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  • loci
  • The observation that variants regulating gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci, eQTL) are at a high frequency among SNPs associated with complex traits has made the genome-wide characterization of gene expression an important tool in genetic mapping studies of such traits. (csuca.org)
  • As part of a study to identify genetic loci contributing to bipolar disorder and other quantitative traits in members of 26 pedigrees from Costa Rica and Colombia, we measured gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 786 pedigree members. (csuca.org)
  • Genetic variation at twentythree microsatellite loci in sixteen human populations por: Deka, Ranjan, et al. (csuca.org)
  • In spite of its name, linkage disequilibrium may exist between alleles at different loci without any genetic linkage between them and independently of whether or not allele frequencies are in equilibrium (not changing with time). (hitchhikersgui.de)
  • heritability
  • The study design enabled us to comprehensively reconstruct the genetic regulatory network in these families, provide estimates of heritability, identify eQTL, evaluate missing heritability for the eQTL, and quantify the number of different alleles contributing to any given locus. (csuca.org)
  • geographic
  • The regional geographic axes of greatest phonemic differentiation correspond to axes of genetic differentiation, suggesting that there is a relationship between human dispersal and linguistic variation. (pnas.org)
  • Within a language family, phoneme evolution along genetic, geographic, or cognate-based linguistic trees predicts similar ancestral phoneme states to those predicted from ancient sources. (pnas.org)
  • The genetic distance is then simply a function of time since divergence, as well as the magnitude of gene flow (which is inversely proportional to geographic distance). (gnxp.com)
  • Going back to South Asians, putting them on a genetic-geographic map and attempting to adduce deep demographic history is total folly, because evidence is building that they are a compound synthetic population , whose origins in time are relatively recent. (gnxp.com)
  • For population pairs from the same cluster, as geographic distance increases, genetic distance increases in a linear manner, consistent with a clinal population structure. (gnxp.com)
  • However, for pairs from different clusters, genetic distance is generally larger than that between intracluster pairs that have the same geographic distance. (gnxp.com)
  • For example, genetic distances for population pairs with one population in Eurasia and the other in East Asia are greater than those for pairs at equivalent geographic distance within Eurasia or within East Asia. (gnxp.com)
  • Loosely speaking, it is these small discontinuous jumps in genetic distance-across oceans, the Himalayas, and the Sahara-that provide the basis for the ability of STRUCTURE to identify clusters that correspond to geographic regions. (gnxp.com)
  • The terms race, genetic population, ethnicity, geographic population, and ancestry are used interchangeably in everyday discourse involving race. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolution
  • More genetic sampling could further elucidate the relative roles of vertical and horizontal transmission in phoneme evolution. (pnas.org)
  • Sequences of DNA that can move about the genome, such as transposons, make up a major fraction of the genetic material of plants and animals, and may have been important in the evolution of genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, he has written over 130 papers published in a range of international scientific journals, including 33 overviews on a range of topics, notably on molecular markers, aphid migration, clonality, rapid genetic evolution in insects, and specialism versus generalism, with special reference to insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic data can provide important insight into human evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • allele
  • A simple Mathematica program for generating color plots (as a function of allele frequency) of the total, additive and dominance genetic variances, heritability, breeding values, average effects and domiance deviations for a single diallelic locus. (arizona.edu)
  • differentiation
  • It also performs tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, exact tests for genetic differentiation, Mantel tests, and UPGMA cluster analyses. (arizona.edu)
  • common genetic
  • Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have ascertained numerous trait-associated common genetic variants, frequently localized to regulatory DNA. (nih.gov)
  • We found that common genetic variation at BCL11A associated with fetal hemoglobin (HbF) level lies in noncoding sequences decorated by an erythroid enhancer chromatin signature. (nih.gov)
  • Ph.D., one of the authors on this study, comments, "This first study, while requiring replication, identifies a very common genetic variant that appears to affect smoking cessation treatment outcome. (innovations-report.com)
  • enzyme
  • A new study being published in the September 15th issue of Biological Psychiatry reports that genetic variation in a particular enzyme affects the success rates of treatment with bupropion, an anti-smoking drug. (innovations-report.com)
  • population
  • If, for example, a population consisted entirely of clones, then everyone in the population would be genetically the same, and there would be no variation within the population. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The more different the individuals are from each other genetically, the greater the level of variation within the population. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Without genetic variation, a population cannot evolve in response to changing environmental variables and, as a result, may face an increased risk of extinction. (berkeley.edu)
  • But if they do not exist if the right genetic variation is not present the population will not evolve and could be wiped out by the disease. (berkeley.edu)
  • Genetic variation doesn't rebound from a decrease as quickly as population size. (berkeley.edu)
  • The risk of extinction or population decline because of low genetic variation is predicted by evolutionary theory. (berkeley.edu)
  • Without this variation, it is difficult for a population to adapt to environmental changes, which therefore makes it more prone to extinction. (pnas.org)
  • Genetic variation is measured as the tendency of individual genotypes in a population to vary from one another. (pnas.org)
  • The study of the spatial structure of genetic variation is a long-standing question in population genetics ( 3 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Our approach is based on the integration of population graphs as a way to prune the original network of spatial genetic variation in a meaningful and informative way, and modularity analysis as a way to describe the structure of such a simplified network. (pnas.org)
  • Genetic variation is a fact that a biological system - individual and population - is different over space. (wn.com)
  • Genetic variation among individuals within a population can be identified at a variety of levels. (wn.com)
  • makeup
  • If the approach pans out and doctors adopt it, a bad score wouldn't mean you'd get a disease, just that your genetic makeup increases the chance - one more piece of information in deciding care. (wn.com)
  • Ancestry, then, is a more subtle and complex description of an individual's genetic makeup than is race. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • This week's lectures continue what we began last week: laying the foundation of genetic concepts and processes we will need to consider in some depth genetic research on schizophrenia and intelligence. (coursera.org)
  • biological
  • John H. Krystal, M.D., Editor of Biological Psychiatry and affiliated with both Yale University School of Medicine and the VA Connecticut Healthcare System, adds his thoughts about this exciting new data: "We look forward to the era of personalized medicine, when doctors are able to use genetic information about their patients to guide treatment. (innovations-report.com)
  • Racial groups are "constructed" from differing historical, political, and economic contexts, rather than corresponding to inherited, biological variations. (wikipedia.org)
  • variants
  • Although this example is by no means conclusive, it is possible that the cheetahs' low genetic variation unlike the lions' more extensive variation meant that none of them had the right immune system gene variants to fend off the disease. (berkeley.edu)
  • racial
  • Most Brazilians of all racial groups (except Asian Brazilians and Natives) are to some extent mixed-race according to genetic research. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • In the last few years, there has been a growing interest in understanding how geographical and environmental features structure such genetic variation, as exemplified by the new subject of landscape genetics ( 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)