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  • embryos
  • After enduring initial failures, Mitalipov observed that of the engineered cells four of the cloned embryos began growing. (biotecharticles.com)
  • This is a major area of research in modern medicine and overcomes a major ethical issue associated with SCNT: destruction of embryos and cloning methods. (biotecharticles.com)
  • Embryonic stem cells come from embryos between a few days to two weeks old. (wired.com)
  • Scientists have also derived multipotent stem cells from fetal tissue (taken from embryos older than eight weeks, usually following abortion or spontaneous miscarriage). (wired.com)
  • Scientists and ethicists have been working on alternatives for obtaining stem cells as powerful as those that come from embryos without actually creating or destroying an embryo. (wired.com)
  • Further, because embryonic stem cells can only be derived from embryos, it has so far not been feasible to create patient-matched embryonic stem cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since iPSCs can be derived directly from adult tissues, they not only bypass the need for embryos, but can be made in a patient-matched manner, which means that each individual could have their own pluripotent stem cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the molecular makeup of these cells, including gene expression and epigenetic marks, was somewhere between that of a fibroblast and an ESC, and the cells failed to produce viable chimeras when injected into developing embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also encompasses questions about, among other things, whether researchers who use but do not derive HESCs are complicit in the destruction of embryos, whether there is a moral distinction between creating embryos for research purposes and creating them for reproductive ends, the permissibility of cloning human embryos to harvest HESCs, and the ethics of creating human/non-human chimeras. (stanford.edu)
  • Scientists obtained the cells without destroying embryos, which is the sticking point for most people who oppose the research. (wired.com)
  • Seeking alternative ways to obtain pluripotent stem cells without creating or harming embryos is certainly a good idea, but it's not clear that either of these approaches fills the bill,' said Richard Doerflinger, deputy director of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops' Secretariat for Pro-Life Activities. (wired.com)
  • Lanza says he never intended for the method to be an ethical way to harvest cells from healthy embryos specifically for research. (wired.com)
  • Mature egg cells are produced by mitotic divisions, and these cells directly develop into embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 4-5 days post fertilization, at which time they consist of 50-150 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolating the embryoblast or inner cell mass (ICM) results in destruction of the blastocyst, which raises ethical issues, including whether or not embryos at the pre-implantation stage should be considered to have the same moral or legal status as embryos in the post-implantation stage of development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells, derived from the blastocyst stage early mammalian embryos, are distinguished by their ability to differentiate into any cell type and by their ability to propagate. (wikipedia.org)
  • this approach has been championed as an answer to the many issues concerning embryonic stem cells (ESC) and the destruction of viable embryos for medical use, though questions remain on how homologous the two cell types truly are. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiate
  • HESCs are characterized by their capacity for self-renewal and their ability to differentiate into all types of cells of the body. (stanford.edu)
  • Understanding the fundamentals of biological decisions, including what permits a cell to maintain pluripotency, that is, its ability to self-renew and thereby remain immortal, or to differentiate into multiple types of cells, is of profound importance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, gametes are cells that fuse during sexual reproduction, germ cells are cells that give rise to gametes, and stem cells are cells that can divide through mitosis and differentiate into diverse specialized cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • The researchers added caffeine to ensure the production of cell lines by preventing premature activation. (biotecharticles.com)
  • They also believe embryonic stem cells can provide models to teach researchers about disease progression, and how to stop it. (wired.com)
  • Additionally, researchers believe that studying stem cells can help them understand how primordial cells transform into all the different types of cells in the human body. (wired.com)
  • It is worth noting that this argument, if sound, would not suffice to show that all or even most HESC research is impermissible, since most investigators engaged in HESC research do not participate in the derivation of HESCs but instead use cell lines that researchers who performed the derivation have made available. (stanford.edu)
  • In addition, if the extracted cells contain a genetic disease such as cystic fibrosis, researchers could study them to learn about the disease. (wired.com)
  • This method can help researchers select vector(+) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • Furthermore, immunocompromised mice transplanted with the antisense cell lines survived longer than the mice bearing control cells after response to cisplatin treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data suggest that it is possible to substantially enhance the cisplatin cytotoxicity by disturbing the NER pathway in cisplatin-resistant cell lines and to enhance the survival capacity of mice in an ovarian cancer xenograft model. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The new techniques were tested in mice , not human cells. (wired.com)
  • This was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice of the inbred strain BALB/c were immunized with recombinant human CD28-Fc fusion proteins and boosted with a B lymphoma cell line transfected to express human CD28. (wikipedia.org)
  • Snuppy
  • 2005) Snuppy, a male Afghan hound was the first cloned dog. (wikipedia.org)
  • In practice, this technique has so far been problematic, although there have been a few high-profile successes, such as Dolly the Sheep and, more recently, Snuppy, the first cloned dog. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • A stable cell line can be created to genetically match the donor through various harvesting and culturing and can become potentially all types of cell of the human body. (biotecharticles.com)
  • All the above techniques were systematically tested in various combinations on 1000 monkey eggs before ensuring the same in human cells to ensure high success rates. (biotecharticles.com)
  • The origins of some immortal cell lines, for example HeLa human cells, are from naturally occurring cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major examples include human HeLa cells that were obtained from a cervical cancer, mouse Raw 264.7 cells that were subjected to mutagenesis and then selected for cells which are able to undergo division. (wikipedia.org)
