• The NIH is working to expedite the development of gene therapies, including gene editing, through its Cure Sickle Cell Initiative , which is part of the organization's larger, multi-pronged approach to reducing the burden of blood disorders. (news-medical.net)
  • ZIOPHARM Oncology is a Boston, Massachusetts-based biotechnology company employing novel gene expression, control and cell technologies to deliver safe, effective and scalable cell- and viral-based therapies for the treatment of cancer. (cnbc.com)
  • As these novel therapies move closer to commercialization, so do the methods for large-scale production and efficient delivery of AAV vectors, which are documented in a series of articles published online ahead of print in Human Gene Therapy, a peer-reviewed journal published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. ( www.liebertpub.com ). (redorbit.com)
  • Researchers have been trying for more than 20 years to harness this power in order to deliver beneficial gene therapies to patients. (hawaii.edu)
  • Viral vector-mediated gene therapies have been used in clinical trials for human diseases. (jimmunol.org)
  • This book provides a comprehensive overview of the pertinent molecular discoveries in the cancer field and explains how these are being used for gene-based cancer therapies. (abebooks.co.uk)
  • Focusing on speeding the process in clinical cancer care by bringing therapies as quickly as possible from bench to bedside, Cancer Gene Therapy by Viral and Non-viral Vectors is an absolutely vital book for physicians, clinicians, researchers, and students involved in this area of medicine. (abebooks.co.uk)
  • Several impressive successes in viral vector-based gene therapies have been reported in humans, including restoration of vision in patients with Leber's congenital amaurosis by retinal gene transfer and cures for severe immune deficiencies by gene transfer to hematopoietic stem cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The current thesis has bridged the gap between non-viral gene delivery, stem cell therapy, and tissue engineering, which now presents new opportunities for further investigation utilizing non-viral gene delivery in concert with stem cell therapies for regenerative medicine applications. (ku.edu)
  • Clinical use of gene therapies to treat formerly incurable genetic diseases is advancing rapidly. (pall.com)
  • Many gene therapies have been developed using adherent cells in 2-dimensional flatware or roller bottles but using these technologies to reach commercial-scale production represents a significant challenge. (pall.com)
  • The organisation is in a strong position to support development of AAV therapies and has built an excellent knowledge base from which other viral vector and vaccine processes can be supported. (uk-cpi.com)
  • Several murine and canine models of dystrophinopathy have been used to study these diseases and evaluate potential therapies, including several viral gene therapy approaches. (omicsonline.org)
  • Drug Development & Delivery recently interviewed Dave Backer, Head of Virus & Gene Therapy Strategic Initiatives at MilliporeSigma, to discuss its expanding GMP capacity to speed development and manufacture of gene therapies, immunotherapies, and viral vaccines. (drug-dev.com)
  • The clinical manufacturing of intermediates and final products used in viral vaccines and gene therapies requires dedicated facilities, and there is significant demand for these services in the growing cell and gene therapy market. (drug-dev.com)
  • Q: What are the biggest challenges facing development and manufacturing of gene therapies and immunotherapies? (drug-dev.com)
  • NSCs are the subject of intense investigation, owing to their crucial roles in neural development and adult brain function and because they present potential targets for gene and cell replacement therapies following injury or disease. (biologists.org)
  • In parallel, the emergence of adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a clinically important vector raises the possibility of integrating these two technologies towards the development of gene editing therapies. (berkeley.edu)
  • CHAPEL HILL, NC - Gene therapies promise to revolutionize the treatment of many diseases, including neurological diseases such as ALS. (unchealthcare.org)
  • This could be particularly useful for some gene therapies that target the brain. (unchealthcare.org)
  • Gene therapies against neurological diseases are under investigation in clinical and preclinical trials, and include therapies for ALS, Huntington's disease, Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Friedrich's ataxia, and other disorders. (unchealthcare.org)
  • Through its Cure Sickle Cell Initiative, NIH is working to accelerate the development of these and other new genetic therapies, including gene editing, with the goal of finding a cure for the disease. (mlo-online.com)
  • A knot polymer, poly[bis(2-acryloyl)oxyethyl disulphide- co -2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate] (DSP), was synthesized, optimized and evaluated as a non-viral vector for gene transfection for skin cells, keratinocytes. (rsc.org)
