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  • lymphomas
  • We compared communication networks within transformed B cells in different lymphomas affected by overexpressed MYC and conducted a meta-analysis concerning the association of MYC with tumor prognosis in different patient populations. (mdpi.com)
  • regulates
  • HMGCS2 , the gene that regulates ketone body production, is expressed in liver and several extrahepatic tissues, such as the colon. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Myc regulates several major cellular functions, such as cell proliferation, cell adhesion, and cell size, which explains the diversity of Myc target genes found in a variety of metabolic pathways, including amino acid, nucleotide, lipid, and glucose metabolism ( www.myccancergene.org ) ( 48 ). (asm.org)
  • The current study demonstrated that Ndrg2 is an injury-responsive gene that is involved in the early phase of astroglial activation and that it positively regulates reactive astrogliosis and the subsequent inflammatory response and neuronal death through the activation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling. (nii.ac.jp)
  • metabolism
  • Haploinsufficient Myc mice are more active, have a higher metabolic rate and healthier lipid metabolism, and display resistance to several age-associated pathologies, including osteoporosis, cardiac fibrosis, and immunosenescence. (senescence.info)
  • While Myc has been linked to energy metabolism through its regulation of glycolysis ( 26 ), its role in mitochondrial biogenesis is less well understood. (asm.org)
  • induction
  • Induction of Myc in P493-6 cells resulted in increased oxygen consumption and mitochondrial mass and function. (asm.org)
  • exon
  • The human c-myc gene consists of three exons transcribed from two distinct promoters and the function of the first, noncoding exon is unknown. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In COLO 320 cells, there co-exist normal and truncated (i.e., lacking exon 1) c-myc genes, both of which are transcribed. (ox.ac.uk)
  • targets
  • These markers may represent targets for future therapeutic intervention as they include genes such as Gata4 that are exclusively expressed during lung development. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Although several genes involved in mitochondrial function are direct Myc targets, the role of Myc in mitochondrial biogenesis has not been directly established. (asm.org)
  • Multiple Myc/Miz1‐repressed genes are targets of serum‐response factor (SRF). (embopress.org)
  • target gene
  • Immunoprecipitation of Hydra chromatin revealed that both Myc1 and Myc2 bind to the enhancer region of CAD , a classical Myc target gene in mammals. (biologists.org)
  • A key p53 target gene is PUMA, which encodes a BH3-only proapoptotic protein. (diva-portal.org)
  • G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) is a direct retinoic acid target gene that is widely expressed in diverse organs and has been reported to have a role in adipose lipolysis by negatively regulating adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). (aacrjournals.org)
  • rearrangement
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic features, immunophenotype, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and c-myc gene rearrangement of sporadic BL in children. (nih.gov)
  • Ninety-two cases of pediatric BL were retrospectively analyzed for clinical features, immunohistochemistry, EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) status by in situ hybridization and c-myc gene rearrangement by fluorescence in situ hybridization. (nih.gov)
  • c-myc gene rearrangement was detected in 94.6% (87/92). (nih.gov)
  • C-myc gene rearrangement was detected in 94.6% (87/92) [Figure by FISH. (nih.gov)
  • Five cases without c-myc gene rearrangement, according to morphological features and immunophenotype and without BCL-2 and BCL-6 gene abnormality diagnosed BL (date not shown). (nih.gov)
  • characterization
  • Besides extensive characterization of Myc and Max protein family members in vertebrates, orthologs have also been identified in invertebrates like the fruit fly Drosophila ( Gallant, 2006 ). (biologists.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Sure enough, heterozygous mice exhibited changes in IGF-1 signaling and nutrient and energy-sensing pathways, but how Myc engages those mechanisms is still not clear. (brown.edu)
  • To explore repressive mechanisms of E2F-responsive genes in quiescent cells, we investigated E2F-6, which differs from other E2F family members (E2F-1 to E2F-5) in that it lacks domains for binding to RB family proteins and for transactivation ( 7-9 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • fluorescence
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization for c-myc gene shows one fusion, one red and one green signal (original magnification ×1000). (nih.gov)
  • knockout
  • Here, we sought to determine the effects of Myc on mitochondrial biogenesis in an inducible Myc-dependent human B-cell model of cell proliferation, a well-defined Rat1 fibroblast system that has been rendered Myc null through homologous recombination, and a model of conditional Myc knockout in primary murine hepatocytes ( 10 , 30 , 44 ). (asm.org)
  • cellular replication
  • Hence, it stands to reason that in driving cellular replication, Myc could also directly or indirectly affect the generation of mitochondria to maintain a steady-state respiratory and metabolic capacity as cells traverse through the cell cycle ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Homologs
  • We have recently identified homologs of myc ( myc1 , myc2 ) and max in the early diploblastic cnidarian Hydra and have characterized myc1 in detail. (biologists.org)
  • mitochondrial
  • This clone contains a COX III mitochondrial DNA insert and two exons of human c-myc. (oup.com)
  • Conversely, compared to wild-type Myc fibroblasts, Myc null rat fibroblasts have diminished mitochondrial mass and decreased number of normal mitochondria. (asm.org)
  • Concordantly, we also observed in primary hepatocytes that acute deletion of floxed murine Myc by Cre recombinase resulted in diminished mitochondrial mass in primary hepatocytes. (asm.org)
  • These observations support a pivotal role for Myc in regulating mitochondrial biogenesis. (asm.org)
  • Genes that bind to Myc in Drosophila , rat, or human systems include those encoding mitochondrial proteins or those involved in mitochondrial biogenesis ( 15 , 31 , 33 , 36 , 38 , 47 ). (asm.org)
  • cells
  • These data suggest that these chromatin modifiers contribute to silencing of E2F- and Myc-responsive genes in quiescent cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • An exposure of cells to 40 microM of the disulfide form of amifostine was the most effective in repressing c-myc, i.e. 27% of control level. (oup.com)
  • How cells discriminate physiological from supraphysiological levels of Myc is largely unknown. (embopress.org)
  • c-Myc was depleted using c-Myc-specific siRNAs in cultured breast cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • immunoglobulin
  • Recently, transcription enhancer elements have been identified in the intron between the JH and C mu segments of the heavy-chain immunoglobulin gene in mice. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We conclude that translocation has little general effect on the usual pattern of hypersensitive sites near to the c-myc gene but new sites can be observed in some cases in the immunoglobulin region near to the breakpoint. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These may be sites normally involved in immunoglobulin gene transcription and may exert a subtle effect on the translocated c-myc gene. (ox.ac.uk)
  • vivo
  • An analysis of the c-myc protein in vivo shows that de novo synthesis occurs in G1 and G2 and the protein turns over with a half-life of approximately 20-30 min in both phases. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The association of c-Myc with the BRCA1 promoter in vivo was tested by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • c-Myc bound to these regions in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, the level of c-myc protein rapidly increases in cell populations when they re-initiate the cell cycle, thereafter decreasing as the culture reaches quiescence. (ox.ac.uk)
  • mice
  • The experimental - "heterozygous" - mice grew to be about 15 percent smaller than the normal mice (a probable disadvantage in the wild) but that was the only discernable downside found to date for lacking a second copy of the gene, said senior author John Sedivy, the Hermon C. Bumpus Professor of Biology and professor of medical science at Brown. (brown.edu)
  • Instead the Myc heterozygous mice simply experienced fewer problems of aging. (brown.edu)
  • proximal
  • c-Myc transrepression is mediated by blockade of the transactivating activity of Miz-1, which occurs mainly through a Sp1-binding site in the proximal promoter of the gene. (aacrjournals.org)