  • And everyone should, because stem-cell research brings up issues like where your tax money goes, who you vote for, your family's health and even your most fundamental beliefs about what makes us human. (wired.com)
  • Human embryonic stem cell (HESC) research offers much hope for alleviating the human suffering brought on by the ravages of disease and injury. (stanford.edu)
  • cloning and human-non-human chimeras are addressed in separate entries. (stanford.edu)
  • The standard view of those who oppose HESC research is that a human being begins to exist with the emergence of the one-cell zygote at fertilization. (stanford.edu)
  • In support of this hypothesis, lysoPC stimulated PLD activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells ( Cox and Cohen, 1996c ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Embryonic stem-cell research opponents) know there's very real human tragedy out there, and that a lot of people don't have time to wait for us to work this (new technique) out in humans - and that while we are pursuing these ethical alternatives, we should also proceed at full speed with existing technologies that we already know work,' he said. (wired.com)
  • It could be years before they work in humans, and even when they do, no one knows if the quality of the resulting stem cells will be good enough to use in human therapies. (wired.com)
  • For instance, multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are stress-tolerant adult human stem cells that can self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human ES cells measure approximately 14 μm while mouse ES cells are closer to 8 μm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second being a somatic cell, referring to the cells of the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hybridomas were obtained by fusing B cells with the hybridoma partner X63Ag8.653 and screened for reactivity with human CD28 and TCR-independent mitogenic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complementarity determining regions of 5.11A1 were cloned into the framework of human IgG and combined with IgG1 (TGN1112) or IgG4 (TGN1412) constant regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of monoclonal antibodies specific for mouse, rat, or human CD28 identified so-called "superagonistic" antibodies that could stimulate T cells without concurrent antigen-receptor stimulation (signal 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • therapies
  • Current research focuses on differentiating ES into a variety of cell types for eventual use as cell replacement therapies (CRTs). (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • showed that outer membrane proteins with a β-barrel tertiary structure from Gram-negative bacteria or mitochondria were recognized by specific receptors on macrophages and epithelial cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • Scientists say these abilities make embryonic stem cells excellent candidates for cell therapy. (wired.com)
  • Why do scientists want to use stem cells? (wired.com)
  • Scientists believe they may be able to use stem cells as replacements or patches in people with various diseases. (wired.com)
  • Scientists have also seen success in heart patients who received stem-cell injections. (wired.com)
  • Mistakes in that process can lead to cancer, birth defects and many other ailments, so understanding cell development could give scientists insight into how to correct those errors. (wired.com)
  • Scientists say they have a more limited ability than embryonic stem cells to self-renew. (wired.com)
  • How hard is it for scientists make the cells into treatments? (wired.com)
  • Instead of using that cell for diagnosis, scientists derive stem cells from it. (wired.com)
  • Scientists and bioethicists are trying these new techniques in order to find a way around the executive order and the ethical quandaries that surround embryonic stem-cell research. (wired.com)
  • If not possible, Indian scientists requested Iran to allow them to collect some live cells of the cheetah pair in Iran itself, which can then be made into living cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The cells are used for a wide variety of purposes, from testing toxicity of compounds or drugs to production of eukaryotic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial expression of key proteins required for immortality, for example telomerase which prevents degradation of chromosome ends during DNA replication in eukaryotes Hybridoma technology, specifically used for the generation of immortalized antibody-producing B cell lines, where an antibody-producing B cell is fused with a myeloma (B cell cancer) cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnesium transporters are proteins that transport magnesium across the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • revert
  • Some types of mature, specialized adult cells can naturally revert to stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • While they normally produce digestive fluids for the stomach, they can revert into stem cells to make temporary repairs to stomach injuries, such as a cut or damage from infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Root cuttings of thornless blackberries will revert to thorny type because the adventitious shoot develops from a cell that is genetically thorny. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor cells
  • Maintenance of these levels results from a balance between production of eosinophils by bone marrow eosinophil precursor cells termed CFU-Eos and the emigration of circulating eosinophils out of the blood through post-capillary venules into tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • monkey kidney cell
  • This vaccine was made possible by the cell culture research of John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller, and Frederick Chapman Robbins, who were awarded a Nobel Prize for their discovery of a method of growing the virus in monkey kidney cell cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cells
  • Intuitively, the failure of chemotherapy must be the result of development of drug resistance by tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They also participate in transplant rejection, Graft-versus-host disease, and the killing of tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • multicellular organism
  • An immortalized cell line is a population of cells from a multicellular organism which would normally not proliferate indefinitely but, due to mutation, have evaded normal cellular senescence and instead can keep undergoing division. (wikipedia.org)
  • An immortalized cell line should not be confused with stem cells, which can also divide indefinitely, but form a normal part of the development of a multicellular organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortalized cell lines find use in biotechnology where they are a cost-effective way of growing cells similar to those found in a multicellular organism in vitro. (wikipedia.org)