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  • species
  • Two years later, with the same group he studied centipede species named Lithobius forficatus and discovered that only one of the 22 inferred tRNA genes provides a completely paired aminoacyl acceptor stem. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the 2004 study of 4 species (A. armillatus, S. tulumensis, H. macracantha and A. americanus) it was revealed that the gene arrangements of mtDNA shows that the species belong to Branchiura group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Or83b has homologs in other insect species . (wikipedia.org)
  • In some species of insect, drawing blood meals is a behavior not normally witnessed that could be brought on by a sudden lack of avoidance of vertebrate odor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The natural movement of genes across species, often called horizontal gene transfer or lateral gene transfer, can also occur with rice through gene transfer mediated by natural vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autosomic genes usually have the same mode of transmission in sexually reproducing species due to the fairness of Mendelian segregation, but conflicts among alleles of autosomic genes may arise when an allele cheats during gametogenesis (segregation distortion) or eliminates embryos that don't contain it (lethal maternal effects). (wikipedia.org)
  • Orphan genes differ in that they are lineage-specific with no known history of shared duplication and rearrangement outside of their specific species or clade. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2003, a study of Caenorhabditis briggsae and related species compared over 2000 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2005, Wilson examined 122 bacterial species to try to examine whether the large number of orphan genes in many species was legitimate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011, a comprehensive genome-wide study of the extent and evolutionary origins of orphan genes in plants was conducted in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana " Genes can be tentatively classified as orphans if no orthologous proteins can be found in nearby species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylostratigraphy generates a phylogenetic tree in which the homology is calculated between all genes of a focal species and the genes of other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "orphan" is sometimes used only for the youngest phylostratum containing only a single species, but when interpreted broadly as a taxonomically-restricted gene, it can refer to all but the oldest phylostratum, with the gene orphaned within a larger clade. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary active ingredient in neem is azadirachtin, a steroid-like tetranortriterpenoid, that exhibits a wide range of bioactivity to hundreds of phytophagous insect species from different orders. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Though its actual function is still a mystery, the broadly expressed Or83b has been conserved across highly divergent insect populations across 250 million years of evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • By cloning orthologs of Or83b, performing in situ hybridization of the clones, and by creating transgenic flies with orthologs of mosquitos, medflies, and moths, the function of Or83b was determined to be conserved across highly divergent insect populations . (wikipedia.org)
  • They have modified three populations of rice by over expressing the genes OsNAS1, OsNAS2 or OsNAS3. (wikipedia.org)
  • There has been growing interest in the agricultural sector in using plant and botanical insecticides as alternatives to restore a biologically base equilibrium in insect populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Despite their relatively recent origin, orphan genes may encode functionally important proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the PER and CRY proteins have accumulated to sufficient levels, they interact by their PAS motifs to form a large repressor complex that travels into the nucleus to inhibit the transcriptional activity of the CLOCK:BMAL1 heterodimer This inhibits the transcription of Per and Cry genes, and causes protein levels of PER and CRY drop. (wikipedia.org)
  • novo
  • With his move to the University of Cologne he started projects in comparative genomics, with a special focus on the evolution of new genes, which resulted in the discovery of de novo evolution of genes from non-coding sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Novel orphan genes continually arise de novo from non-coding sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • De novo genes were once thought to be a near impossibility due to the complex and potentially fragile intricacies of creating and maintaining functional polypeptides, but research from the past 10 years or so has found multiple examples of de novo genes, some of which are associated with important biological processes, particularly testes function. (wikipedia.org)
  • defenses
  • The overall pattern of effects on insect herbivores seems to support this, with generalist mesophyll feeders experiencing negative effects of host infection, although phloem feeders appear to be affected little by fungal defenses. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • 5 January Scientists from the US and UK have mapped the genome of the bowhead whale and identified genes responsible for its 200-year lifespan, the longest of any mammal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intragenomic conflict refers to the evolutionary phenomenon where genes have phenotypic effects that promote their own transmission in detriment of the transmission of other genes that reside in the same genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The selfish gene theory postulates that natural selection will increase the frequency of those genes whose phenotypic effects cause their transmission to new organisms, and most genes achieve this by cooperating with other genes in the same genome to build an organism capable of reproducing and/or helping kin to reproduce. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tight linkage between these loci is crucial, so these genes usually lie on low-recombination regions of the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orphan genes were first discovered when the yeast genome-sequencing project began in 1996. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orphan genes accounted for an estimated 26% of the yeast genome, but it was believed that these genes could be classified with homologues when more genomes were sequenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • nocturnal