  • Conclusions- The new simplified approach for murine whole-heart viral transfection should assist molecular physiology studies. (ahajournals.org)
  • This study establishes the base for the application of these non-viral transfection systems for future treatments of retinal disorders. (arvojournals.org)
  • However, non-viral vectors circumvent the safety issues associated with viral vectors, but commonly exhibit low transfection efficiencies. (ku.edu)
  • A reporter gene such as enhanced green fluorescent protein facilitates monitoring spatial distribution of the vector, and the efficacy and cellular specificity of the transfection. (jove.com)
  • Immunoblots comparing activation of lytic cycle genes following the transfection of Rta and ZEBRA into Raji cells. (asm.org)
  • Total RNA prepared 30 h following transfection was analyzed by Northern blotting using probes for the indicated genes (see Materials and Methods). (asm.org)
  • Using confocal microscopy and fluorescent spectroscopy, the UB scientists tracked optically in real-time the process known as transfection, including the delivery of genes into cells, the uptake of genes by the nucleus and their expression. (buffalo.edu)
  • Because of the challenges of achieving this goal, the authors note that nonviral integration systems can be considerably cheaper to manufacture and easier to implement for single-use applications compared with viral vectors and that, among these, Sleeping Beauty has advanced farthest in clinical development. (cnbc.com)
  • This review outlines recent developments on the contributions of various ISGs to viral disease outcomes in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • However artificial vectors remain much less efficient than viral vectors for in vivo or ex vivo gene transfer and transgene expression is generally transient. (umassmed.edu)
  • However, in vivo administration of AdV triggers strong immune responses, which preclude their use for gene therapy applications in genetic diseases where long-term gene expression may be necessary. (umassmed.edu)
  • High-capacity AdV vectors are the exception as they do not carry any viral genes and have been shown to mediate long-term gene expression in vivo . (umassmed.edu)
  • Recombinant AAV (rAAV) vectors carrying inverted terminal repeats as the only viral component entered the gene therapy arena much later than retroviral and AdV vectors, but have quickly gained popularity due to their broad tissue tropism, exceptional in vivo gene transfer efficiency and sustained transgene expression, as well as a proven safety profile in humans. (umassmed.edu)
  • In vivo gene therapy for pyridoxine‐induced neuropathy by HSV‐mediated gene transfer of neurotrophin‐3. (els.net)
  • In "A Simple Method to Increase the Transduction Efficiency of Single-Stranded Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors In Vitro and In Vivo," Ma and colleagues have further optimized their method for delivering a mixed population of AAV2 vectors to enable high-efficiency transfer of large genes. (redorbit.com)
  • We contradict this view by demonstrating that decreased gene packaging can be associated with increased in vivo fitness and transmissibility. (pnas.org)
  • One of the advantages of using an AAV vector is the ability to extend the period of transgene expression both in vitro and in vivo compared with adenoviral vector-mediated gene expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • Background- Viral gene transfer to the whole heart in vivo has been achieved in several mammalian species but remained difficult to accomplish in murine hearts. (ahajournals.org)
  • The present study tested this methodology for both adenovirus (AdV)-mediated and adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene transfer to the in vivo murine heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • To provide proof of principal for stably altering in vivo cardiac function, we restored murine phospholamban (PLB) to mice lacking the PLB gene and provide novel insights regarding its role to the in vivo modulation of cardiac function by beat frequency. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this work, we have assessed the impact in vivo of the evasion gene A238L of African swine fever virus, an inhibitor of both NF-κB- and NFAT-mediated transcription. (springer.com)
  • To further investigate the 1-8U function with both in vivo and in vitro studies, the 1-8U gene was found to suppress cellular and HCV IRES-mediated translation. (wiley.com)
  • In this work two different peptidic constructions (R9-GFP-His and HNRK) have been tested on in-vitro and in-vivo models for its application in non-viral retinal gene therapy. (arvojournals.org)
  • In vivo - where a viral vector contains the gene of interest is injected into the patient, the virus targets a particular cell type, is infected by the virus and multiple copies of the protein are produced by the patient's cells. (uk-cpi.com)
  • The results presented in this ex vivo system may be a first step toward expressing genes with products that could be continuously delivered to the eye through the tears. (curehunter.com)
