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  • protein
  • Apparently, when DNA damage occurs, a phosphate attaches to the p53 protein, preventing it from leaving the nucleus. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Researchers in Italy have discovered how specific versions of a protein called Numb protect the key tumor suppressor p53 from destruction. (medicalxpress.com)
  • But for such a highly studied protein, p53 has hidden its tactics well. (medicalxpress.com)
  • p53 (also known as protein 53 or tumor protein 53 ), is a transcription factor which in humans is encoded by the TP53 gene. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The name p53 is in reference to its apparent molecular mass: it runs as a 53 kilodalton (kDa) protein on SDS-PAGE. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Perturbation of p53 protein function is a common, if not universal, finding in human cancer.Tumor suppression by p53 is due, at least in part, to its ability to activate transcription of certaingenes involved in cell cycle control and apoptosis (programmed cell death). (ovid.com)
  • The chemical modifications of the p53 protein that we thought were es. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Until now, scientists had assumed, based on studies in cultured cells, that p53 had to be modified by attaching chemical groups to specific sites on the protein to function normally in the body. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The chemical modifications of the p53 protein that we thought were essential for its normal function may just fine-tune the activity of the protein under physiological conditions in a living organism, but they are not essential," explains lead investigator professor Geoffrey M. Wahl. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Under normal conditions, the p53 protein is very unstable and found only at very low levels in the cell. (bio-medicine.org)
  • But when the cell senses that its DNA has been damaged, it slows down the degradation of p53, so that p53 protein levels can rise and initiate protective measures. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Or, if the damage is too severe for the breaks to be repaired, critical backup protection, also governed by the p53 tumor suppressor protein, kicks in. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Since the p53 protein is able to trigger such drastic action as cellular suicide, the cells of the body must ensure that the p53 protein is only activated when damage is sensed and that the protein is quickly degraded when it is not needed. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Until now, many scientists thought that specific modifications on the easily accessible tail end, or C-terminus, of the p53 protein are crucial for both, timely degradation or activation. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Instead of accumulating in mouse cells and halting cell division in the genetically engineered mice, the altered p53 protein performed flawlessly: it was unstable when no DNA damage was present and was stable and fully functional when needed to halt the cycle cell to repair DNA damage or to induce apoptosis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Our experiments showed that COTI-2, at a low dose, restored the normal protein configuration of the R175H p53 gene mutation and did not affect normal p53 protein," said Dr. Wayne Danter, COTI's President and CEO. (yahoo.com)
  • Analysis of fluorescent antibody and protein quantification data from the treated cells confirmed that COTI-2 restored p53 protein to normal configuration in these human ovarian cancer cells. (yahoo.com)
  • A human lung cancer cell line (H460) expressing normal p53 protein was also treated with a low concentration of COTI-2 as a control. (yahoo.com)
  • The analysis of fluorescent antibody and protein quantification data from this cell line confirmed that treatment with COTI-2 did not affect the normal p53 protein in these human lung cancer control cells. (yahoo.com)
  • The gene mutation specific normalization of p53 protein configuration was observed at a very low concentration (10 nmol/l) that is easily achievable when COTI-2 is given orally. (yahoo.com)
  • One of these modifiers is the p53 protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In recent years, a number of proteins have been identified that can modify the biological activities of WT1, one of which is the p53 protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Study results suggest existing diabetes drugs, which impact the same gene-protein pathway, might be effective for cancer treatment. (healthcanal.com)
  • The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center investigation showed that, in vivo, the genes p63 and p73 can be manipulated to upregulate or increase levels of IAPP, a protein important for the body's ability to metabolize glucose. (healthcanal.com)
  • We found that IAPP is involved in tumor regression and that amylin, the protein encoded by the IAPP gene, stops a cell's ability to metabolize glucose, leading to programmed cell death," said Flores. (healthcanal.com)
  • We have recently reported that TP53 (encoding p53 protein), one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancers, dose dependently modulates the balance between the utilization of oxidative and glycolytic pathways for energy generation in human colon cancer cells and mouse liver mitochondria. (knowcancer.com)