  • It has also been observed in the TTFL loop of nocturnal mice that transcription levels of the Bmal1 gene peak at CT18, during the mid-subjective night, anti-phase to the transcription levels of Per, Cry, and other clock control genes, which peak at CT6, during the mid-subjective day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Duplication
  • The classic model of evolution is based on duplication, rearrangement, and mutation of genes with the idea of common descent. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the time, gene duplication was considered the only serious model of gene evolution and there were few sequenced genomes for comparison, so a lack of detectable homologues was thought to be most likely due to a lack of sequencing data and not due to a true lack of homology. (wikipedia.org)
  • circadian
  • One of ARNTL protein's earliest discovered functions in circadian regulation was related to the CLOCK-BMAL1 (CLOCK-ARNTL) heterodimer, which would bind through an E-box enhancer to activate the transcription of the gene encoding vasopressin. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Orphans are a subset of taxonomically-restricted genes (TRGs), which are unique to a specific taxonomic level (e.g. plant-specific). (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanics of this recognition is mediated by a mixture of specific signatures emanating from the individual, this mixture is a blend of hydrocarbons that emanate from the individual through the insects cuticles. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also safer than synthetic pesticides, and is also selective towards specific insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • often called
  • He is considered to be one of the founders of the new field of evolution of developmental processes (often called Evo-Devo) and he was the first editor in chief of the journal Development Genes and Evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are often called 'jumping genes' or parasitic DNA and were discovered by Barbara McClintock in 1944. (wikipedia.org)
  • among
  • Among the chewing insects, infection by mycorrhizae can actually benefit specialist feeders even if it negatively affects generalists. (wikipedia.org)
  • wide
  • This recognition of others, from recognizing individuals to groups, is an indication of society, and creates an identity colony wide for each insect. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Martin devises a potential cure for his condition, which involves swapping out his mutated genes for healthy human genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Martin's insect genes fully awaken and his transformation into a human-insect hybrid begins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since insects play a large role in spreading infectious blood borne diseases between humans, understanding how they locate their human hosts with their olfactory systems could lead to inhibiting their method of locating hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human ARNTL gene has a predicted 24 exons and is located on the p15 band of the 11th chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolution
  • They proposed that these genes must be evolving too quickly to be detected and are consequently sites of very rapid evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • less
  • The definition of taxonomically-restricted genes was introduced into the literature to make orphan genes seem less "mysterious. (wikipedia.org)
  • lack
  • Food preference in insects is not always about attraction to certain odors but the lack of repellant response to the odor. (wikipedia.org)
  • brown
  • The tree crickets (Oecanthinae) are delicate white or pale green insects with transparent fore wings, while the field crickets (Gryllinae) are robust brown or black insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • causes
  • The Medea gene causes the death of progeny from a heterozygous mother that do not inherit it. (wikipedia.org)
  • make
  • Within the colonies of social insects such as ants, dynamic social recognition systems make their advanced societies possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • His interest in science began in childhood with the cecropia moth-an insect made famous by Harvard biologist Carroll M. Williams, who used the moth in his pioneering work on the role of juvenile hormone in molting and metamorphosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • ability
  • Eusocial insects have developed from their organization and ability to recognize one another within their society. (wikipedia.org)
  • regions
  • Via its BHLH domain, this heterodimer binds to E-box response elements in the promoter regions of Per (Per1 and Per2) and Cry genes (Cry1 and Cry2). (wikipedia.org)
  • larvae
  • This bacterium exhibits a complex life cycle, including one symbiotic stage characterized by colonization of the upper nematode gut, and a pathogenic stage, characterized by release from the nematode into the hemocoel of insect larvae, resulting in rapid insect death caused by bacterial toxins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By cloning each of the predicted promoters upstream of the reporter gene, induction was verified for 27 promoters in vitro , and for 24 promoters in viable G. mellonella larvae. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena, Germany, are now using a procedure which brings forward ecological research on insects: They study gene functions in moth larvae by manipulating genes using the RNA interference technology (RNAi). (bio-based.eu)