  • Identification of specific sites and patterns of HLA-associated polymorphisms across HIV protease, RT, Vpr, and Nef illuminates regions of the genes encoding these products under active immune selection pressure in vivo. (ubc.ca)
  • Unfortunately, most gene delivery vectors are incapable of efficient or specific gene delivery to NSCs in vivo . (biologists.org)
  • In vivo results indicate that co-expression of BMP2/7 applied by non-viral naked DNA gene transfer effectively mediates bone formation without the application of biomaterials, cells or recombinant growth factors, offering a promising alternative to current treatment strategies with potential for clinical translation in the future. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Researchers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have developed a unique, improved viral vector to use in gene therapy for sickle cell disease. (news-medical.net)
  • For the last three decades, researchers have been designing these vectors in a reverse structural orientation, which means the corrective genes that are introduced into the vector are translated from right to left (or backwards). (news-medical.net)
  • A blood-based gene expression assay was successfully used to identify viral respiratory disease in patients presenting to hospital emergency departments with fever of unknown origin, researchers reported. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The broad viral sensitivity of this assay may be a distinct advantage over pathogen-based antigen or PC testing should a new influenza virus, or potentially other viral type, begin to circulate in the community," the researchers wrote. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The new study represented the "proof of concept" that host expression of a relatively small set of genes, as measured by RT-PCR from blood RNA, can be a useful tool for identifying viral respiratory illness in the emergency department setting, the researchers wrote. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Many genes in the RT-PCR classifier have low regression coefficients, suggesting that it may be possible to significantly reduce the number of genes represented in the classifier and achieve similar results," the researchers wrote. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In 2014 , the process, which uses a Cas9 enzyme and ribonucleic acid to slice and bind sections of DNA, was shown capable of performing "targeted" gene deletion by researchers from the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center . (rt.com)
  • While researchers observed that the genes causing blindness had been repaired, some 1,500 accidental mutations were also found in the test subjects. (rt.com)
  • The technique may help researchers decide which mutated genes are most deserving of further study, and help pharmaceutical firms develop drugs with better chances of success. (healthcanal.com)
  • The researchers found complete inhibition of tumor growth in the mice that were treated immediately with gene therapy and significant tumor inhibition in the 30- and 60-day delayed treatment mice. (fightaging.org)
  • The animals are otherwise healthy and the change - introduced using gene-editing technology - should not affect their ability to fight off other infections, the researchers say. (ed.ac.uk)
  • In sum, researchers are now being more realistic than in the early days, seeing the future of gene therapy in providing effective treatments, not cures. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In advanced lab tests using animal models, the new vector was up to 10 times more efficient at incorporating corrective genes into bone marrow stem cells than the conventional vectors currently used, and it had a carrying capacity of up to six times higher, the researchers report. (nih.gov)
  • Gene therapy trials using reverse-oriented vectors for sickle cell disease and beta-thalassemia have largely been encouraging, the researchers said, but this complicated gene translation process has made vector preparation and gene-transfer efficiency more difficult. (nih.gov)
  • Now, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis report that they can distinguish between viral and bacterial infections in children with fever by profiling the activity of genes in a blood sample. (healthcanal.com)
  • Using microarray technology, researchers can distinguish between viral and bacterial infections in children with fever by profiling the activity of genes in a blood sample. (healthcanal.com)
  • Using microarray technology, the researchers could easily distinguish bacterial infections from viral infections based on distinctive patterns of gene expression. (healthcanal.com)
  • Many of the mutations that cause this virally-induced cancer are caused by a family of genes that normally combats viral infections, finds new UCL research. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Previous studies have shown that APOBECs cause mutations in a range of cancers but our finding that they mutate key cancer genes implicates them as drivers of tumour development, particularly in HPV-associated cancers. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Gene-altering technology aimed at preventing deadly diseases such as cancer from entering the DNA chain may not be as accurate as first thought, with a new study suggesting CRISPR-Cas9 editing risks accidental mutations. (rt.com)
