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  • Researchers
  • In another surprising development, the researchers found the algal gene in E. chlorotica 's sex cells, meaning the ability to maintain functional chloroplasts could be passed to the next generation. (newscientist.com)
  • The researchers believe many more photosynthesis genes are acquired by E. chlorotica from their food, but still need to understand how the plant genes are activated inside sea-slug cells. (newscientist.com)
  • Plant researchers utilize a variety of approaches to understand gene expression. (thermofisher.com)
  • In order to study plant functional genomics, researchers also utilize epigenetic tools as well as plant miRNA, small RNA, and RNAi studies to decipher the root cause behind phenotypes of interest. (thermofisher.com)
  • In their experiments, the researchers discovered that by disrupting the gene encoding a novel protein, GTL1, trichome cells could be induced to grow to twice their normal size, indicating that GTL1 represses cell growth. (innovations-report.com)
  • Phys.org)-Since 2007, researchers at the BioEnergy Science Center, one of three Department of Energy-funded research centers, have partnered to figure out how to break down plants so that they easily release the simple sugars that can be processed into biofuels. (phys.org)
  • The team of researchers found that the gene GXMT1 is responsible for directing a key step in the development of the plant polymer xylan, a principal component of cell walls in woody biomass that make it resistant to biofuel conversion. (phys.org)
  • But plants have evolved powerful defenses against the microbes researchers use to break down biomass for fermentation. (phys.org)
  • In their paper, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , the researchers identified a mutant GXMT1 plant that produces structurally modified xylan that is more easily released when the biomass is treated with hot water. (phys.org)
  • If researchers can find ways to capitalize on this mutant version of the plant and alter this gene without compromising the structural integrity of the wood, they can begin the process of developing plants specifically designed for biofuel conversion. (phys.org)
  • Understanding this system could provide researchers with a method to engineer plants to be resistant to the parasite. (psu.edu)
  • The researchers sequenced all of the microRNAs in tissue from the parasite alone, the host plant alone, and a combination of two. (psu.edu)
  • By identifying the bacterial genes that can alter how well microbes can colonize a plant, researchers can develop targeted approaches to improve plant health and growth for a number of applications, including increased biomass yield for biofuel production. (doe.gov)
  • chloroplasts
  • She has known for some time that E. chlorotica acquires chloroplasts - the green cellular objects that allow plant cells to convert sunlight into energy - from the algae it eats, and stores them in the cells that line its gut. (newscientist.com)
  • They confirmed that if the sea slug used the algal chloroplasts alone, it would not have all the genes needed to photosynthesise. (newscientist.com)
  • One possibility is that, as the algae are processed in the sea slug's gut, the gene is taken into its cells as along with the chloroplasts. (newscientist.com)
  • genetic
  • While mechanisms governing plant cell growth are known to exist, the genetic origins of such mechanisms have remained unclear. (innovations-report.com)
  • She said considerable work lies ahead before scientists learn to exploit the genetic discovery and harness the potential of this naturally occurring, symbiotic fungus-plant association, but that the payoff to growers and to the environment could be substantial: more efficient plant growth with less phosphorus-based fertilizer, and a subsequent reduction of phosphate runoff in surface water. (innovations-report.com)
  • Plant-fungus horizontal gene transfer is the movement of genetic material between individuals in the plant and fungus kingdoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analyzing an individual's DNA can allow scientists to predict genetic disorders, as used in preventative genetics or gene therapy, and prove that person's identity, as used in the criminal justice system. (wikipedia.org)
  • As well as producing hormones, vaccines and other drugs genetic engineering has the potential to cure genetic diseases through gene therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic engineering could potentially fix severe genetic disorders in humans by replacing the defective gene with a functioning one. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene targeting (also, replacement strategy based on homologous recombination) is a genetic technique that uses homologous recombination to change an endogenous gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene targeting has been widely used to study human genetic diseases by removing ("knocking out"), or adding ("knocking in"), specific mutations of interest to a variety of models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic engineers must first choose what gene they wish to insert into the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene must then be isolated and incorporated, along with other genetic elements, into a suitable vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human directed genetic manipulation began with the domestication of plants and animals through artificial selection in about 12,000 BC. (wikipedia.org)
  • It wasn't until the mid 1800s that DNA and genes were discovered, which would form the basis of modern genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • An important first step of the genetic engineering process is to identify useful genes to transform into the target organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knowledge of how the gene functions and interacts with other genetic elements is important. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic screens can be carried out to determine potential genes and further tests are then used to identify the best candidates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human directed genetic manipulation was occurring much earlier, beginning with the domestication of plants and animals through artificial selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strawberry growers have employed many breeding techniques, starting with traditional plant breeding and then moving on to molecular breeding and genetic engineering in the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Among those, novel alternative splicing of TF gene transcripts is responsible for the observed differences in at least five genes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Deng W, Luo KM, Li ZG, Yang YW (2009) A novel method for induction of plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Physiology
  • Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Plant Physiology. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant Physiology web site. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Mario R. Capecchi, Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies were declared laureates of the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work on "principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells", or gene targeting. (wikipedia.org)
  • encodes
  • 5. A method according to claim 3, wherein the first gene encodes ribosomal inhibitor protein (RIP). (google.com)