  • P53-responsive gene 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRG1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • CSF1 is a novel p53 target gene whose protein product functions in a feed-forward manner to suppress apoptosis and enhance p53-mediated growth arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • p73 is a protein related to the p53 tumor protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like p53, p73 is characterized by the presence of different isoforms of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • p73, also known as tumor protein 73 (TP73), protein was the first identified homologue of the tumor suppressor gene, p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • The p73 gene encodes a protein with a significant sequence homology and a functional similarity with the tumor suppressor p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to p53 the protein product of p73 induces cell cycle arrest or apoptosis, hence its classification as a tumor suppressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • A naturally occurring p73 mutation in a p73-p53 double-mutant lung cancer cell line encodes p73α protein with a dominant-negative function TP73 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Kaghad M, Bonnet H, Yang A, et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • P53 regulation associated lncRNA is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRAL gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 15A also known as growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD34 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PPP1R15A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later on it has been characterized as a gene playing a role in ER stress-induced cell death, being a target of ATF4 that plays a role in ER-mediated cell death via promoting protein dephosphorylation of eIF2α and reversing translational inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The induction of this gene by ionizing radiation occurs in certain cell lines regardless of p53 status, and its protein response is correlated with apoptosis following ionizing radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • One study on genetic variations between different species of Drosophila suggests that, if a mutation changes a protein produced by a gene, the result is likely to be harmful, with an estimated 70 percent of amino acid polymorphisms that have damaging effects, and the remainder being either neutral or marginally beneficial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, protein domains act as modules, each with a particular and independent function, that can be mixed together to produce genes encoding new proteins with novel properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Forkhead box D1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXD1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The p53 protein was discovered 10 years earlier by several groups, including that of David Lane and Lionel Crawford, Arnold Levine, and Lloyd Old. (wikipedia.org)
  • They were the first to perform "exomic sequencing", meaning determination of the sequence of every protein-encoding gene in the human genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • As such, p53 has been described as "the guardian of the genome," "the guardian angel gene," and the "master watchman," referring to its role in conserving stability by preventing genome mutation. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This new information represents an important advance in the understanding of COTI-2's specific gene mutation mechanism of action with the results extending the test outcomes generated by Dr. Yu et al from the University of New Jersey as published in the May 2012 edition of the journal, Cancer Cell. (yahoo.com)
  • A human ovarian cancer cell line (TOV-112D) that expresses the specific p53 mutation, R175H, was treated with a low concentration of COTI-2. (yahoo.com)
  • A deletion map of chromosome 17 was constructed by using 10 polymorphic probes and was compared with the p53 gene mutation in each case. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Subsequently four NAF samples from patients whose primary tumours were identified as having a defined p53 mutation were studied by single stranded conformational polymorphism analysis (SSCP). (springer.com)
  • In the Li-Fraumeni familial cancer syndrome (LFS), affected individuals harbor a germline mutation in TP53, hence they are heterozygous with reduced wild-type p53 activity. (knowcancer.com)
  • Patients have a mutation in the p53 tumor suppressor gene, which normally helps control cell growth. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Novel genes are produced by several methods, commonly through the duplication and mutation of an ancestral gene, or by recombining parts of different genes to form new combinations with new functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other types of mutation occasionally create new genes from previously noncoding DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • When mutation results in loss of heterozygosity at tumor suppressor gene sites, these genes may become inactive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knowledge of which genes (when non-functional) cause which disorders will simplify diagnosis of patients and provide insights into the functional characteristics of the mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coding regions of these genes are then sequenced until a mutation is discovered or another patient is discovered, in which case the analysis can be repeated, potentially narrowing down the region of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • The differences between most disease gene identification procedures are in the second step (where DNA samples are analyzed and screened to determine regions in which the mutation could reside). (wikipedia.org)