  • Blue squares indicate phenotypes directly attributed to mutations/alleles of this gene. (jax.org)
  • Mutations in the dystrophin gene predispose the myofiber membrane to contraction-induced membrane damage, resulting in inflammation, and myonecrosis, and progressive loss of functional muscle tissue. (omicsonline.org)
  • Another danger is that the new gene might be inserted in the wrong location in the DNA , possibly causing harmful mutations to the DNA or even cancer. (genetherapynet.com)
  • show leaf yellowing ( C ) that is associated with dramatic down-regulation of the CHLI gene ( D ). ( E ), The CHLI gene is silenced in CMV Y-Sat-infected tobacco plants. (nih.gov)
  • Although ribosome profiling provides precise and quantitative analysis of genes that are translationally regulated, our molecular understanding of this type of regulation is still at its infancy. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The regulation (the degree to which a gene is turned on or off) of a particular gene could be altered. (scribd.com)
  • Loo YM, Gale M (2007) Viral regulation and evasion of the host response. (springer.com)
  • Revilla Y, Granja AG (2009) Viral mechanisms involved in the transcriptional CBP/p300 regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. (springer.com)
  • We are interested in the gene regulation of phages, complex ecological interactions, the genomic and functional trait diversity of phages in real populations, and their applicability as antibiotic alternatives. (gatech.edu)
  • The up-regulation of atoh1, and down-regulation of hes1 and hes5, in hWJCs produced a complex phenotype that exhibited over an 11-fold increase in gene expression of the critical hair cell marker, myosin VIIa, with visual morphological changes compared to untreated cells. (ku.edu)
  • We hypothesise that a major role for MMP-12 is its regulation of gene expression during the innate antiviral immune response, controlling the secretion of alpha interferon (IFN-α) during enterovirus induced myocarditis. (ahajournals.org)
  • In conclusion, our results suggest that MMP-12 regulates the secretion of IFN-α through regulation of gene expression during viral myocarditis. (ahajournals.org)
  • The recent discovery of a new class of regulatory genes known as microRNAs (miRNAs) has resulted in a paradigm shift in gene regulation research. (prolekare.cz)
  • miR-UL112-1 may therefore play an important role in establishing and maintaining viral latency and persistence through regulation of viral gene expression and subversion of host antiviral pathways. (prolekare.cz)
  • Gene therapy approaches that use these reverse-oriented vectors for sickle cell disease have so far been encouraging, but Tisdale and team say this gene translation process has made vector preparation and the efficiency of gene transfer more challenging. (news-medical.net)
  • The Company's synthetic immuno-oncology programs, in collaboration with Intrexon Corporation (NYSE:XON) and the MD Anderson Cancer Center, include chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) and other adoptive cell based approaches that use non-viral gene transfer methods for broad scalability. (cnbc.com)
  • It is the major obstacle to success of therapeutic approaches using genes and oli- nucleotides,including siRNAs. (ebooks.com)
  • Combinations of these approaches will likely facilitate clinical applications of gene therapy for many target diseases and also aid in vaccine development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Viral gene therapy approaches have also been investigated for other disorders of skeletal muscle, including lysosomal storage disorders and congenital myopathies, and these studies have benefitted immensely from the pioneering work that was performed using dystrophinopathy models. (omicsonline.org)
  • Advanced technologies of conditional gene manipulation in the mouse enable multifaceted approaches to the exploration of synaptic pathways and functional connections in the central nervous system. (jove.com)
  • Through a combination of rational design and directed evolution approaches, we attempt to expand traditional virus targeting methods to create novel AAV gene delivery vectors with enhanced specificity. (confex.com)
  • Alternatively, there may well be something about the virus that causes the APOBEC response to wrongly target the body's own genes for mutation. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder caused by a mutation in the beta-globin gene that results in hemoglobin having an abnormal structure. (news-medical.net)
  • The vector is modified to carry corrective genes that will have therapeutic effects, often by counteracting a genetic mutation. (news-medical.net)
  • The abnormal gene could be repaired through selective reverse mutation, which returns the gene to its normal function. (scribd.com)
