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  • embryos
  • In cattle, when individual cells from 4- and 8-cell embryos and implanted in different foster mothers, they can develop normally into calves and this technique has been used routinely within cattle breeding schemes for over 10 years. (chipbennett.net)
  • So while the idea of treating patients with stem cells from cloned embryos was acceptable to CA residents, eating food from genetically-modified organisms (GMOs) is not. (catholiclane.com)
  • Accurate and credible information about the ethics and public policy ramifications of the use of living human embryos -- whether produced sexually or a-sexually -- for deriving stem cells for important biomedical research and 'therapies' for curing devastating diseases is critically important. (uffl.org)
  • But valid 'informed consent' must also include disseminating the correct and accurate scientific information about 'what' these early human embryos are -- even before discussing the ethical and public policy issues surrounding their use as sources of stem cells. (uffl.org)
  • this approach has been championed as an answer to the many issues concerning embryonic stem cells (ESC) and the destruction of viable embryos for medical use, though questions remain on how homologous the two cell types truly are. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the mouse, embryonic stem cells can be derived from cloned preimplantation stage embryos. (jove.com)
  • to attempt to create a child by implanting cloned embryos in a woman. (essaypride.com)
  • Mature egg cells are produced by mitotic divisions, and these cells directly develop into embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian Cells
  • The February 27, 1997 issue of Nature reported it in a mundanely titled article, "Viable Offspring Derived from Fetal and Adult Mammalian Cells. (apologeticspress.org)
  • citation needed] Before this, laboratory cultures of healthy, noncancerous mammalian cells would only divide a fixed number of times, up to the Hayflick limit, before dying. (wikipedia.org)
  • The finding that the master circadian pacemaker, a robust oscillator which is typically only entrained by environmental light/dark cycles, was also capable of entraining to temperature fluctuations when isolated in vitro indicates that temperature resetting is a fundamental property of all mammalian clocks and likely works through a highly conserved mechanism in all mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • This is where the cell creates anew set of chromosomes and splits into two daughter cells. (chipbennett.net)
  • In 1880, a man named Walter Sutton made one of the most important discoveries towards cloning- he proved that chromosomes hold genetic information. (essaypride.com)
  • Like all cells, somatic cells contain DNA arranged in chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a somatic cell contains chromosomes arranged in pairs, it is called diploid and the organism is called a diploid organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gametes of diploid organisms contain only single unpaired chromosomes and are called haploid. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in humans, somatic cells contain 46 chromosomes organized into 23 pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning is generally first performed using Escherichia coli, and cloning vectors in E. coli include plasmids, bacteriophages (such as phage λ), cosmids, and bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning vectors in yeast include yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Diploidy might be restored by the doubling of the chromosomes without cell division before meiosis begins or after meiosis is completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chromosomes may not separate at one of the two anaphases (called restitutional meiosis), or the nuclei produced may fuse or one of the polar bodies may fuse with the egg cell at some stage during its maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rare cases, intersex conditions can be caused by mosaicism where some cells in the body have XX and others XY chromosomes (46, XX/XY). (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of this is one of the milder forms of Klinefelter syndrome, called 46/47 XY/XXY mosaic wherein some of the patient's cells contain XY chromosomes, and some contain XXY chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 46/47 annotation indicates that the XY cells have the normal number of 46 total chromosomes, and the XXY cells have a total of 47 chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitotic
  • In the more common mosaics, different genotypes arise from a single fertilized egg cell, due to mitotic errors at first or later cleavages. (wikipedia.org)
  • In revertant mosaicism, the healthy tissue formed by mitotic recombination can outcompete the original, surrounding mutant cells in tissues like blood and epithelia that regenerate often. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • The availability of various GFP-tagged proteins means that many cellular processes can be monitored in living cells over the course of minutes or hours, and using this technique, processes such as RNP transport, epithelial morphogenesis, and tissue remodeling have been described in great detail in Drosophila oocytes 1,2 . (jove.com)
  • The cells are used for a wide variety of purposes, from testing toxicity of compounds or drugs to production of eukaryotic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial expression of key proteins required for immortality, for example telomerase which prevents degradation of chromosome ends during DNA replication in eukaryotes Hybridoma technology, specifically used for the generation of immortalized antibody-producing B cell lines, where an antibody-producing B cell is fused with a myeloma (B cell cancer) cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2007 a Roslin team developed genetically modified chickens capable of laying eggs containing proteins needed to make cancer-fighting drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fetal