  • Such a small population, possibly created by the founder effect, will have a limited gene pool, and thus any inherited disease will probably be a result of two copies of the same mutation segregating on the same haplotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Upon detection of cancer development, p53 proteins build up in the cell's nucleus, instructing the cell to either halt the growth cycle or self-destruct. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In fact, the presence of p53 proteins in the nucleus would inhibit normal cell growth. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Nonetheless, data on differences between these proteins and p53 are emerging. (ovid.com)
  • When higher than normal levels of p53 tumor suppressor exist, there is enough p53 to bind to many regulatory sites in the cell's genome to activate the production of other proteins that will halt cell division if the DNA damage can be repaired. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The Gadd34/MyD116 gene was originally discovered as a member in a set of gadd and MyD mammalian genes encoding acidic proteins that synergistically suppress cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In different types of cancer, a variety of epigenetic mechanisms can be perturbed, such as silencing of tumor suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes by altered CpG island methylation patterns, histone modifications, and dysregulation of DNA binding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to these studies, the only biochemical function attributed to p53 was its binding to heat shock proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Gene replacement of the p53 gene with the lacZ gene in mouse embryonic stem cells and mice by using two steps of homologous recombination," Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications , vol. 202, no. 2, pp. 830-837, 1994. (hindawi.com)
  • Dynamics of delayed p53 mutations in mice given whole-body irradiation at 8 weeks," International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics , vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 247-254, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • To explore the effects of these modifications in vivo, Salk scientists genetically engineered mice to produce a p53 prote in with an altered C-terminus instead of the normal version. (bio-medicine.org)
  • To investigate a genetic interaction between the p53 gene and the wt1 gene, we have crossed their respective knockout mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The absence of p53 appears to have no gross effect on the phenotype of wt1 -null mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In adult p53 -null mice, wt1 -heterozygosity ( wt1 het) predisposes to an earlier onset of lymphomagenesis and the development of kidney abnormalities resembling oncocytoma in humans. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Conversely, the status of p53 may also have an effect on the phenotype of the wt1 -null mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Generation of p53- and wt1-deficient Mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Both the wt1 -knockout and the p53 -knockout mice were of mixed genetic backgrounds (CBA, SWR, 129/Ola, C57/BL6, BalB/c). (aacrjournals.org)
  • To minimize possible effects of genetic variation (10 , 18 , 19) , male wt1 het/ p53- null mice were crossed with female p53- null mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This time male wt1 het mice were crossed with female p53- null mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • wt1 -null embryos were obtained by crossing wt1 het/ p53 het mice with one another and by crossing wt1 het mice with one another. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Though morphologically similar to their wild-type littermates, mice deficient in p53 display a gene dose-dependent decrease in aerobic exercise capacity, implying that p53 has functions beyond its well characterized cell cycle activities. (knowcancer.com)
  • novel
  • This represents a novel strategy to target p53-deficient and mutant cancers," said Flores. (healthcanal.com)
  • There is a high probability that FOX D1 can serve as a novel regulator of glioblastoma cell behaviour that could be used as a novel target for gene targeted therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • LONDON, ONTARIO--(Marketwire - Dec. 13, 2012) - Critical Outcome Technologies Inc. (COTI) (TSX VENTURE:COT) released important new test results today proving that COTI-2, the company's lead oncology candidate, stops cancer cells from replicating by correcting the effects of specific genetic errors affecting the p53 gene. (yahoo.com)
  • In this way, each litter contributed equally to the genetic pool of both the wt1 het/ p53- null cohort and the p53- null cohort. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The study, led by Elsa R. Flores, Ph.D. , associate professor of molecular and cellular oncology , centered on p63 and p73 because of the genes' ability to cause tumor regression or spur its growth due to their unique genetic makeup. (healthcanal.com)