  • the expression of some of these genes is increased as soon as the insect larvae are exposed to nicotine in their food. (bio-based.eu)
  • If larvae feed on these plant, the RNA is released in the insect gut. (bio-based.eu)
  • In the experiments, the dsRNA harbored the sequence of the insect gene, CYP6B46, a special cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase specific for Manduca sexta larvae. (bio-based.eu)
  • A gut-specific chitinase gene essential for regulation of chitin content of peritrophic matrix and growth of Ostrinia nubilalis larvae. (semanticscholar.org)
  • RNAi
  • RNA interference (RNAi) refers to the set of molecular processes found in eukaryotic organisms in which small RNA molecules mediate the silencing or down-regulation of target genes. (zfmk.de)
  • In insects, RNAi serves a number of functions, including regulation of endogenous genes, anti-viral defense, and defense against transposable elements. (zfmk.de)
  • Here we present the most comprehensive overview of the distribution and diversity of core RNAi pathway genes across 100 insect species, encompassing all currently recognized insect orders. (zfmk.de)
  • We inferred the phylogenetic origin of insect-specific RNAi pathway genes and also identified several hitherto unrecorded gene expansions using whole-body transcriptome data from the international 1KITE (1000 Insect Transcriptome Evolution) project as well as other resources such as i5K (5000 Insect Genome Project). (zfmk.de)
  • Our study offers new reference points for future experimental research on RNAi-related pathway genes in insects. (zfmk.de)
  • He is looking at whether RNAi aimed at one insect could have off-target effects on other insects, like bees or butterflies. (netnebraska.org)
  • RNAi directed against the circadian clock genes of period and cycle , which are negative and positive regulators in the circadian clock, respectively, disrupted the cuticle deposition rhythm and distinct cuticle layers were produced by these RNAi. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Simultaneously, period RNAi caused the insect to avert diapause under a diapause-inducing photoperiod whereas cycle RNAi induced diapause under a diapause-averting photoperiod. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expression patterns of juvenile hormone-regulated genes and the application of juvenile hormone analogue suggested that neither ovarian development itself nor a downstream cascade of juvenile hormone secretion, were disturbed by period and cycle RNAi. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These RNAi also had opposite effects on juvenile hormone-regulated gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ian Baldwin and his team identified the DNA sequences of CYP genes in Manduca sexta and were able to switch off these genes using RNAi technology, but expressed in the plant. (bio-based.eu)
  • social insects
  • Genes essential to producing the developmental differences displayed by social insects evolve more rapidly than genes governing other aspects of organismal function, a new study has found. (mdtmag.com)
  • A new study of the genomes of social insects provides insight into the evolution of the genes involved in this developmental plasticity. (mdtmag.com)
  • Social insects exhibit a sophisticated social structure in which queens reproduce and workers engage in tasks related to brood-rearing and colony defense. (mdtmag.com)
  • By investigating the evolution of genes associated with castes, sexes and developmental stages of the invasive fire ant Solenopsis invicta , the researchers explored how social insects produce such a diversity of form and function from genetically similar individuals. (mdtmag.com)
  • Social insects provided the perfect test subjects because they can develop into such dramatically different forms," said Goodisman. (mdtmag.com)
  • Ghiselin (1969, 1974) and David Hull (1976, 1978) asserted that complex or high level social insects are individuals rather than being like organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the colonies of social insects such as ants, dynamic social recognition systems make their advanced societies possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • in ants and other social insects the label is a signature mixture of long-chain hydrocarbons (cuticular hydrocarbons, CHCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • genomics
  • We found significant synteny and conserved gene order between B. mori and a nymphalid butterfly, Heliconius melpomene , in four linkage groups (LGs), strongly suggesting that using B. mori as a reference for comparative genomics in Lepidotera is highly feasible. (genetics.org)
  • genomes
  • At some point, perhaps after retroviruses had sprinkled host genomes with multiple copies of the f gene, a baculovirus picked it up through recombination. (innovations-report.com)
  • Unlike retroviruses, baculoviruses don t insert their genes into their hosts genomes. (innovations-report.com)
  • They found that the genes were rapidly evolving in the genomes of both species, even though only one produced a caste system. (mdtmag.com)
  • Orphan genes accounted for an estimated 26% of the yeast genome, but it was believed that these genes could be classified with homologues when more genomes were sequenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the time, gene duplication was considered the only serious model of gene evolution and there were few sequenced genomes for comparison, so a lack of detectable homologues was thought to be most likely due to a lack of sequencing data and not due to a true lack of homology. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, orphan genes continued to persist as the quantity of sequenced genomes grew, eventually leading to the conclusion that orphan genes are ubiquitous to all genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • These viruses actually generate two types of infectious particles, Blissard explains: one type specialized to infect gut cells, and another that spreads infection in other parts of the insect. (innovations-report.com)
