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  • mutations
  • Noonan syndrome has also been shown to be caused by mutations in KRAS and PTPN11 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • After attending Gravesend Grammar School for Girls,[citation needed] Vousden gained a Bachelor of Science degree in genetics and microbiology (1978) and a PhD from Queen Mary College, University of London on the use of suppressor gene mutations to study transfer RNA redundancy in the fungus Coprinus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nowadays, there is important research in drugs that could eliminate these RAS group mutations but this has not been achieved yet. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations that permanently activate Ras are found in 20% to 25% of all human tumors and up to 90% in certain types of cancer (e.g., pancreatic cancer). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations which change amino acid residues 12, 13 or 61 activate the potential of N-ras to transform cultured cells and are implicated in a variety of human tumors e.g. melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, the most reliable way to predict whether a colorectal cancer patient will respond to one of the EGFR-inhibiting drugs is to test for certain "activating" mutations in the gene that encodes KRAS, which occurs in 30%-50% of colorectal cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • KRAS
  • KRAS ( K-ras or Ki-ras) is proto-oncogene corresponding to the oncogene first identified in Kirsten rat sarcoma virus and the gene product was first found as a p21 GTPase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The normal KRAS protein performs an essential function in normal tissue signaling, and the mutation of a KRAS gene is an essential step in the development of many cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, KRAS binds GTP present in the cytosol and the GEF is released from ras-GTP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies show patients whose tumors express the mutated version of the KRAS gene will not respond to cetuximab or panitumumab. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although presence of the wild-type (or normal) KRAS gene does not guarantee that these drugs will work, a number of large studies have shown that cetuximab has significant efficacy in mCRC patients with KRAS wild-type tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Phase III CRYSTAL study, published in 2009, patients with the wild-type KRAS gene treated with Erbitux plus chemotherapy showed a response rate of up to 59% compared to those treated with chemotherapy alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with the KRAS wild-type gene also showed a 32% decreased risk of disease progression compared to patients receiving chemotherapy alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • KRAS gene can also be amplified in colorectal cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1982
  • 1982). «Direct mutagenesis of HA-RAS-1 oncogenes by N-Nitroso-N-Methylurea during initiation of mammary carcinogenesis in rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1982, activated and transforming human ras genes were discovered in human cancer cells by Geoffrey M. Cooper at Harvard, Mariano Barbacid and Stuart A. Aaronson at the NIH, Robert Weinberg at MIT, and Michael Wigler at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marshall CJ, Hall A, Weiss RA (September 1982). (wikipedia.org)
  • oncogenes
  • Zarbl H, Sukumar S, Arthur AV, Martin-Zanca D, Barbacid M. «Direct mutagenesis of HA-RAS-1 oncogenes by N-Nitroso-N-Methylurea during initiation of mammary carcinogenesis in rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the small GTPase family it is classified in the RAS domain, a special group of oncogenes and oncoproteins that take part in the synthesis of molecules related to cell reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAAX
  • Ras contains six beta strands and five alpha helices: It consists of two domains, a G domain of 166 amino acids, about 20kDa, that binds guanosine nucleotides, and a C-terminal membrane targeting region (CAAX-COOH, also known as CAAX box), which is lipid-modified by farnesyl transferase, RCE1 and ICMT. (wikipedia.org)
  • allele
  • Supplementary Table 1: Details of the oligonucleotides for amplification and screening for four RAS polymorphisms using allele specific primer and PCR-RFLP methods. (hindawi.com)
  • inhibitors
  • For this reason, Ras inhibitors are being studied as a treatment for cancer and other diseases with Ras overexpression. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Researchers at the Duke Comprehensive Cancer Center have found that a known cancer-causing gene, Ras, may exert its influence through very different pathways in humans than in mice, a finding that could offer tantalizing new targets for anti-cancer therapy. (innovations-report.com)
  • Team members Nesrin Hamad, Ph.D., and Joel Elconin, M.D., set out to map how Ras communicates with various signaling pathways that, when over-activated, ultimately command cells to proliferate uncontrollably. (innovations-report.com)
  • motif
  • It contains a Ras exchange motif, a diacylglycerol-binding domain, and two calcium-binding EF hands. (wikipedia.org)
  • rats
  • The second peculiarity was that in place of the genes that were required for reproduction of the virus was another gene that had actually been picked up at some point in the history of this virus when it went through rats, and it picked up a rat gene and incorporated it into its own genome. (accessexcellence.org)
  • This gene has become known as "ras," because it was originally isolated from rats with sarcoma, and it caused sarcomas and it's called that, and it's protein is called that. (accessexcellence.org)
  • signals
  • Because these signals result in cell growth and division, overactive Ras signaling can ultimately lead to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cascade transmits signals downstream and results in the transcription of genes involved in cell growth and division. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Studies of a mast cell leukemia cell line expressing substantial amounts of abnormal transcripts of this gene indicated that this gene may play an important role in the final stages of mast cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • When those genes suffer some kind of mutation or translocation, they can change their conformation and cause a catalytic activity in cell reproduction that is normally inactivated, which causes abnormal cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • differences
  • Comparative studies by Ann Burke in his lab showed that differences in boundaries of Hox gene expression correlated with differences in skeletal morphology. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDC25
  • The first exchange factor to be identified for RAS was the S. cerevisiae CDC25 gene product. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Drosophila, the protein encoded by the 'son of sevenless' gene (Sos) contains a domain that shows sequence similarity with the catalytic domain of CDC25. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral gene
  • This discovery changed the current thinking about cancer from a model wherein cancer is caused by a foreign substance (a viral gene) to one where a gene that is normally present in the cell can cause cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • c-Abl is sometimes used to refer to the version of the gene found within the mammalian genome, while v-Abl refers to the viral gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations
  • Mutations in this gene could be involved in the malignant progression of colon cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the ABL1 gene are associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • In order to define the complex behavior of a tumor cell population associated with these complex gene expressions, we have chosen to define entropies of apoptosis, cellular differentiation and survival or growth inhibition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Exons
  • The ABL1 gene is expressed as either a 6- or a 7-kb mRNA transcript, with alternatively spliced first exons spliced to the common exons 2-11. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • Clusters of neighboring genes (mostly close to telomeres) are co-expressed early in the process, which reflects a more global control of these genes. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells such as TG1, SS320, ER2738, or XL1-Blue E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • We have found that palmitate rapidly inhibits transcription of the adiponectin gene and the release of adiponectin from adipocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • When the first Archaeal genome, Methanococcus jannaschii, had been sequenced completely in 1996, it was found that the genes in the genome of Methanococcus jannaschii involved in DNA replication, transcription, and translation were more related to their counterparts in eukaryotes than to those in other prokaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other genes in the respiratory chain which partake in the production of ATP were not similar to what is found in eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • lack
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • evidence
  • The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • show
  • Here we show that hundreds of genes are regulated in successive waves of transcription that correlate with major biological events of meiosis and sporulation. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • present
  • The t(9;22) translocation results in the head-to-tail fusion of the BCR and ABL1 genes, leading to a fusion gene present in many cases of chronic myelogenous leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • release
  • 2017's release Live at the Blue Whale was recorded at downtown LA's Blue Whale jazz club with de Clive-Lowe on piano, keyboards and live electronics and drum programming along with saxophonist Josh Johnson, bassist Brandon Eugene Owens and Gene Coye on drums paying tribute to his own inspirational favorites: Yusef Lateef, Sun Ra and Ahmad Jamal. (wikipedia.org)