  • Another effect of these mobile DNA sequences is that when they move within a genome, they can mutate or delete existing genes and thereby produce genetic diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonlethal mutations accumulate within the gene pool and increase the amount of genetic variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The abundance of some genetic changes within the gene pool can be reduced by natural selection, while other "more favorable" mutations may accumulate and result in adaptive changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • CpG island methylation is important in regulation of gene expression, yet cytosine methylation can lead directly to destabilizing genetic mutations and a precancerous cellular state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease gene identification is a process by which scientists identify the mutant genotypes responsible for an inherited genetic disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polymorphism
  • Wu JK, Ye Z, Darras BT: Sensitivity of single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis in detecting p53 point mutations in tumours with mixed cell populations. (springer.com)
  • An association study of the codon 72 polymorphism in the pro-apoptotic gene p53 and Alzheimer's disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We performed a case-control association study between sporadic AD and the common proline/arginine polymorphism at codon 72 in the pro-apoptotic gene p53, in 109 sporadic AD patients and in 111 controls. (semanticscholar.org)
  • tumorigenesis
  • The results may not only help clarify why mutations of p53 gene are so common in cancers by potentially conferring metabolic advantages in tumorigenesis, but they may also give us an opportunity to understand a fundamental regulatory mechanism in cellular energy generation relevant to other processes. (knowcancer.com)
  • Vogelstein and Kinzler worked with Albert de la Chapelle and Lauri Aaltonen at the U. Helsinki to identify the genes responsible for Hereditary NonPolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC), the other major form of heritable colorectal tumorigenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptibility
  • This gene may control metabolism as well as cancer susceptibility, and the study findings may help improve our understanding of not only cancer but also other conditions, such as cardiovascular function. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Approximately a dozen inherited susceptibility genes have been definitively identified, and many more are being sought. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolation of an inherited cancer susceptibility gene provides opportunities for presymptomatic testing of at-risk relatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth arrest
  • This gene is a member of a group of genes whose transcript levels are increased following stressful growth arrest conditions and treatment with DNA-damaging agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • For example, more than a million copies of the Alu sequence are present in the human genome, and these sequences have now been recruited to perform functions such as regulating gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • If enough of the genome sequence is known, that region is searched for candidate genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without the aid of the whole-genome sequences, pre-genomics investigations looked at select regions of the genome, often with only minimal knowledge of the gene sequences they were looking at. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the advent of modern laboratory techniques such as High-throughput sequencing and software capable of genome-wide analysis, sequence acquisition has become increasingly less expensive and time-consuming, thus providing significant benefits to science in the form of more efficient disease gene identification techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, an allele may be dominant for a particular aspect of phenotype but not for other aspects influenced by the same gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • deficient
  • Pramlintide, a synthetic type of amylin that is currently used to treat type 1 and type 2 diabetes, caused rapid tumor regression in p53-deficient lymphomas of the thymus. (healthcanal.com)
  • regulation
  • A new mouse model, created by scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, suggests that what researchers have learned about the regulation of p53 activity from in vitro studies may not be relevant to living, breathing organisms. (bio-medicine.org)
  • regulates
  • p53 is important in multicellular organisms, where it regulates the cell cycle and thus functions as a tumor suppressor that is involved in preventing cancer. (medicalxpress.com)
  • BRCA1 regulates p53-dependent gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • locus
  • They were the first to localize one of the major causative genes to a specific chromosomal locus through linkage studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • 293T cells were cotransfected with p53, E2F1, and DP1 expression plasmids and/or BRCA1 to detect activation of PGluc or E2Fluc . (nih.gov)
  • Dominance differs from epistasis, a relationship in which an allele of one gene affects the expression of another allele at a different gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • ERBB2, ERBB4, and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene expression promote tumor cell proliferation, contributing to aggressive tumor behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, ependymomas from different locations within the central nervous system (spinal, supratentorial, and infratentorial) can be distinguished by their chromosomal, immunohistochemical, and gene expression differences. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cancers, loss of expression of genes occurs about 10 times more frequently by transcription silencing (caused by epigenetic promoter hypermethylation of CpG islands) than by mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • MicroRNAs function to regulate the expression levels of other genes by several mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutant
  • Jacobson DR, Mills NE: A highly sensitive assay for mutant ras genes and its application to the study of presentation and relapse genotypes in acute leukaemia. (springer.com)
  • These probable regions are then lined-up with one another and the overlapping region should contain the mutant gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Provided that all individuals are affected with the same disease resulting from a manifestation of a deletion of a single copy of the same gene, all individuals will contain one region where their control sample is heterozygous but the mutant sample is homozygous - this region will contain the disease gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • BRCA1
  • Here we report that BRCA1 stimulates artificial and genomic promoter constructs containing p53-responsive elements. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, we found that BRCA1 coimmunoprecipitates with p53, in vitro and in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • These findings suggest a function of BRCA1 as a p53 coactivator. (nih.gov)
  • BRCA1 targets p53-responsive elements. (nih.gov)
  • B ) BRCA1 activates p53-responsive elements. (nih.gov)
  • and BRCA1, another DNA-repair gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • sporadic
  • Prosser J, Thompson AM, Granston G, Evans HJ: Evidence that p53 behaves as a tumour suppressor gene in sporadic breast tumours. (springer.com)
  • However, gene mutations linked to the familial syndromes are rarely found in sporadic cases of ependymoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loss of 22q has been found in both sporadic and familial cases, supporting the presence of a tumor suppressor gene at this location. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though mutations in NF2 are rarely found in sporadic ependymomas other than the spinal form, SCHIP1, a NF2 interacting gene, is significantly down-regulated in pediatric ependymomas, supporting a role for the NF2 pathway in the initiation of ependymomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence
  • At present, it is unclear whether P53 and WT1 physically interact (3 , 4) , but several lines of evidence suggest that P53 and WT1 do affect each other's biological activities. (aacrjournals.org)
  • pathogenesis
  • Ependymomas have been suggested to arise from radial glial cells, suggesting neural stem cell maintenance pathways such as Notch, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), and p53 are important for the pathogenesis of ependymomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • encodes
  • This gene encodes an essential enzyme of nucleotide metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, this gene encodes a homotrimeric enzyme with two isoforms characterized by their distinct subcellular localizations: the nuclear isoform (DUT-N) and mitochondrial isoform (DUT-M). Northern blot analysis reveals distinct mRNA transcripts for DUT-N (1.1 kb) and DUT-M (1.4 kb). (wikipedia.org)
  • isoforms
  • Finally, unlike p53, cells produce multiple p73 and p51 isoforms as a result of alternative splicing, and production of p73 and p51 appears to be restricted to certain tissues. (ovid.com)
  • pathway
  • Many chemotherapeutical drugs used to treat cancer exert their biological effects on tumor cells through activation of the p53 pathway. (bio-medicine.org)
  • found
  • Xiong and his team have found an amino acid sequence in the gene that controls this export. (scientificamerican.com)
  • However, they differ from adult ependymomas in which genes and chromosomes are most often affected, the region of the brain they are most frequently found in, and the prognosis of the patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an experiment, three genes were found to be identified by induced BF2 in Northern blotting. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • If we were to develop a compound to block p53 export, we might be able to restore p53 function in tumor cells with mutated kinase genes. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The E7 gene product associates with the retinoblastoma gene product, causing the latter to lose its function as a negative regulator of the cell cycle. (usp.br)
  • Adenovirus E1B) that efficiently inhibit p53 function are unable to inactivate p73, and those that seem to inhibit p73 have no effect on p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • this allows one gene in the pair to acquire a new function while the other copy performs the original function. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • But under normal conditions, the cell does not need p53. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The new research indicates that these modifications are not necessary to activate p53 under conditions of stress or to prevent p53 from throwing a wrench into the cell cycle machinery, when nothing is wrong. (bio-medicine.org)
  • COTI's previous research had identified a strong statistical relationship between the presence of several p53 mutations and COTI-2's in-vitro effectiveness in cancer cell lines with these mutations. (yahoo.com)
  • A deficiency of p53 almost certainly leads to unchecked cell proliferation and is noted in 60% of cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • They subsequently discovered genes that are directly activated by p53 to control cell birth and cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Our recent study showing reversible regulation of tumor suppressor p53 by Complex I deficiency provides a mechanistic explanation for this (Compton et. (pvlsi.org)
