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  • embryo
  • While it is true that a clone created for therapeutic uses would be just the same as one created for reproductive use, there could easily be stiff penalties imposed for implanting a cloned embryo into a woman's womb or otherwise trying to allow its development into a child. (cnn.com)
  • The Slashdot headline neglected to mention that they synthesised an embryo from adult human skin cells - so it's 100% genetically compatible with the donor. (slashdot.org)
  • I was wondering how cloning an embryo would be news. (slashdot.org)
  • Actually the nice thing about this is that if you had some genetic disease(like cystic fibrosis) you could take the genetic material out of one of your skin cells, correct it, and then use that with this process to make an embryo. (slashdot.org)
  • If the embryo were implanted in a uterus, it could develop into a clone of the DNA donor, which is how Dolly was created. (stabroeknews.com)
  • In genetics and developmental biology, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a laboratory strategy for creating a viable embryo from a body cell and an egg cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development will ensue normally and after many mitotic divisions, this single cell forms a blastocyst (an early stage embryo with about 100 cells) with an identical genome to the original organism (i.e. a clone). (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of carrying out this procedure is to obtain pluripotent cells from a cloned embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Article 11 of UNESCO's Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights asserts that the reproductive cloning of human beings is contrary to human dignity, that a potential life represented by the embryo is destroyed when embryonic cells are used, and there is a significant likelihood that cloned individuals would be biologically damaged, due to the inherent unreliability of cloning technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in mammals, somatic cells make up all the internal organs, skin, bones, blood and connective tissue, while mammalian germ cells give rise to spermatozoa and ova which fuse during fertilization to produce a cell called a zygote, which divides and differentiates into the cells of an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was created using SCNT - a nucleus was taken from a man's leg cell and inserted into a cow's egg from which the nucleus had been removed, and the hybrid cell was cultured, and developed into an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, each embryo was created by taking a nucleus from a skin cell (donated by Wood and a colleague) and inserting it into a human egg from which the nucleus had been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • however, the genetic composition of the cells within a given tumour is only poorly explored. (uib.no)
  • If successful, such techniques might allow for cells to be grown to create replacement organs, neural implants for patients with degenerative nervous disorders like Alzheimer's disease, or disease-fighting cells, all of which would be an exact genetic match for the patient being treated. (cnn.com)
  • But nuclear transfer is also the first step in reproductive cloning, or producing a genetic duplicate of someone - a technique that has sparked controversy since the 1997 announcement that it was used to create Dolly, the clone of a ewe. (stabroeknews.com)
  • Attitudes about specific issues, such as genetic engineering, nanotechnology, and genetically modified (GM) food, can be based on general attitudes and knowledge, but this is not always the case. (nsf.gov)
  • Current Research and Scholarly Interests Dr. Cho's major areas of interest include: ethical and social issues in genetic research, stem cell research, bioweapons and microbial genome research, the effects of gene patenting on clinical genetic testing and research, and the impacts of academic-industry ties on biomedical research. (stanford.edu)
  • The field of genetic engineering remains a heated topic of discussion in today's society with the advent of gene therapy, stem cell research, cloning, and genetically modified food. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the developments of cloning cells, genetic profiling, mind-altering antibiotics and even virtual rape, the attorneys of Crane, Constable, McNeil & Montero find themselves with an ongoing case-load of precedent-setting cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • An organism that is generated through genetic engineering is considered to be genetically modified (GM) and the resulting entity is a genetically modified organism (GMO). (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic engineering does not normally include traditional breeding, in vitro fertilisation, induction of polyploidy, mutagenesis and cell fusion techniques that do not use recombinant nucleic acids or a genetically modified organism in the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a female DNA donor would be the clone's genetic twin, rather than mother, complicating the genetic and social relationships between mother and child as well as the relationships between other family members and the clone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic cells have also been collected in the practice of cryoconservation of animal genetic resources as a means of conserving animal genetic material, including to clone livestock. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development of biotechnology has allowed for the genetic manipulation of somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2004, the first commercially cloned cat, Little Nicky, was created by Genetic Savings & Clone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nobel Prize-winning geneticist Joshua Lederberg advocated cloning and genetic engineering in an article in The American Naturalist in 1966 and again, the following year, in The Washington Post. (wikipedia.org)
