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  • infection
  • a possible theory is that they are the resylt of horizontal gene transfer from a viral infection (intronless, 2 genes for one function right next to each other on the same chromasome. (bio.net)
  • The elucidation of the coding capacity and strategy of CIV was the first step towards understanding the underlying mechanisms of viral infection, replication and virus-host interaction. (springer.com)
  • Viral infection of mammalian cells entails the regulated induction of viral gene expression. (sciencemag.org)
  • and the connection between viral and human genomes during chronic infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Asynchronous Progression through the Lytic Cascade and Variations in Intracellular Viral Loads Revealed by High-Throughput Single-Cell Analysis of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • and host factors that modulate viral infection and/or disease progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies conducted by DAIDS-funded clinical trials research networks have: helped to define international guidelines for the treatment of primary HIV infection and associated opportunistic infections and prophylactic regimens for these secondary infections, identified biological markers, such as CD4+ counts and viral load for predicting a drug's effectiveness and disease progression, and demonstrated the use of antiretroviral drugs for preventing mother-to-infant transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein(s) that can be found below the axial channel of each pentamer may be responsible for digesting the host cell wall during viral infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • vector
  • Here, we describe the use of coaxial electrospinning as a means for the fabrication of fiber mesh scaffolds and the encapsulation and subsequent release of a non-viral gene delivery vector over a period of up to 60 days. (nih.gov)
  • Various fiber mesh scaffolds containing plasmid DNA (pDNA) within the core and the non-viral gene delivery vector poly(ethylenimine)-hyaluronic acid (PEI-HA) within the sheath of coaxial fibers were fabricated based on a fractional factorial design that investigated the effects of four processing parameters at two levels. (nih.gov)
  • Gene therapy, or more correctly, gene transfer, is a catch-all phrase for those products which use a viral vector, plasmid, or cell as a delivery vehicle for a gene product. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Primary cells, stem cells, and progenitor cells are often difficult to transfect unless using a viral vector, which may have systemic safety concerns. (ku.edu)
  • For the first time, researchers have treated an animal model of a genetic disorder using a viral vector to deliver genome-editing components in which the disease- causing mutation has been corrected. (technologynetworks.com)
  • proteins
  • According to the researchers, Podevin and du Jardin, the particular 'Gene VI' is responsible for a number of possible consequences that could affect human health, including inhibition of RNA silencing and production of proteins with known toxicity. (slashdot.org)
  • At least two viral genes captured by the human genome millions of years ago encode proteins that, according to new experiments, may guide the development of the human placenta. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The induction of many viral genes, including the herpes simplex virus gene encoding thymidine kinase (tk), depends on viral regulatory proteins that act in trans. (sciencemag.org)
  • Because recognition of the tk promoter by cellular transcription factors is well understood, its trans induction by viral regulatory proteins may serve as a useful model for the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, trans induction of tk expression may be catalyzed initially by the interaction of viral regulatory proteins with cellular transcription factors. (sciencemag.org)
  • Therapeutics for treating HIV-1 and its associated opportunistic infections (OIs) are discovered through a number of approaches beginning with basic research on the structure and function of viral and cellular proteins critical to the virus life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • The 2002 Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to Sydney Brenner, Horvitz and John E. Sulston for their work identifying genes that control apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • Hi all, I was wondering if any has hear of a higher eukaryotic gene organization such as this : 2 genes, intronless, facing towards eachother (promotion-wise) that are absolutly critical for the function of a system. (bio.net)
  • The identification of several putative viral gene products including a DNA ligase and a viral antibiotic peptide is a powerful tool for the investigation of the phylogenetic relatedness of this evolutionary and ecologically relevant eukaryotic virus. (springer.com)
  • It may also refer to other methods and cell types, although other terms are often preferred: "transformation" is typically used to describe non-viral DNA transfer in bacteria and non-animal eukaryotic cells, including plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transduction is often used to describe virus-mediated gene transfer into eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • putative
  • A bioinformatic analysis was performed to assess the safety for human and animal health of putative translation products of gene VI overlapping P35S. (slashdot.org)