  • In order to define the complex behavior of a tumor cell population associated with these complex gene expressions, we have chosen to define entropies of apoptosis, cellular differentiation and survival or growth inhibition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings provide evidence that parity, family history, and estrogen plus progesterone hormone therapy use may be differentially associated with tumor subtypes defined by p53 and MAPK expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The research in Hemann's laboratory focuses on identification and characterization of genes involved in tumor formation, cancer progression, and chemotherapeutic response. (wikipedia.org)
  • characterization
  • Fire and Mello won the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their characterization of RNAi using the nematode C. elegans in 1998, but the gene Argonaute got its name from a group working in the plant A. thaliana . (genomeyear.net)
  • Humans
  • HGNC ID, HGNC:9605), also known as cyclooxygenase-2 or COX-2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTGS2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 7, also known as 26S proteasome non-ATPase subunit Rpn8, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PSMD7 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Putative ribosomal RNA methyltransferase NOP2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NOP2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • M-phase inducer phosphatase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDC25C gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial ferritin is a ferroxidase enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FTMT gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Promoter
  • The EF-1 alpha promoter in these systems is derived from the human EEF1A1 gene that expresses the alpha subunit of eukaryotic elongation factor 1. (clontech.com)
  • differentiation
  • This previously unidentified progenitor occurs as a temporally discrete population during ES cell differentiation, and differs from the preceding and succeeding populations in gene expression and differentiation potential, with the unique ability to form surface ectoderm in response to BMP4 signalling. (biologists.org)
  • Exons
  • The ABL1 gene is expressed as either a 6- or a 7-kb mRNA transcript, with alternatively spliced first exons spliced to the common exons 2-11. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is known to have 3 exons, 4 transcripts, and 37 orthologues. (wikipedia.org)
  • oncogene
  • Many of these gene expression changes illustrated by gene microarray analysis may be secondary or even far distal to the primary changes determined by the actual oncogene or suppressor gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • activity
  • GO annotations related to this gene include interleukin-17 receptor activity . (genecards.org)
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Inhibition of growth of human prostate cancer xenograft by transfection of p53 gene: gene transfer by electroporation. (naver.com)
  • For the past thirty years, cancer research has elucidated a family of genes that are integrally involved in the cancer process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We evaluated the association between lifestyle and reproductive factors and risk of ovarian cancer defined by p53 and MAPK expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Expression of this gene is up-regulated in some cancer cell lines, and in embryonic day 15 in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • affects
  • The gene product also affects fibroblast growth factor signaling, inhibiting or stimulating growth through MAPK/ERK signaling. (genecards.org)
  • analysis
  • Profiling novel sulfonamide antitumor agents with cell-based phenotypic screens and array-based gene expression analysis. (naver.com)
  • Through analysis of various microarray studies, C3orf62 is found to have consistently high expression compared to other genes tested in the datasets. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • El-Deiry WS (2003) The role of p53 in chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity. (quantumbuild.net)
  • A possible role in chemical carcinogenesis for epigenetic, heritable changes in gene expression. (springer.com)
  • The effect of IFN on p53 is also linked to its protective role against certain cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • These phenotypes include the set of transformed states associated with aberrant gene expression, the set of differentiated states that have been defined as a result of stochastic gene expression and the distribution of cells between living and dead or growth inhibited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cells
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • define
  • In future studies, other immunohistochemical markers or gene expression profiles that more clearly define these subtypes should be considered. (aacrjournals.org)
  • multiple
  • Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, however, the full-length nature of many of them is not known. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Interestingly, NF-κB gemcitabine-mediated induction of AduPAR adenoviruses interfered with the activation of NF-κB regulated genes, probably as a result of an intracellular competition for NF-κB DNA binding. (biomedcentral.com)