  • 6. A method according to claim 3, wherein the specific excision signal sequences are LOX sequences and the second gene encodes CRE. (google.com)
  • mechanisms
  • An Iowa State University agronomist is charting mechanisms - gene by gene - that could lead to soybean varieties resistant to sudden death syndrome. (phys.org)
  • Its discovery constitutes a key step toward understanding the mechanisms of plant cell growth, offering new directions for research and promising further advances in agricultural production. (innovations-report.com)
  • When a plant is attacked by a parasite it initiates a number of defense mechanisms. (psu.edu)
  • In one of these mechanisms, similar to blood clotting after a cut, the plants produce a protein that clots the flow of nutrients to the site of the parasite. (psu.edu)
  • Recent discoveries about the BBM gene will inevitably help to unlock the long-standing mysteries of different biological mechanisms of plant cells. (springer.com)
  • photosynthesis
  • Unlike most plants that get energy through photosynthesis, dodder siphons off water and nutrients from other plants by connecting itself to the host vascular system using structures called haustoria. (psu.edu)
  • The shade-tolerant plants found here are capable of photosynthesis using light at such wavelengths. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • Horizontal gene transfer could bypass eukaryotic barrier features like linear chromatin-based chromosomes, intron-exon gene structures, and the nuclear envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • chloroplast
  • In their latest experiments, Rumpho and colleagues sequenced the chloroplast genes of Vaucheria litorea , the alga that is the sea slug's favourite snack. (newscientist.com)
  • fungi
  • Scientists at the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research at Cornell University have uncovered the genes that enable plants to interact with beneficial soil dwelling fungi and to access phosphate delivered to the roots by these fungi -- a first step, they say, toward enhancing the beneficial relationship for crop plants , while reducing fertilizer use and phosphate pollution in the environment. (innovations-report.com)
  • AM fungi are very efficient at helping plants absorb phosphorus from the soil, and managing this symbiotic association is an essential part of sustainable agriculture" Harrison explained in an interview before plant biologists meeting. (innovations-report.com)
  • A thorough understanding of how symbiotic fungi work with plants to assist the uptake of phosphorous and other nutrients from the soil is an important goal in plant biology with relevance to agriculture and ecology. (innovations-report.com)
  • Most plant-fungus horizontal gene transfer events are ancient and rare, but they may have provided important gene functions leading to wider substrate use and habitat spread for plants and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ecological association can facilitate horizontal gene transfer in plants and fungi and is an unstudied factor in shared evolutionary histories. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most horizontal gene transfers from fungi into plants predate the rise of land plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fourteen candidate plant-fungus horizontal gene transfer events were identified, nine of which showed infrequent patterns of transfer between plants and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some plants may have obtained the shikimate pathway from symbiotic fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcriptome
  • If your experimental approach is limited to a few genes or certain areas of the transcriptome, real-time PCR assays with TaqMan® probes are the best approach for you. (thermofisher.com)
  • biology
  • Written by a highly respected team of specialists in plant biology with extensive experience in teaching at undergraduate and graduate level, this textbook will be invaluable for students and instructors alike. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • It is also an invaluable starting point for professionals entering the field of plant biology. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • His research focuses on plant systems biology. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • BMC Plant Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Botany : An Introduction to Plant Biology (5th ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientist
  • Arthur G. Hunt is an American plant and soils scientist currently Professor at University of Kentucky and an Elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Plants have evolved a number of transcription factors, many of which are implicated in signaling pathways as well as regulating diverse cellular functions. (springer.com)
  • The BBM gene has been implicated to play an important role as a gene marker in multiple signaling developmental pathways in plant development. (springer.com)
  • 2017
  • Bui LT, Pandzic D, Youngstrom CE, Wallace S, Irish EE, Szovenyi P, Cheng CL (2017) A fern AINTEGUMENT A gene mirrors BABY BOOM in promoting apogamy in Ceratopteris richardii . (springer.com)
  • tissue
  • By comparing the sequencing data from these three sources, they were able to identify microRNAs from dodder that had entered the plant tissue. (psu.edu)
  • Sclereids are a reduced form of sclerenchyma cells with highly thickened, lignified cellular walls that form small bundles of durable layers of tissue in most plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parenchyma forms the "filler" tissue in the soft parts of plants.usually present in cortex, pericycle, pith,and medullary rays in primary stem and root.2) Collenchyma cells have thin primary walls with some areas of secondary thickening. (wikipedia.org)
  • from Greek παρέγχυμα parenkhyma, "visceral flesh" from παρεγχεῖν parenkhein, "to pour in" from παρα- para-, "beside", ἐν en-, "in" and χεῖν khein, "to pour") is a versatile ground tissue that generally constitutes the "filler" tissue in soft parts of plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some works the cells of the leaf epidermis are regarded as specialised parenchymal cells, but the modern preference has long been to classify the epidermis as plant dermal tissue, and parenchyma as ground tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • shapes of parenchyma 1= polyhedral[these cells are most poly hedral shape] 2=stellate (found in stem of plants and have well developed air spaces between them) 3=elongated(are found in pallisade tissue of leaf) 4=lobed (are found inspongy and pallisade mesophyyll tissue of some plants) The first use of "collenchyma" (/kəˈlɛŋkɪmə, kɒ-/) was by Link (1837) who used it to describe the sticky substance on Bletia (Orchidaceae) pollen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plant chimeras, however, the distinct types of tissue may originate from the same zygote, and the difference is often due to mutation during ordinary cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some plants utilize blue-light absorbing pigments as a sensor and pulvinar motor tissue to drive leaf movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists
  • Advances followed that allowed scientists to manipulate and add genes to a variety of different organisms and induce a range of different effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • manipulate
  • If we can manipulate that process, we can change how plants make their cell walls, which could make them easier to turn into liquid fuel . (phys.org)