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  • genes are involved
  • Significant LD was found between CL/P and both MSX1 and TGFB3 and between CPO and MSX1, suggesting that these genes are involved in the pathogenesis of clefting. (uiowa.edu)
  • These immune-modulating genes are involved in genetic background of AITD among children and adult patients. (nel.edu)
  • mutant
  • Although malformation of the SCO during gestation leads to ventricular dilation and aqueductal stenosis before birth (FIGURE 1, B AND C ⇓ ) ( 32 , 80 ), the involvement of specific factors has been slowly elucidated over the past decade through the analysis of mutant mouse models. (physiology.org)
  • branchial arches
  • To this end, this article briefly discusses numerous important processes in head and neck embryology, namely the implications of patterning in hindbrain development, the diverse roles of neural crest cells, migration of the neural crest cells into the branchial arches (particularly the hyoid arch), and the genetic control of these processes. (medscape.com)
  • search
  • Maternal genes and facial clefts in offspring: a comprehensive search for genetic associations in two population-based cleft studies from Scandinavia. (nih.gov)
  • processes
  • These transcription factors share a DNA-binding domain called the T-box, and play a role in several developmental processes including early embryonic cell fate and organogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is involved in various inflammatory processes, including periodontitis. (wikiversity.org)
  • Candidate
  • Candidate genes for clefting, including TGFA, BCL3, DLX2, MSX1, and TGFB3, were screened for LD with either CL/P or CPO in a predominantly Caucasian population, with both case-control- and nuclear-family-based approaches. (uiowa.edu)
  • essential
  • Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is the earliest expressed marker of melanoblasts identified to date and is essential for melanogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • The cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) flow tract is a vital lifeline for supplying the brain with essential nutrients and growth factors throughout development and into adulthood. (physiology.org)
  • study
  • Combined with our observations from a careful review of the literature, the results of the case study suggest that keratocystic odontogenic tumor and dental agenesis probably do not develop through a common genetic cause. (biomedcentral.com)
  • risk
  • The risk to the sibs of the proband depends on the genetic status of the proband's parents. (nih.gov)
  • Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk is possible using molecular genetic testing if the pathogenic variant has been identified in an affected family member. (nih.gov)
  • cases
  • In many cases, the involved factors are also used as biomarkers to demonstrate the passage of a cell through an EMT (Figure 1 ). (jci.org)
  • results
  • Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that there are few age-dependent genetic differences as regards autoimmune thyroiditis in adults and children. (nel.edu)