  • Control mice (C57/Bl6, 2 to 4 months) and littermate SVJ129/CF-1 mice with and without a null mutation for the PLB gene (PLB −/− , 6 to 8 months) were used. (ahajournals.org)
  • Gene therapy is the introduction of new genetic material into a cell as a means to correct a known mutation that causes a disease. (jyi.org)
  • Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder caused by a mutation, or misspelling, in the beta-globin gene (or β-globin gene). (nih.gov)
  • The genetic mutation responsible for OTC occurs on the X chromosome, so women are typically carriers, while their sons with the mutated gene suffer the disease. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Antibody to v-fes gene product was found to occur before tumor development in group B and after tumor development in group A. v-Ses was found to be down-regulated and extensively mutated in tumors of group B. These results suggest viral gene mutation as a determinant of low grade malignancy of lesions induced. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The Sleeping Beauty transposon-transposase is a unique non-viral system for introducing genes encoding T-cell receptors and chimeric antigen receptors into lymphocytes that was exclusively licensed to ZIOPHARM and its collaboration partner, Intrexon Corporation (NYSE:XON), through an agreement with the MD Anderson Cancer Center. (cnbc.com)
  • Innate and antigen-specific adaptive immune responses against viral vectors and therapeutic transgene products pose serious hurdles for successful gene therapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genomic integration ensures transmission of the vector transgene cassette and its expression in the progeny, but its randomness carries a risk of insertional mutagenesis by potentially disrupting tumor suppressor genes or activating oncogenes. (umassmed.edu)
  • Importantly, the capacity of these nucleases to modify specific genomic loci associated with human disease could render new classes of genetic disease, including autosomal dominant or even idiopathic disease, accessible to gene therapy. (berkeley.edu)
  • Genomic analysis of a Trichoplusia ni Betabaculovirus (TnGV) with three different viral enhancing factors and two unique genes. (nextbio.com)
  • Efficient and preferential gene delivery would offer a versatile and rapid means to study regulatory mechanisms of NSC quiescence, proliferation, self-renewal and differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • Viral vectors have been employed for the treatment of various diseases such as metabolic, cardiovascular, muscular, hematologic, ophthalmologic, and infectious diseases and different types of cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Clinical proof of concept of AAV gene therapy has been realized in several diseases. (redorbit.com)
  • After completing a medical degree and then a PhD, he carried out post-doctoral research on gene therapy for liver diseases at Necker Hospital in Paris. (indigo.ca)
  • Skeletal muscle disorders represent considerable opportunities for investigators developing viral gene therapy strategies, due to the numerous monogenetic diseases of skeletal muscle, the clear and quantifiable clinical phenotypes, and the easy accessibility of muscle tissue. (omicsonline.org)
  • In an effort to improve the efficacy (i.e., killing speed) of the LdMNPV, we generated a recombinant viral strain (vEGT-) that does not produce the enzyme ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (EGT). (usda.gov)
  • Regarding reconstruction techniques, discrepancies between gene tree and species tree inferences can also be artefacts due among others to sequencing errors, orthologous genes misidentification, alignment underperformance, wrong model choice or inefficient search for global likelihood optima during phylogenetic reconstruction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DNA microarrays used in a variety of next-gen sequencing can identify thousands of genes simultaneously, with analytical software looking at gene expression patterns, and orthologous genes in model species to identify function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Miskin JE, Abrams CC, Goatley LC, Dixon LK (1998) A viral mechanism for inhibition of the cellular phosphatase calcineurin (New York, NY). (springer.com)
  • Our new vector is an important breakthrough in the field of gene therapy for sickle cell disease," said study senior author John Tisdale, M.D., chief of the Cellular and Molecular Therapeutic Branch at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). (nih.gov)
  • This suggests that the previously observed species specificity of Y-Sat-induced symptoms is due to natural sequence variation in the CHLI gene, preventing CHLI silencing in species with a mismatch to the Y-Sat siRNA. (nih.gov)
  • A modified retrovirus for gene therapy contains psi sequence, a gene of interest at a multiple cloning site (MCS), neomycin resistance gene with promoter or using an internal ribosome entry element (IRES). (scribd.com)
  • Three envelope glycoprotein genes (ORF 25, 65 and 116) of the CyHV-3 isolates from the USA, Israel, Japan and Korea were compared, and interestingly, sequence insertions or deletions were observed in these target regions. (mdpi.com)