  • In somatic cell nuclear transfer ("SCNT"), the nucleus of a somatic cell is taken from a donor and transplanted into a host egg cell, which had its own genetic material removed previously, making it an enucleated egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • In 1988, only five proteins from genetically engineered cells had been approved as drugs by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but this number would skyrocket to over 125 by the end of the 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, both proteins can inhibit the transcription of cell cycle genes containing E2F binding sites in their promoters. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells are used for a wide variety of purposes, from testing toxicity of compounds or drugs to production of eukaryotic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial expression of key proteins required for immortality, for example telomerase which prevents degradation of chromosome ends during DNA replication in eukaryotes Hybridoma technology, specifically used for the generation of immortalized antibody-producing B cell lines, where an antibody-producing B cell is fused with a myeloma (B cell cancer) cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • clonal
  • Interestingly, while clonal heterogeneity could be recapitulated in spheroid-based xenografts, we find that genetically distinct clones displayed different tumourigenic potential. (uib.no)
  • These data reveal the clonal heterogeneity of GBMs at the level of DNA content, tumourigenic potential and stem cell marker expression, which is likely to impact glioma progression and treatment response. (uib.no)
  • Another Nobel Laureate, James D. Watson, publicized the potential and the perils of cloning in his Atlantic Monthly essay, "Moving Toward the Clonal Man", in 1971. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortalized cell lines can also be cloned giving rise to a clonal population which can, in turn, be propagated indefinitely. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • In 2015 the Chinese company BoyaLife announced that in partnership with the Korean company Sooam Biotech, they were planning to build a factory in Tianjin, China to produce 100,000 cloned cattle per year, starting in 2016 to supply China's growing market for quality beef. (wikipedia.org)
  • In January 2016 the scientist at the Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes in Hisar, India announced that they had cloned a buffalo offspring "Cirb Gaurav" using cells of the ventral side of the tail of superior buffalo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 2016 scientists at the National University Toribio Rodríguez de Mendoza in Chachapoyas, Peru cloned a Jersey cattle by handmade cloning method using cells of an ear of a cow. (wikipedia.org)
  • On November 2015, a Chinese biotech company Boyalife Group announced that it will partner with Hwang's laboratory, Sooam Biotech, to open the world's largest animal cloning factory in Tianjin as early as 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • These cells are deemed to have a pluripotent potential because they have the ability to give rise to all of the tissues found in an adult organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another application of SCNT stem cell research is using the patient specific stem cell lines to generate tissues or even organs for transplant into the specific patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opponents of cloning have concerns that technology is not yet developed enough to be safe, that it could be prone to abuse (leading to the generation of humans from whom organs and tissues would be harvested), and have concerns about how cloned individuals could integrate with families and with society at large. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such cells, tissues, and organs would neither trigger an immune response nor require the use of immunosuppressive drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reproductive cloning would involve making an entire cloned human, instead of just specific cells or tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998
  • Cells became available as engineering materials when scientists at Geron Corp. discovered how to extend telomeres in 1998, producing immortalized cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three more cloned calves were born in 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first hybrid human clone was created in November 1998, by Advanced Cell Technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • In 1995 and 1996, researchers at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland, cloned mammals for the first time. (asu.edu)
  • In 2001 researchers at Advanced Cell Technology in Worcester, Massachusetts, United States, reported that 24 successfully cloned Holsteins had been monitored from birth to the age of four. (wikipedia.org)
  • bioethics
  • In bioethics, the ethics of cloning refers to a variety of ethical positions regarding the practice and possibilities of cloning, especially human cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The journal has published widely on bioethics, including issues such as stem cell research, assisted reproduction, cloning, assisted suicide, organ and tissue donation, the purported link between vaccines and autism, and informed consent. (wikipedia.org)
  • On May 12, 2006, Hwang was charged with embezzlement and bioethics law violations after it emerged much of his stem cell research had been faked. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • This policy would make illegal not only the kind of cloning conjured up by Frankensteinian futurists who predict the creation of troops of identical humans to perform dangerous or evil tasks, or in which rich and narcissistic people use cloning to create identical copies of themselves born 30, 40, or even 50 years after the original. (cnn.com)
  • Although the possibility of cloning humans had been the subject of speculation for much of the 20th century, scientists and policy makers began to take the prospect seriously in the mid-1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • successfully