  • A differential fluorescence induction (DFI) approach was applied to identify genes that are up-regulated in the bacterium after infection of the insect host Galleria mellonella . (biomedcentral.com)
  • We conclude that signals for the regulation of those genes or operons induced in P. luminescens upon insect infection may represent a wide variety of compounds that make up the insect host. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among the chewing insects, infection by mycorrhizae can actually benefit specialist feeders even if it negatively affects generalists. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • BMAL1 has also been identified as a candidate gene for susceptibility to hypertension, diabetes, and obesity, and mutations in BMAL1 have been linked to infertility, gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis problems, and altered sleep patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • defense
  • Insects selectively adapting to glucosinolates may have selected for stronger defense produced by their rapid hydrolysis by myrosinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • The two universities have applied for a patent on the potential use of these genes to genetically engineer either the bacterial parasite or the insects themselves to produce more effective methods for controlling the spread of insect-borne diseases like dengue and Zika and for reducing the ravages of agricultural pests. (eurekalert.org)
  • In 2005, Wilson examined 122 bacterial species to try to examine whether the large number of orphan genes in many species was legitimate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism
  • A new longevity gene, Indy (for I'm not dead yet), which doubles the average life span of flies without a loss of fertility or physical activity, was postulated to extend life by affecting intermediary metabolism. (isharonline.org)
  • The results reflect rearrangements in metabolism and the use of other metabolites available from the insect. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1997
  • The Arntl gene was originally discovered in 1997 by two groups of researchers, John B. Hogenesch et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoters
  • A bioinformatics comparison of motifs similar to known promoters is a powerful tool for identifying regulated genes or operons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Promoters active in insects can be enhanced by positive feedback mechanisms and associated with repressible lethal effects. (allindianpatents.com)
  • refers
  • As used herein, the term "gene" refers to any DNA sequence that may transcribed or translated into a product, at least one such having activity or function in vivo. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Yellow Biotechnology refers to biotechnology with insects − analogous to the green (plants) and red (animals) biotechnology. (bio-based.eu)
  • Intragenomic conflict refers to the evolutionary phenomenon where genes have phenotypic effects that promote their own transmission in detriment of the transmission of other genes that reside in the same genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • detoxification
  • The operating instructions of these detoxification processes are coded in different genes. (bio-based.eu)
  • Knowing these detoxification genes and switching them off with the consequence that plant toxins are no longer effective, is currently a research subject in plant breeding. (bio-based.eu)
  • mRNA
  • a special enzyme complex called RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex), which carries several of these RNA segments, specifically binds to the messenger RNA (mRNA) of the CYP6B46 gene and disassembles the mRNA in such a way that the cytochrome P450 enzyme cannot be produced anymore. (bio-based.eu)
  • Evolution
  • The researchers also found that these fast-evolving genes exhibited elevated rates of evolution even before they were recruited to produce diverse forms of an organism. (mdtmag.com)
  • These differentially expressed genes exhibited elevated rates of evolution, as predicted. (mdtmag.com)
  • To examine when the genes with elevated rates of evolution began to evolve rapidly, the researchers compared the rate of evolution of genes associated with the production of castes in the fire ant with the same genes in a wasp that does not have a caste system. (mdtmag.com)
  • This is one the most comprehensive studies of the evolution of genes involved in producing developmental differences," Goodisman noted. (mdtmag.com)
  • He is considered to be one of the founders of the new field of evolution of developmental processes (often called Evo-Devo) and he was the first editor in chief of the journal Development Genes and Evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classic model of evolution is based on duplication, rearrangement, and mutation of genes with the idea of common descent. (wikipedia.org)
  • They proposed that these genes must be evolving too quickly to be detected and are consequently sites of very rapid evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolve rapidly
  • This was a totally unexpected finding because most theory suggested that genes involved in producing diverse forms of an organism would evolve rapidly specifically because they generated developmental differences," said Michael Goodisman, an associate professor in the School of Biology at Georgia Tech. "Instead, this study suggests that fast-evolving genes are actually predisposed to generating new developmental forms. (mdtmag.com)
  • However, genes that are short and evolve rapidly can easily be missed by BLAST. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Lastly, several genes of unknown function were identified that may represent novel pathogenicity factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this respect, novel targets for insect pest management are provided by new discoveries regarding sex determination. (pnas.org)