  • Their analysis divided the genes into two sets: 847 with at least one 3'UTR matching sequence and 424 without a matching sequence. (cancer.gov)
  • In contrast to the old vector, the gene sequence, or "message," of the new beta-globin vector is read from left to right-like reading a normal sentence-making the gene translation approach less complicated, Tisdale explained. (nih.gov)
  • It has two genes (cap and rep), sandwiched between inverted terminal repeats that define the beginning and the end of the virus and contain the packaging sequence. (powershow.com)
  • Despite the formidable mutational capacity and sequence diversity of HIV-1, evidence suggests that viral evolution in response to specific selective pressures follows generally predictable mutational pathways. (ubc.ca)
  • We applied a viral lineage-corrected analytical method to investigate HLA class I-associated sequence imprinting in HIV protease, reverse transcriptase (RT), Vpr, and Nef in a large cohort of chronically infected, antiretrovirally naïve individuals. (ubc.ca)
  • The increasing abundance of sequence data has exacerbated a long known problem: gene trees and species trees for the same terminal taxa are often incongruent. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An overlapping gene is a gene whose expressible nucleotide sequence partially overlaps with the expressible nucleotide sequence of another gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way, a nucleotide sequence may make a contribution to the function of one or more gene products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overprinting refers to a type of overlap in which all or part of the sequence of one gene is read in an alternate reading frame from another gene at the same locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our new vector is an important breakthrough in the field of gene therapy for sickle cell disease. (news-medical.net)
  • However, it has broad applications for correcting single gene disorders, such as hemophilia, sickle cell disease and muscular dystrophy. (hawaii.edu)
  • Diagram shows steps involved in conducting gene therapy for sickle cell disease. (nih.gov)
  • The development of the vector could make gene therapy for sickle cell disease much more effective and pave the way for wider use of it as a curative approach for the painful, life-threatening blood disorder. (nih.gov)
  • Already an estimated 27 people with sickle cell disease have undergone experimental gene therapy using conventional vectors. (mlo-online.com)
  • 2005b) Long‐term neuroprotection achieved with latency‐associated promoter‐driven herpes simplex virus gene transfer to the peripheral nervous system. (els.net)
  • This has simplified the gene translation process and when the new vector was tested in mice and monkeys, it delivered up to six times more therapeutic beta-globin genes than conventional vectors. (news-medical.net)
  • Mice homozygous for a gene trap insertion exhibit retinal degeneration, and increased total body mass and total body fat. (jax.org)
  • Administration of IL-10, or IL-10 gene transfer, prevents autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, we report suppression of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice by viral IL-10 (vIL-10) gene therapy using an AAV vector. (jimmunol.org)
  • Using this new version of our viral vector, we have induced stable production of dystrophin for at least four months in muscle fibers of adult, dystrophic mice with normal immune systems," Salvatori said. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In contrast, more than 30 percent of the untreated OTC-deficient mice died after a week and their ammonia levels were significantly higher than the OTC mice whose genes were corrected. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Mice generated from these clones may be crossed with an expanding number of mouse lines that express DNA recombinases under promoters or loci specific to a particular population of neurons for selective gene manipulation ( http://nagy.mshri.on.ca/cre_new/index.php ). (jove.com)
  • Stereotaxic injection of a viral vector that expresses Cre or Flp allows limiting gene recombination to regions in the spinal cord of mice in which DNA fragments are flanked by loxP or Frt sites, so-called floxed or flrted alleles. (jove.com)
  • Unlike constitutive DNA rearrangement, which would result from crossbreeding the animals with recombinase expressing mice, this strategy also provides temporal control over gene activation or silencing. (jove.com)
  • Without the vif gene, HIV can be completely destroyed by the body's own immune system, says J. Victor Garcia, PhD, professor of medicine at the UNC School of Medicine and senior author on the study. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • A safe packaging line for gene transfer: separating viral genes on two different plasmids. (asm.org)
  • These results suggest that gag, pol, and env, when present on different plasmids, may provide an efficient and safe packaging line for use in retroviral gene transfer. (asm.org)