  • As the aforementioned procedures are of particularly low efficiency, there is a need to identify the cells that have been successfully transfected with the vector construct containing the desired insertion sequence in the required orientation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two of these cloned cattle successfully mated, each producing a healthy calf. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Javan banteng calf was successfully cloned from frozen cells using a cow as a surrogate, delivered via c-section April 1, 2003 then hand raised at the San Diego Wild Animal Parks Infant Isolation Unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang first caught media attention in South Korea when he announced he successfully created a cloned dairy cow, Yeongrong-i in February 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February 2004, Hwang and his team announced that they had successfully created an embryonic stem cell with the somatic cell nuclear transfer method, and published their paper in the March 12 issue of Science. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • In 2001, scientists at Texas A&M University created the first cloned cat, CC (CopyCat). (wikipedia.org)
  • A purebred Hereford calf clone named Chloe was born in 2001 at Kansas State University's purebred research unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Millie and Emma were two female Jersey cows cloned at the University of Tennessee in 2001. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2001, Brazil cloned their first heifer, Vitória. (wikipedia.org)
  • crops
  • The rise of commercialised genetically modified crops has provided economic benefit to farmers in many different countries, but has also been the source of most of the controversy surrounding the technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • biotechnology
  • Immortalised cell lines have also found uses in biotechnology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortalized cell lines find use in biotechnology where they are a cost-effective way of growing cells similar to those found in a multicellular organism in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was a professor of theriogenology and biotechnology at Seoul National University (dismissed on March 20, 2006) who became infamous for fabricating a series of experiments, which appeared in high-profile journals, in the field of stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • I have this vision of the scientists keeping the cell cultures separate by placing them into separate waffle holes. (slashdot.org)
  • A cloned male buffalo calf Shresth was born in 2010 at the NDRI In May 2010, Got became the first cloned Spanish Fighting Bull, cloned by Spanish scientists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many nations outlawed it, while a few scientists promised to make a clone within the next few years. (wikipedia.org)
  • cultures
  • citation needed] Before this, laboratory cultures of healthy, noncancerous mammalian cells would only divide a fixed number of times, up to the Hayflick limit, before dying. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, supposed thyroid lines were actually melanoma cells, supposed prostate tissue was actually bladder cancer, and supposed normal uterine cultures were actually breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • The experiments indicated how to reprogram nuclei from differentiated cells to produce live offspring, and that a single population of differentiated cells could produce multiple offspring. (asu.edu)
  • In human SCNT (Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer) experiments, these eggs are obtained through consenting donors, utilizing ovarian stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allows an analysis to be repeated many times on genetically identical cells which is desirable for repeatable scientific experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shortly after that his human cloning experiments were revealed to be fraudulent. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1999
  • A Holstein heifer named Daisy was cloned by Dr. Xiangzhong (Jerry) Yang using ear skin cells from a high-merit cow named Aspen at the University of Connecticut in 1999, followed by three additional clones, Amy, Betty, and Cathy in 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang's next claim came only two months later in April 1999, when he announced the cloning of a Korean cow, Jin-i, also without providing any scientifically verifiable data. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • Pampa, a Jersey calf, was the first animal cloned in Argentina (by the company Bio Sidus) in 2002. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • Immortalized cell lines are widely used as a simple model for more complex biological systems, for example for the analysis of the biochemistry and cell biology of mammalian (including human) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular senescence
  • An immortalized cell line is a population of cells from a multicellular organism which would normally not proliferate indefinitely but, due to mutation, have evaded normal cellular senescence and instead can keep undergoing division. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • 3. Virus cloning from a mixed population can be achieved by repeatedly picking a single plaque and so selecting a single replicating species. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • proliferation
  • Cancer occurs when a somatic cell which normally cannot divide undergoes mutations which cause de-regulation of the normal cell cycle controls leading to uncontrolled proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Commonly a virus that has been altered to carry human DNA is used to deliver the healthy gene to the targeted cells of the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes, but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters, non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ cells