  • genome
  • Since the discovery of CIV in 1966, many attempts were made to elucidate the viral genome structure and the amino acid sequences of different viral gene products. (springer.com)
  • Because of this Wilson, co-first author Lili Wang, PhD, a research associate professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, and collaborators, thought that the newborn liver might be an ideal organ for AAV-mediated gene correction using CRISPR-Cas9, an RNA-guided genome-editing technology that uses the bacteria protein Cas9. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The addition of this donor DNA to actually correct a mutation distinguishes this study from other recent genome-editing research findings that circumvent a mutation by deleting a portion of the normal gene. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The baculoviral genome has a large capacity for foreign gene insert with up to 38 kb have been tried successfully. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • The current thesis has demonstrated that hWJCs are susceptible to non-viral gene delivery methods, and for the first time non-viral genetic reprogramming of hWJCs induced phenotypic changes characteristic of hair cells and neural epithelium. (ku.edu)
  • The genetic mutation responsible for OTC occurs on the X chromosome, so women are typically carriers, while their sons with the mutated gene suffer the disease. (technologynetworks.com)
  • adenovirus
  • The first, a teenager being treated for ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency at the University of Pennsylvania, died four days after being treated with an adenovirus loaded with a corrected gene after a massive immune response to the virus. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The present study tested this methodology for both adenovirus (AdV)-mediated and adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene transfer to the in vivo murine heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • Transduction
  • Using complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray technology to examine in vitro and in vivo global cellular gene expression profiles in the rat brain, cultured human astrocytes and human neuronal cells after viral transduction, host antiviral responses were observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapies
  • ZIOPHARM Oncology is a Boston, Massachusetts-based biotechnology company employing novel gene expression, control and cell technologies to deliver safe, effective and scalable cell- and viral-based therapies for the treatment of cancer. (cnbc.com)
  • Delivery
  • Regulated non-viral gene delivery from coaxial electrospun fiber mesh scaffolds. (nih.gov)
  • Saraf[author] AND Regulated non-viral gene delivery from coaxi. (nih.gov)
  • The current thesis examines an opposite approach through an "inside-out" strategy using non-viral gene delivery with mesenchymal stem cells to regenerate mechanosensory hair cells and supporting cells of the inner ear responsible for hearing and balance. (ku.edu)
  • The work of the current thesis identified and enhanced an effective non-viral gene delivery approach that reprogramed human mesenchymal stromal cells, isolated from Wharton's jelly of human umbilical cords to produce characteristics similar to the hair cell and supporting cell phenotype found in the cochlea and vestibular organs of the inner ear. (ku.edu)
  • There are many different methods of gene delivery developed for various types of cells and tissues, from bacterial to mammalian. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus mediated gene delivery utilizes the ability of a virus to inject its DNA inside a host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BacMam gene delivery technology is a transient expression system, which facilitates expression of toxic gene products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Simultaneous delivery of multiple genes to the same cell is feasible. (wikipedia.org)
  • To be effective, a gene delivery technology must not interfere with normal cellular function. (wikipedia.org)
  • approaches
  • The Company's synthetic immuno-oncology programs, in collaboration with Intrexon Corporation (NYSE:XON) and the MD Anderson Cancer Center, include chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) and other adoptive cell based approaches that use non-viral gene transfer methods for broad scalability. (cnbc.com)
  • evolution
  • And we're also built of viral genes, a product of the evolution of life, of the co-evolution of life and that strange creature, the virus. (ianchadwick.com)
  • These captive genes, the theory holds, may have facilitated the placenta's evolution. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Beyond shedding light on placental evolution, these viral genes could provide insight into pregnancies that go awry. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • these genes show no homology to eachother (or anyother genes for that matter) but are conserved for over 500 million years of evolution. (bio.net)
  • recombinant
  • It is unknown if the presence of the hidden viral genes were the result of laboratory contamination or a possible recombinant product of the resultant organism. (slashdot.org)
  • regulate
