-segmented double-stranded (ds) DNA molecules that are typically 26-46 Kbp long, containing 23-46 protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The example used for the following description is Human adenovirus E, a mastadenovirus with a 36 Kbp genome containing 38 protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the precise number and identity of genes varies among adenoviruses, the basic principles of genome organization and the functions of most of the genes described in this article are shared among all adenoviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 38 genes in the Human Adenovirus E genome are organized in 17 transcription units, each containing 1-8 coding sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The names, locations, and properties of the 38 protein-coding genes in the Human Adenovirus E genome are given in the following table. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome@home used spare processing power on personal computers to virtually design genes that match existing proteins, although it can also design new proteins that have not been found in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, the Genome@home project aided the understanding of why thousands of different amino acid sequences all form the same structures and assisted the fields of proteomics and Structural genomics by predicting the functions of newly discovered genes and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, free-living bacteria have evolved larger genomes with more genes so they can adapt more easily to changing environmental conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research on prokaryotic genomes shows that there is a significant positive correlation between the C-value of prokaryotes and the amount of genes that compose the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotic organisms, there is a paradox observed, namely that the number of genes that make up the genome does not correlate with genome size. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, the genome size is much larger than would be expected given the total number of protein coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sugar's genome, sequenced with newer techniques, had 3 million genetic variants from Twilight's, notably in genes governing sensory perception, signal transduction, and immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study that included, but was not limited to, 478 bacterial genomes, concluded that as genome size increases, the number of genes increases at a disproportionately slower rate in eukaryotes than in non-eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome sequences show that parasitic bacteria have 500-1200 genes, free-living bacteria have 1500-7500 genes, and archaea have 1500-2700 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria possess a compact genome architecture distinct from eukaryotes in two important ways: bacteria show a strong correlation between genome size and number of functional genes in a genome, and those genes are structured into operons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome size is of little relevance when considering the number of functional genes in eukaryotic species. (wikipedia.org)
  • In bacteria, however, the strong correlation between the number of genes and the genome size makes the size of bacterial genomes an interesting topic for research and discussion. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology a pan-genome (or supra-genome) describes the full complement of genes in a clade (originally applied to species in bacteria and archaea, but also to plant species), which can have large variation in gene content among closely related strains or ecotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pan-genome includes the "core genome" containing genes present in all individuals, an accessory or dispensable genome containing shell genes present in two or more strains, and finally unique cloud genes specific to single strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two generalised types of pan-genomes, categorised by the number of new genes added to the pan-genome per sequenced genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species with a closed pan-genome would have very few genes added per sequenced genome after sequencing many strains, and the size of the full pan-genome could theoretically be predicted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species with an open pan-genome have enough genes added per additional sequenced genome that predicting the size of the full pan-genome is not possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • when they sequenced six strains of Streptococcus agalactiae which could be described as a core genome shared by all isolates, accounting for approximately 80% of any single genome, plus a dispensable genome consisting of partially shared and strain-specific genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extrapolation suggested that the gene reservoir in the S. agalactiae pan-genome is vast and that new unique genes will continue to be identified even after sequencing hundreds of genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • With each new genome sequenced fewer new genes were discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, the predicted number of new genes dropped to zero when the number of genomes exceeds 50 (note, however, that this is not a pattern found in all species). (wikipedia.org)
  • The pan-genome size of S. pneumoniae increased logarithmically with the number of strains and linearly with the number of polymorphic sites of the sampled genomes, suggesting that acquired genes accumulate proportionately to the age of clones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept of minimal genome assumes that genomes can be reduced to a bare minimum, given that they contain many non-essential genes of limited or situational importance to the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, if a collection of all the essential genes were put together, a minimum genome could be created artificially in a stable environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept of minimal genome arose from the observations that many genes do not appear to be necessary for survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a human urogenital pathogen which has the smallest genome of size 580 kb and it consists of only 482 protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomics
  • The National Human Genome Research Institute today launched a new round of strategic planning that will establish a 2020 vision for genomics research aimed at accelerating scientific and medical breakthroughs. (genome.gov)