  • Pubmed ID: 11818536 Sertoli cells play a pivotal role in spermatogenesis through their interactions with germ cells. (jove.com)
  • The frequency of spontaneous mutations is significantly lower in advanced male germ cells than in somatic cell types from the same individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • animal
  • Cloning of animals is opposed by animal-groups due to the number of cloned animals that suffer from malformations before they die, and while food from cloned animals has been approved by the US FDA, its use is opposed by some other groups concerned about food safety. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cloned animal are included in list when citing science sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Hwang had already established himself as an expert in animal cloning and secured celebrity status in South Korea in the late 90s, his alleged sudden success came as a surprise because this was the first reported success in human somatic cell cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • Her research contributions have been published in prestigious journals such as Cell, Nature, Genes & Development, Neuron, and Journal of Cell Biology. (stanford.edu)
  • The continued success of tissue engineering, and the eventual development of true human replacement parts, will grow from the convergence of engineering and basic research advances in tissue, matrix, growth factor, stem cell, and developmental biology, as well as materials science and bio informatics. (wikipedia.org)
  • This simplifies analysis of the biology of cells which may otherwise have a limited lifetime. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can alter the biology of the cell and must be taken into consideration in any analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • To assess the role of the ectopic CD40L expression in development of SLE, we have established transgenic mice expressing CD40L on B cells. (jove.com)
  • Thus, ectopic CD40L expression on B cells may play a crucial role in development of SLE. (jove.com)
  • Embryonic
  • Among its related pathways are Regulation of retinoblastoma protein and Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation Pathways and Lineage-specific Markers . (genecards.org)
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ectopic expression of the embryonic transcription factor, NANOG, is shown to reverse senescence and restore the proliferation and differentiation potential of senescent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Among the many methods used to genetically modify an organism is gene insertion, which is injecting an organism with a gene it does not originally possess. (macalester.edu)
  • Customers obtain a clonal HAP1 cell line, bearing a frameshift mutation in an exon of the gene of interest. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is found in rod cells in the back of the eye and is essential for vision in low-light conditions. (genecards.org)
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hematopoietic progenitor cell antigen CD34 also known as CD34 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD34 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • As they are stimulated to become plasma cells, B cells refashion parts of their genome in efforts to create a new gene that encodes a functional antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • If these gene alterations are successful in coding for a functional antibody (termed Ig for immunoglobulin), the maturing B cells and to a greater extent their plasma cell descendants make and secrete an intact antibody, initially IgM but after class switch recombinations, either IgG, IgA, IgE, or IgD. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the cited gene changes can go awry in plasma cells by, for example, placing a gene that ordinarily controls cell growth adjacent to the normally highly active antibody gene promotor thereby creating a cancer-causing oncogene or, more commonly, by forming extra chromosomes (see trisomy) or chromosomes that have deleted or repetitive sections, any of which such changes may promote malignancy in more complex and less well understood ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results showed that there are special proteins (lectins) present on the zeospheres of the fungi which recognize specific sugar moieties upon the algal cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA is injected into cells, whose "inner machinery" uses the DNA to synthesize the proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because these proteins are recognised as foreign, when they are processed by the host cells and displayed on their surface, the immune system is alerted, which then triggers immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overproduced Ig's, termed myeloma proteins, commonly circulate in blood, may accumulate in urine, and are the hallmarks of plasma cell dyscrasias including their most malignant forms viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • A Chlamydomonas zygote that contains chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from both parents, such cells generally are rare since normally cpDNA is inherited uniparental from the mt+ mating type parent.These rare biparental zygotes allowed mapping of chloroplast genes by recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stymne's group was also the first to clone and characterize plant genes for membrane lipid synthesis (LPCATs) and synthesis of sterol esters (PSAT). (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic cell
  • A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the amoeba, reproduction occurs by cell division of the parent cell: first the nucleus of the parent divides into two and then the cell membrane also cleaves, becoming two "daughter" Amoebae. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • All stages of vegetative reproduction (merogony) are enclosed by a thick plasma membrane, which is in direct contact with the cytoplasma of the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • McCauley LK , Rosol TJ, Merryman JI, Capen CC. Parathyroid hormone-related protein binding to human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-infected lymphocytes. (dentisty.org)