  • The genes were identified by studies in the nematode C. elegans and homologues of these genes function in humans to regulate apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like enhancers, silencers may be located at locations farther up or downstream from the genes they regulate. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • ANG gene encodes a mediator of new blood vessel formation that hydrolyzes cellular tRNAs resulting in decreased protein synthesis and is similar to pancreatic ribonuclease. (thomassci.com)
  • vivo
  • Background- Viral gene transfer to the whole heart in vivo has been achieved in several mammalian species but remained difficult to accomplish in murine hearts. (ahajournals.org)
  • To provide proof of principal for stably altering in vivo cardiac function, we restored murine phospholamban (PLB) to mice lacking the PLB gene and provide novel insights regarding its role to the in vivo modulation of cardiac function by beat frequency. (ahajournals.org)
  • transcription
  • OTX2 is a homeodomain transcription factor and one of the key regulator genes of photoreceptor formation. (thomassci.com)
  • The unique combinations of either activating or inhibiting transcription factors that bind to enhancer DNA regions determine whether or not the gene that enhancer interacts with is activated for transcription or not. (wikipedia.org)
  • investigation
  • From this study, we are now adjusting the gene-editing system in the next phases of our investigation to address the unforeseen complications seen in adult animals. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Expression
  • Although some tentative positive answers were given,nobody would say with certainty that RNA of various kinds was a truly promising means of altering gene expression. (ebooks.com)
  • In fact,over the past decade,both our knowledge of RNAs with different functions and the utility of RNA in the inhibition or enhancement of gene expression have occurred with great drama. (ebooks.com)
  • The up-regulation of atoh1, and down-regulation of hes1 and hes5, in hWJCs produced a complex phenotype that exhibited over an 11-fold increase in gene expression of the critical hair cell marker, myosin VIIa, with visual morphological changes compared to untreated cells. (ku.edu)
  • The virus and wasp are in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship: expression of viral genes prevents the wasp's host's immune system from killing the wasp's injected egg and causes other physiological alterations that ultimately cause the parasitized host to die. (wikipedia.org)
  • The level of gene expression can be adjusted by viral dose or chemical additions using histone deacetylase inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • enhance gene
  • By contrast, mid-descending aortic occlusion might preserve a perfusion gradient by generating an isolated upper-body circuit and, combined with whole-body cooling, facilitate sustained clamp times to enhance gene transfer. (ahajournals.org)
  • interaction
  • The related genes were mainly those associated with innate immunity, including several of the genes involved in Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The Sleeping Beauty transposon-transposase is a unique non-viral system for introducing genes encoding T-cell receptors and chimeric antigen receptors into lymphocytes that was exclusively licensed to ZIOPHARM and its collaboration partner, Intrexon Corporation (NYSE:XON), through an agreement with the MD Anderson Cancer Center. (cnbc.com)
  • In addition, BacMam has been found to have inherent flexibility over stable cell lines, which has contributed to its adoption as a standard gene transfer technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some studies suggested that the membrane originates from the endoplasmic reticulum and may also be directly acquired from the host cell membrane during viral assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Control mice (C57/Bl6, 2 to 4 months) and littermate SVJ129/CF-1 mice with and without a null mutation for the PLB gene (PLB −/− , 6 to 8 months) were used. (ahajournals.org)
  • In contrast, more than 30 percent of the untreated OTC-deficient mice died after a week and their ammonia levels were significantly higher than the OTC mice whose genes were corrected. (technologynetworks.com)
  • methods
  • A second wave of interest came in the development of biodefense vaccines - many of which can be made via viral methods - in the aftermath of 9/11. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Studies from the literature highlighted electroporative methods as effective non-viral strategies for difficult-to-transfect cells. (ku.edu)
  • Despite these advances, successful translation of gene transfer methods to the murine heart has remained problematic. (ahajournals.org)
  • Generally, the methods can be divided into two categories: non-viral and viral. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • However, the maturing of the marketplace has resulted in a growing demand for larger quantities of viral product to be manufactured. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • system
  • can anyone give me an example of any other system where 2 genes like this are essential for function, may have similar function (well maybe not similar but complimentary) and or are anything like this? (bio.net)
  • This whole correction system is basically a "Cut-and-Paste" function, with the last part of the "Paste" phase relying on the cells' own DNA repair mechanism to properly join the OTC gene back together again. (technologynetworks.com)
  • content
  • The genera can be distinguished from one another by, for example, differences in life cycle and gene content. (wikipedia.org)