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  • 2000
  • This species shares more than 2000 homologous genes with M. tuberculosis and shares the same peculiar cell wall structure of M. tuberculosis and other mycobacterial species. (wikipedia.org)
  • transgenic
  • He then moved to the University of Colorado Boulder for his Ph.D., where he first developed the GUS reporter system, isolating, sequencing and characterizing the first microbial glucuronidase, and creating transgenic technology for Caenorhabditis elegans As a postdoctoral researcher he worked at the Plant Breeding Institute in Cambridge, England: there he adapted the GUS assay for the use in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather than generating transgenic flies with the enhancer linked directly to the gene of interest (which takes about a year, if you are starting without the appropriate DNA construct), you simply mate (cross) one transgenic fly with another transgenic fly. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • GFP makes for an excellent tool in many forms of biology due to its ability to form internal chromophore without requiring any accessory cofactors, gene products, or enzymes / substrates other than molecular oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • Richard Anthony Jefferson (born 1956) is an American-born molecular biologist and social entrepreneur who developed the widely used reporter gene system GUS, conducted the world's first biotech crop release, proposed the Hologenome theory of evolution, pioneered Biological Open Source and founded The Lens. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • This enzyme causes bacteria expressing the gene to appear blue when grown on a medium that contains the substrate analog X-gal. (wikipedia.org)
  • homologous
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the RAD52 gene is essential for homologous recombination, and thus is required for the delitto perfetto method. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • In bacteria, the genes responsible for the light-emitting reaction (the lux genes) have been isolated and used extensively in the construction of bioreporters that emit a blue-green light with a maximum intensity at 490 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathway
  • Furthermore, reporter gene systems enable the use of pathway-specific, tissue-specific, or developmentally regulated gene promoters as biomarkers for specific events processes. (thermofisher.com)
  • Molecular phenotyping describes the technique of quantifying pathway reporter genes, i.e. pre-selected genes that are modulated specifically by metabolic and signaling pathways, in order to infer activity of these pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current data suggest that by quantifying pathway reporter gene expression, molecular phenotyping is able to cluster compounds based on pathway profiles and dissect associations between pathway activities and disease phenotypes simultaneously. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also is a direct target gene of the Wnt pathway and is upregulated by beta-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescence
  • Fluorescence gene reporters have recently become available for excitation at far-red wavelengths, enabling opportunities for small animal in vivo gene reporter fluorescence tomography (GRFT). (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • We employed multiple projections of the far-red fluorescence gene reporters IFP1.4 and iRFP, excited by a point source in transillumination geometry in order to reconstruct the location of orthotopically implanted human prostate cancer (PC3), which stably expresses the reporter. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • genetically
  • In addition, human genes can be studied and similarly genetically manipulated in yeast by using yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). (wikipedia.org)
  • construct
  • To introduce a reporter gene into an organism, scientists place the reporter gene and the gene of interest in the same DNA construct to be inserted into the cell or organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only those cells that have successfully taken up the construct containing the CAT gene will survive and multiply under these conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In building the DNA construct, a segment of DNA coding for a flexible polypeptide linker region is usually included so that the reporter and the gene product will only minimally interfere with one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enhancer trap construct contains a transposable element and a reporter gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • On top of this, the construct usually includes a genetic marker, e.g., the white gene producing red-colored eyes in Drosophila, or ampicillin resistance in E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Post eradication of smallpox, scientists study vaccinia virus to use as a tool for delivering genes into biological tissues (gene therapy and genetic engineering) and because of concerns about smallpox being used as an agent for bioterrorism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of plasmids, phages, and mobile genetic elements has enabled the construction of dedicated gene-inactivation and gene reporter systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensitivity
  • However, thanks to the development of high field MRI and improved hardware and software designs, the signal to noise ratio of MRI has been improved significantly [ 1 ], and novel approaches used for reporter gene imaging may further increase its sensitivity and specificity. (thno.org)
  • The sensitivity and high signal intensity of this luciferase molecule proves advantageous in many reporter studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristics
  • Certain genes are chosen as reporters because the characteristics they confer on organisms expressing them are easily identified and measured, or because they are selectable markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • cassette
  • There is great flexibility in this approach because after the CORE cassette is inserted (see Method Overview for details), multiple mutations in the gene of interest can be made easily and quickly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CORE cassette contains both a COunterselectable marker and REporter gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reporter gene allows for the selection of yeast cells that receive the CORE cassette during the first step of the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells containing the CORE cassette can be selected for using the reporter gene and can be further confirmed using the counterselectable marker. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead of containing only the luxA and luxB genes, bioreporters can contain all five genes of the lux cassette, thereby allowing for a completely independent light generating system that requires no extraneous additions of substrate nor any excitation by an external light source. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • Key scientists in the field explain how to enhance reporter gene imaging utility through instrumentation and the various applications of this technology. (emka.si)
  • assay
  • Western blot analysis indicated that the IKK signaling complex components vFLIP and IKKγ were degraded upon PU-H71 treatment, leading to destabilization of the complex, and inhibition of NF-κB signaling, as confirmed by reporter luciferase assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cellular
  • Polyamines are ubiquitous small molecules involved in many normal cellular functions, including transcribing and translating genes, regulating ion channels and cell-to-cell interactions, and powering cell growth and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell lines
  • Much like the warning light on an induction cooking range that tells users the range is on, reporter cell lines have an easy-to-measure component that tells researchers when a particular gene is turned on. (wisc.edu)
  • However, the biggest advantage of reporter cell lines is they can be used in high-throughput, automated systems to efficiently test whether any of hundreds of thousands of drugs can turn on the gene of interest without harming the cell. (wisc.edu)
  • causes
  • What's unusual about fragile X is that the mutation that causes the disease doesn't delete or disrupt the gene, it just turns it off. (wisc.edu)
  • protect
  • Whiting values his network of connections in the industry, and used his authority to prevent the paper from publishing a negative story about shortfalls in racial integration at the University of Maryland to protect his old friend Gene Robbins, the dean of journalism. (wikipedia.org)