  • Cloning of Tissue-Specific Genes Using SAGE and a Novel Computational Substraction Approach. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These novel genes may be sufficiently beneficial to be swept to fixation by selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • heterodimer
  • Via its BHLH domain, this heterodimer binds to E-box response elements in the promoter regions of Per (Per1 and Per2) and Cry genes (Cry1 and Cry2). (wikipedia.org)
  • rapidly
  • right) increase the number of incompatibility genes in parasite which allows it to spread more rapidly through local mosquito population, replacing the mosquitoes spreading human viral diseases like dengue and Zika with infected mosquitoes that do not transmit these diseases. (phys.org)
  • Once inside the hemocoel, the bacteria replicate rapidly and cause lethal sepsis in the host by producing different toxins that kill the insect within 48-72 hours. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The study, which was conducted by researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology and the University of Lausanne in Switzerland, showed that genes involved in creating different sexes, life stages and castes of fire ants and honeybees evolved more rapidly than genes not involved in these developmental processes. (mdtmag.com)
  • In addition, genes that were differentially expressed in multiple contexts -- castes, sexes or developmental stages -- tended to evolve more rapidly than genes that were differentially expressed in only a single context. (mdtmag.com)
  • hosts
  • Virologists have long thought of baculoviruses, a group of viruses that can liquefy their insect hosts in a matter of days but don t induce so much as a sneeze in mammals, as potential pesticides. (innovations-report.com)
  • Retroviruses, such as HIV, insert their own genes into their hosts DNA in order to replicate, and remnants of these invaders can be passed to descendants. (innovations-report.com)
  • A Vanderbilt biologist explains who cytoplasmic incompatibility allows the insect parasite Wolbachia to control its hosts' reproduction and how this can be used to combat insect-borne diseases. (eurekalert.org)
  • Since insects play a large role in spreading infectious blood borne diseases between humans, understanding how they locate their human hosts with their olfactory systems could lead to inhibiting their method of locating hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Our capacity to control pests would be significantly improved if we understood the defence mechanisms controlled by these genes," says Trent Perry, member of the poster team. (innovations-report.com)
  • alleles
  • In our study, we show that in-frame drive-resistant alleles can be produced readily and inherently in a suppression gene-drive system. (pnas.org)
  • adult
  • BACKGROUND: Juvenile hormone (JH) has been demonstrated to control adult lifespan in a number of non-model insects where surgical removal of the corpora allata eliminates the hormone's source. (isharonline.org)
  • Microarray analyses revealed that many fire ant genes were regulated differently depending on whether the fire ant was male or female, queen or worker, and pupal or adult. (mdtmag.com)
  • The change in chemical composition acts to deter herbivory by insects, grazing by ungulates and/or oviposition by adult insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • A gene enabling an insect virus to enter new cells was likely stolen from a host cell and adapted for the virus s use, researchers at Boyce Thompson Institute (BTI) at Cornell University report. (innovations-report.com)
  • In the study, reported in the July 1 issue of the Journal of Virology, BTI researchers Gary Blissard and Oliver Lung investigated whether a fruit fly gene, called an f gene, had originally moved from an insect to a virus or the other way around. (innovations-report.com)
  • The researchers then looked for evidence that the fruit fly regulates the f gene, switching it on and off as needed. (innovations-report.com)
  • The researchers have identified a single pair of Wolbachia genes that produce this effect only when working together. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers using the technology introduce a strand of RNA that essentially stops an organism that ingests the molecule from expressing a certain gene. (netnebraska.org)
  • mutation
  • The potential strategy involved would be to create small molecules that mimic the Or83b mutation and inhibit the receptor and disperse them, since it would be impractical to mutate the gene for the receptor in an entire population of disease-spreading insects . (wikipedia.org)
  • biologist
  • His interest in science began in childhood with the cecropia moth-an insect made famous by Harvard biologist Carroll M. Williams, who used the moth in his pioneering work on the role of juvenile hormone in molting and metamorphosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists
  • Utilizing a gene-editing technology, scientists have developed a way to delete entire strains of DNA instead of just editing them. (naturalsociety.com)
  • 5 January Scientists from the US and UK have mapped the genome of the bowhead whale and identified genes responsible for its 200-year lifespan, the longest of any mammal. (wikipedia.org)
  • silence
  • When a rootworm eats the corn roots, it would ingest interfering RNA that would silence a gene the rootworm can't live without. (netnebraska.org)
  • clones
  • Clones (18) were obtained exhibiting at least 2.5-fold induced fluorescence and regarded as specific responders to insect homogenate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • thesis
  • He and Pennington thought the students whose undergraduate thesis research involves three insects of economic significance would benefit from learning about Berkeley Lab's study of the role of the gut microbiome in mosquitoes through its Microbes to Biomes project. (lbl.gov)
  • Social Insect and the Individuality Thesis: Cohesion and the Colony as a Selectable Individual" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)