  • Due to the funding from The National Committee of Pig Breeding, Health and Production it was possible to establish the Sino-Danish pig genome project which originally was a collaboration between the Beijing Genomics Institute, the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (now University of Copenhagen, faculty of Life Sciences) and the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences (now University of Aarhus, faculty of Agricultural Sciences). (piggenome.dk)
  • Disregarding review journals, Genome Research ranks 2nd in the category 'Genetics and Genomics' after Nature Genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome project Structural genomics "DataSoft Systems Bangladesh Ltd". datasoft-bd.com. (wikipedia.org)
  • That same year, Complete Genomics debuted its proprietary whole-genome sequencing service for researchers, charging as little as $5,000/genome for bulk orders. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of genome evolution involves multiple fields such as structural analysis of the genome, the study of genomic parasites, gene and ancient genome duplications, polyploidy, and comparative genomics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the first sequenced genomes became available in the late 1970s, scientists have been using comparative genomics to study the differences and similarities between various genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The significance of the pan-genome arises in an evolutionary context, especially with relevance to metagenomics, but is also used in a broader genomics context. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome Canada is a non-profit organization that aims to use genomics-based technologies to improve the lives of Canadians. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome Canada also funds research on the ethical, environmental, economic, legal and social aspects of genomics, which they call GE3LS (the same research direction is called ELSI or ELSA in the United States and in Europe, respectively). (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, there are six regional genome centres in Canada that receive funding from Genome Canada: Genome British Columbia Genome Alberta Genome Prairie Ontario Genomics Genome Québec Genome Atlantic Between 2000 and 2017, Genome Canada provided 1.5 billion Canadian dollars in genomics funding, which has attracted an additional C$ 2.1 billion in co-funding from partners in the private, public and non-profit sectors within Canada and internationally. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) has appointed Carolyn Hutter, Ph.D. the director of the Division of Genome Sciences - the NHGRI division that leads research aiming to understand the function of the human genome in health and disease, and seeks technologies that facilitate genomic discoveries. (genome.gov)
  • Researchers and clinicians are sequencing human genomes faster than ever, so considering the societal implications of genomic data and what we can learn from it is even more crucial. (genome.gov)
  • This "genome cloaking" technique, devised by biologists, computer scientists and cryptographers at the university, ameliorates many concerns about genomic privacy and potential discrimination based on an individual's genome sequence. (stanford.edu)
  • In light of this, we performed genome mining and comparative genomic analysis of CNS strains Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. (omicsonline.org)
  • The first genome sequence for an archaeon, Methanococcus jannaschii, was completed in 1996, again by The Institute for Genomic Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The decreasing cost of genomic mapping has permitted genealogical sites to offer it as a service, to the extent that one may submit one's genome to crowd sourced scientific endeavours such as DNA.land at the New York Genome Center, an example both of the economies of scale and of citizen science. (wikipedia.org)
  • The focus of the journal is on research that provides novel insights into the genome biology of all organisms, including advances in genomic medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Projects such as the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) intend to add more genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • NHGRI
  • In October 2004, NHGRI introduced the first in a series of '$1,000 Genome' grants designed to advance "the development of breakthrough technologies that will enable a human-sized genome to be sequenced for $1,000 or less. (wikipedia.org)
  • The $15 million project was funded by National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers
  • There are now amazing tools in computer science and cryptography that allow researchers to pinpoint only these differences while keeping the remainder of the genome completely private. (stanford.edu)
  • New Software Tools Streamline DNA Sequence Design-and-Build Process Researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (DOE JGI) have developed a suite of build-optimization software tools (BOOST) to streamline the design-build transition in synthetic biology engineering workflows. (doe.gov)
  • DAS Tool for Genome Reconstruction from Metagenomes Through the JGI's Emerging Technologies Opportunity Program (ETOP), researchers have developed and improved upon a tool that combines existing DNA sequence binning algorithms, allowing them to reconstruct more near-complete genomes from soil metagenomes compared to other methods. (doe.gov)
  • Researchers can use the results from the project to gain a better understanding of the evolution of natural genomes and proteins, and their functionality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers have developed several theories to explain the patterns of genome size evolution amongst bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome Canada researchers generate policy briefs on these and other topics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Second, separately at about the same time, a group of researchers led by the Brookings Institution started the Social Genome Project which built a data-rich model to map the pathway to the Middle class by tracing the life course from birth until middle age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ensembl
  • Table 1 (above) summarizes the physical organization and gene content of the human reference genome, with links to the original analysis, as published in the Ensembl database at the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) and Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. (wikipedia.org)
  • personal genome
  • We support groundbreaking initiatives including the Global Network of Personal Genome Projects, Open Humans and the GET Conference. (getconference.org)