  • Effects of hormones and cytokines on stimulation of adenylate cyclase and intracellular calcium concentration in human and canine periodontal ligament cells. (dentisty.org)
  • Dexamethasone enhances the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in vitro . (dentisty.org)
  • Her son, the Sage of the Six Paths, was born with the ability to produce chakra by combining physical energy (身体エネルギー, shintai enerugī), drawn from the trillions of cells that make up the human body, and mental energy (精神エネルギー, seishin enerugī), gained through experience and meditation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, as the process of the embryo splits to form identical twins - leaving the original tissues intact - a new embryo is generated, rendering it no different from the process of cloning an adult human. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • While killed vaccines do not have this risk, they cannot generate specific killer T cell responses and may not work at all for some diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • migration
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Finally, recent data suggest CD34 may also play a more selective role in chemokine-dependent migration of eosinophils and dendritic cell precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless of its mode of action, under all circumstances CD34, and its relatives podocalyxin and endoglycan, facilitates cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursors
  • However, counting CD34+ mononuclear cells may overestimate myeloid blasts in bone marrow smears due to hematogones (B lymphocyte precursors) and CD34+ megakaryocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the other end of this spectrum, detection of the myeloid protein indicates the presence of a hematological malignancy, i.e. multiple myeloma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, or other B cell-associated neoplasm, that derives stepwise from its MGUS precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Plasma cells develop from B lymphocytes which are stimulated to undergo this maturational development by T lymphocytes during the latter cells' processing of these antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone
  • this disorder is a form of plasma cell dyscrasia in which no myeloma protein is detected in serum or urine (at least as determined by conventional laboratory methods) of individuals who have clear evidence of an increase in clonal bone marrow plasma cells and/or evidence of clonal plasma cell-mediated tissue injury (e.g. plasmacytoma tumors). (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • the mitochondria in mammalian sperm are usually destroyed by the egg cell after fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • In seedless plants, the archegonium is usually flask-shaped, with a long hollow neck through which the sperm cell enters. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Merryman JI, Rosol TJ, McCauley LK , Werkmeister JR, Suter MM , Capen CC. Regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein production by a squamous carcinoma cell line in vitro . (dentisty.org)
  • Secretion of parathyroid hormone-related protein by bovine mammary cells in vitro . (dentisty.org)
  • One way of enhancing protein expression is by optimising the codon usage of pathogenic mRNAs for eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mouse
  • The plethora of inbred mouse strains, including genetically modified animals, and the depth of knowledge of the murine immune system have made studies of the mouse particularly valuable. (asmscience.org)
  • Positional cloning of the mouse saccharin preference (Sac) locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • modification
  • Adjustments in the Ca2+ focus had been indicated as F/F, where F was the fluorescence strength when cells had been at rest, and F was the modification in fluorescence during excitement. (cancercurehere.com)
  • They are either formed from hyphae or by the modification of hyphal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • once
  • By performing an illegal experiment on the Alpha Primitives, the subhuman worker clones that once served the Inhumans, Maximus creates the Trikon, three bodiless energy beings of great destructive power. (wikipedia.org)
  • years
  • One meadow of cloned eelgrass was determined to be 3000 years old, genetically. (wikipedia.org)
  • For many years, Stymne has been one of Sweden's most successful and dedicated debaters when it comes to Swedens and the European Union's attitude toward genetically modified crops and their role in future agriculture. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • and examining the possible role of the pigment in protecting the cell from oxidative stress damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • current
  • These cultivars have proved resilient and grow well in the western tropics, remaining the clones on which the current export trades are based. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Through the processes of compaction, cell division, and blastulation, the conceptus takes the form of the blastocyst by the fifth day of development, just as it approaches the site of implantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant
  • Through systematic and careful labeling- and enzyme activity studies in the 1980s and 90s, he was able to demonstrate several previously unknown biochemical pathways for oil production in seeds and which later proved to be true for plant cells in general. (wikipedia.org)
  • upon
  • The mutation is described in the clone datasheet enclosed upon shipment and can be verified by a PCR on genomic DNA followed by Sanger sequencing. (horizondiscovery.com)