  • It is past time for labeling legislation that would tell consumers if aborted fetal tissue was used in the development or manufacture of products that we use like vaccines or stem cell treatments. (catholiclane.com)
  • In January 2018, a team of scientists in Shanghai announced the successful cloning of two female crab-eating macaques (named Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua) from fetal nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • When the editors of Time screamed on the cover of their February 19, 2001 issue, "Human Cloning is Closer than You Think! (apologeticspress.org)
  • Now, with reports arriving almost daily about proposals to clone humans, and with similar reports surfacing with disturbing frequency about scientists' planned use of human-derived stem cells, I believe that an in-depth analysis of these two subjects is both timely and warranted. (apologeticspress.org)
  • However, the practice of manipulating organisms to create a product has long been used by human societies. (plt.org)
  • The word "biotechnology" usually conjures imag-es of modern techniques and topics of controversy, however, the prac-tice of manipulating organisms to create a product has long been used in human societies. (plt.org)
  • Business and medical leaders strongly support the measure while religious and anti-abortion leaders have campaigned against it, saying the procedure amounts to human cloning . (chipbennett.net)
  • it specifically allows human cloning, and specifically prohibits the state legislature from prohibiting human cloning. (chipbennett.net)
  • 2) "Clone or attempt to clone a human being" means to implant in a uterus or attempt to implant in a uterus anything other than the product of fertilization of an egg of a human female by a sperm of a human male for the purpose of initiating a pregnancy that could result in the creation of a human fetus, or the birth of a human being. (chipbennett.net)
  • BIO supports the FDA scientific risk assessment which concludes that eating foods from animals which have been cloned for better health are safe for human consumption. (bio.org)
  • Since this amendment was passed after the hearing at which I testified, this erroneous scientific definition of a human clone is not included in my testimony below. (uffl.org)
  • In human SCNT (Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer) experiments, these eggs are obtained through consenting donors, utilizing ovarian stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second being a somatic cell, referring to the cells of the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • If applicable to human, this would allow the derivation of stem cells from a patient. (jove.com)
  • Cloning Attempts to create a human being by cloning should be banned for several reasons. (essaypride.com)
  • Although cloning has some benefits, attempts to clone a human will bring up many moral and ethical issues. (essaypride.com)
  • The possibility that people might be cloned from the cells of a single adult human being had long been a subject primarily of fantasy and science fiction but became very definite at the end of the 20th century. (essaypride.com)
  • PES Biology Human Awareness Essay: Human CloningBackgroundHuman cloning is a highly publicized, groundbreaking topic. (essaypride.com)
  • One of the most recent bioethical issues facing society is the idea of human cloning. (essaypride.com)
  • The continued success of tissue engineering, and the eventual development of true human replacement parts, will grow from the convergence of engineering and basic research advances in tissue, matrix, growth factor, stem cell, and developmental biology, as well as materials science and bio informatics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doris Taylor's heart in a jar Tissue-engineered airway Tissue-engineered vessels Artificial skin constructed from human skin cells embedded in a hydrogel, such as in the case of bioprinted constructs for battlefield burn repairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are approximately 220 types of somatic cells in the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major examples include human HeLa cells that were obtained from a cervical cancer, mouse Raw 264.7 cells that were subjected to mutagenesis and then selected for cells which are able to undergo division. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • The news was that a mammal had been cloned from an adult cell-something that even scientists like James Watson and Francis Crick (who were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their elucidation of the molecular structure of DNA) had gone on record as stating was very likely impossible. (apologeticspress.org)
  • All commonly used cloning vectors in molecular biology have key features necessary for their function, such as a suitable cloning site and selectable marker. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the in vitro research on the pineal gland culture system used to understand circadian oscillations, the limitations of the cell culture system were evident and Takahashi switched methods to begin using forward genetics and positional cloning-tools which required no advanced knowledge of the underlying mechanism-to understand the genetic and molecular bases of circadian rhythms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetics
  • In genetics, a mosaic, or mosaicism, is the presence of two or more populations of cells with different genotypes in one individual, who has developed from a single fertilized egg. (wikipedia.org)