  • In May 2007, during a ceremony held at Baylor College of Medicine, 454 Life Sciences founder Jonathan Rothberg presented James D. Watson with a digital copy of his personal genome sequence on a portable hard drive. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • When Bob Waterston became chair of the Department of Genome Sciences in 2002, it was a major coup for UW Medicine. (washington.edu)
  • The name Materials Genome was coined in December 2002 by Dr. Zi-Kui Liu who incorporated the company "MaterialsGenome, Inc." in Pennsylvania, USA, and filed the trademark protection on March 5, 2004 (78512752). (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • Graphical representation of the idealized human diploid karyotype , showing the organization of the genome into chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome is organized into 22 paired chromosomes, plus the X chromosome (one in males, two in females) and, in males only, one Y chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • A genome sequence is the complete list of the nucleotides (A, C, G, and T for DNA genomes) that make up all the chromosomes of an individual or a species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, nearly half of the chromosomes in the horse genome show conserved synteny with a human chromosome, far more than between dogs and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • organization
  • Dr. Beliveau develops and applies super-resolution microscopy methods and programmable molecular technologies to map the 3D organization of the genome in single cells. (washington.edu)
  • Recent results suggest that most of the vast quantities of noncoding DNA within the genome have associated biochemical activities, including regulation of gene expression , organization of chromosome architecture , and signals controlling epigenetic inheritance . (wikipedia.org)
  • multicellular
  • In multicellular organisms genome instability is central to carcinogenesis, and in humans it is also a factor in some neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or the neuromuscular disease myotonic dystrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Basic information about these molecules and their gene content, based on a reference genome that does not represent the sequence of any specific individual, are provided in the following table. (wikipedia.org)
  • This indicates that gene number is the main factor influencing the size of the prokaryotic genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • A famous example for such gene decay is the genome of Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also reported an open pan- genome showing vast diversity of gene pool. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • by the 1980s Richard Herrmann's laboratory had successfully managed to fully sequence and genetically characterize the 800kb genome of M. pneumoniae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • While there are significant differences among the genomes of human individuals (on the order of 0.1%), these are considerably smaller than the differences between humans and their closest living relatives, the chimpanzees (approximately 4% ) and bonobos . (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, mutations that would change an amino acid within the protein coding region of the genome occur at an average of only 0.35 per generation (less than one mutated protein per generation). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • In May 2016, a group scientist led by Sorelle A. Friedler, Joshua Schrier and Alexander J. Norquist claimed the first machine-learning-assisted materials discovery, as an example of human's early attempts to design and materials via data-driven approaches proposed by the Materials Genome Initiative. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms
  • By comparing genomes of both close relatives and distant ancestors the stark differences and similarities between species began to emerge as well as the mechanisms by which genomes are able to evolve over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • The genome also includes the mitochondrial DNA , a comparatively small circular molecule present in each mitochondrion . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most DNA virus genomes are composed of a single, linear molecule of DNA, but some are made up of a circular DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Proteins in the chloroplast thylakoid membrane system are derived from both the nuclear and plastid genomes. (pnas.org)
  • This genome-wide, high-resolution analysis of the partitioning of chloroplast ribosomes between membrane and soluble fractions revealed that approximately half of the chloroplast-encoded thylakoid proteins integrate cotranslationally and half integrate posttranslationally. (pnas.org)
  • mutation
  • A high frequency of externally caused DNA damage can be one source of genome instability since DNA damages can cause inaccurate translesion synthesis past the damages or errors in repair, leading to mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • One result to date of the mapping of the horse genome was locating the mutation that creates the Leopard complex (Lp) spotting pattern seen in breeds such as the Appaloosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral
  • In 1976, Walter Fiers at the University of Ghent (Belgium) was the first to establish the complete nucleotide sequence of a viral RNA-genome (Bacteriophage MS2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral genomes can be composed of either RNA or DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenovirus DNA replication begins at each end of the viral DNA, using the TP protein (rather than RNA) as a primer, so the viral DNA polymerase replicates every base of the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • Surprisingly, there is a lack of genome analysis data in literature against CNS particularly of human origin. (omicsonline.org)
  • These distinctions are not completely objective, since they depend on which genomes are included in the analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two most cited software tools at the end of 2014 were Panseq and the pan-genomes analysis pipeline (PGAP). (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The process of genome instability often leads to a situation of aneuploidy, in which the cells present a chromosomic number that is either higher or lower than the normal complement for the species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome: The Autobiography of a Species in 23 Chapters is a 1999 popular science book by the science writer Matt Ridley, published by Fourth Estate. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • These sites are called fragile sites, and can occur commonly as naturally present in most mammalian genomes or occur rarely as a result of mutations, such as DNA-repeat expansion. (wikipedia.org)