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  • Variation
  • Family and twin studies indicate that inherited characteristics are responsible for 50% to 80% of the phenotypic variation in traits related to low BMD and fracture (5) . (annals.org)
  • Nature has a list of the top news stories of 2008, and "Personal genomics goes mainstream" comes up second: In January, an international consortium announced the launch of the 1,000 Genomes Project, which aims to provide a catalogue of human genetic variation. (scienceblogs.com)
  • cohort
  • Due to limited sample size, a single cohort study may not have sufficient power to identify novel genetic association with a small effect size, and meta-analysis approaches have been proposed and applied to combine results from multiple cohorts in large consortia, increasing the sample size and statistical power. (bu.edu)
  • biological
  • The ranking can be described in terms of the prior probability π that an association is true, based on its biological plausibility and on the findings of previous studies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The notion of posterior odds integrates into a single measure the concepts of biological plausibility, study power, and P value. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The BH rule is based only on P values, and thus does not consider either the biological plausibility, the strength of prior evidence, or the statistical power of the various associations tested. (aacrjournals.org)
  • risk
  • Identification of genetic risk factors in diabetic retinopathy will assist in further understanding of this complex and debilitating diabetes complication. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glycemic control ( 9 , 10 ) and the duration of diabetes ( 11 , 12 ) have been identified through large longitudinal prospective studies as being major risk factors for the development of diabetic retionopathy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to assess whether haplogroup T2 variants conferred a high risk for neovascular AMD in a French population. (molvis.org)
  • Predictive models based on the genetic risk score strongly distinguished colonic from ileal Crohn's disease. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The involvement of genetic risk factors in SB is supported by family, twin, and adoption studies. (frontiersin.org)
  • Support for the implication of genetic risk factors in suicidal behavior (SB) is provided by studies of families ( 5 ), twins ( 6 - 8 ), and adoption cases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Studies of adoption have also shown that there is a higher risk of suicide for the individuals who are biologically related to suicidal probands, but not for non-biologically related members of adoptive families ( 9 - 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, identification of genetic variants that have similar effect size and direction across ethnicities, despite the interethnic differences in background risk, can narrow associated genomic regions and provide robust, reliable findings that are more likely to be proximal to the functional variant responsible. (ahajournals.org)
  • As previously described, the Study of Health Assessment and Risk in Ethnic Groups (SHARE) population was collected as a random prospective population sample in Hamilton, Toronto, and Edmonton. (ahajournals.org)
  • Only a minority of the genetic components of prostate cancer risk have been explained. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings highlight the need for inferences from genetic studies of prostate cancer risk to carefully consider the influence of control selection criteria. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Several observational studies indicate that individuals who do not maintain a normal sleep/wake cycle may be at increased risk for several cancer types, and after considering evidence from epidemiologic and experimental studies, the IARC recently concluded that shift work that involves circadian disruption is "probably carcinogenic to humans" ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Potential genetic risk factors for chronic TMD: Genetic associations from the OPPERA case-control study. (rti.org)
  • Twenty-two studies produced significant associations with osteoporosis risk under any genetic model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • sample size and statistical power
  • Investigators have the same concerns associated with any epidemiologic study: having appropriate design and analytic approaches, sufficient sample size and statistical power, and minimal bias and confounding. (annals.org)
  • differences
  • However, genetic factors are also likely to account for the susceptibility to this blinding disease as well as the differences in diabetic retinopathy incidence between individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To achieve this goal a common strategy is to explore differences in genetic variability between diseased and nondiseased individuals. (uvic.cat)
  • simulation
  • A simulation study using VEMPHAS showed that this method correctly controls for type I error in all tested scenarios. (bu.edu)
  • chromosome
  • and 3) retrieving genetic locations (chromosome and base pair positions) of amino acids of interest in the protein structure. (bu.edu)