• The whole of creation was then subjected to a negative turn of events, including the emergence of fungal pathogens that cause death and disease in plants and animals. (icr.org)
  • Recently, several new studies were published showing how fungal pathogens adapted to their hosts through large-scale genomic changes involving a type of genome degradation marked by gene losses. (icr.org)
  • Similar to many plant pathogens, Z. tritici possesses three catalase-peroxidase genes that are known to detoxify H2O2 accumulated in the foliage during colonization. (wur.nl)
  • Is the Subject Area "Plant fungal pathogens" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • As do most fungal plant pathogens, M. grisea differentiates an infection structure specialized for host penetration called the appressorium. (pnas.org)
  • Several of these fungal pathogens depend on the formation of a specialized cell, called an appressorium, for the successful penetration of host plant surfaces ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • A few of these classes are significantly more prevalent in the fungal pathogens than in the saprobe N. crassa , suggesting that these groups contain paralogs required for virulence. (asm.org)
  • Like bacteria, many filamentous fungi are significant plant or human pathogens, and analysis of fungal HKs may result in key information about the biology of these pathogens. (asm.org)
  • Broekaert, Willem 2004-10-06 00:00:00 The plant defensin PDF1.2 has previously been shown to accumulate systemically via a salicylic acid-independent pathway in leaves of Arabidopsis upon challenge by fungal pathogens. (deepdyve.com)
  • Challenge of the transgenic plants with the fungal pathogens Alternaria brassicicola and Botrytis cinerea resulted in both local and systemic induction of the reporter gene. (deepdyve.com)
  • pathway in lea ves of Arabi dopsis upon challenge by fungal pathogens. (deepdyve.com)
  • Barley stripe mosaic virus-mediated tools for investigating gene function in cereal plants and their pathogens: virus-induced gene silencing, host-mediated gene silencing, and virus-mediated overexpression of heterologous protein. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Thus, a common NHR mechanism is operative in Arabidopsis against both hemibiotrophic oomycetes and necrotrophic fungal pathogens that are pathogenic to soybean. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Identification and further characterization of the PSS1 gene would provide further insights into a new form of nonhost resistance in Arabidopsis, which could be utilized in improving resistance of soybean to two serious pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although there have been sporadic and persistent reports of lateral gene transfer between and into fungal plant pathogens, most examples have been dismissed through incomplete evidence. (edu.au)
  • The completion of whole genome sequences of an increasing number of fungal pathogens no longer allows such proposed cases of lateral gene transfer to be dismissed so easily. (edu.au)
  • How frequent are lateral gene transfers involving fungal plant pathogens, and can this process explain the emergence of many of the new diseases of the recent past? (edu.au)
  • Hydrolytic enzymes such as chitinases and glucanases are implicated in plant defense responses against fungal pathogens. (edu.au)
  • Genes encoding these enzymes have been used to genetically engineer plants to enhance their protection against fungal pathogens. (edu.au)
  • Activity was determined by measuring reducing sugars in the fungal supernatants against cell wall preparations of six economically important plant pathogens. (edu.au)
  • Fusarium are among the most economically important fungal pathogens because they are ubiquitous, disease management remains a challenge, they produce mycotoxins that affect food and feed safety, and trichothecene mycotoxin production can increase the pathogenicity of some Fusarium species depending on the host species. (mdpi.com)
  • Fungal Disease Resistance in Plants is your guide to understanding the various barriers that plants have developed through evolution and adaptation to protect themselves from invading fungal pathogens. (routledge.com)
  • This study analyzed the selected genes responsible for antifungal resistance in fungal pathogens like Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium solani and Candida albicans associated with infective keratitis. (escrs.org)
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between distantly related bacteria contributes significantly to the emergence of new pathogens but HGT is usually thought to play a minor role in eukaryotes. (prolekare.cz)
  • In this study we examined some characteristics of this gene in response to fungal, bacterial and viral pathogens. (springeropen.com)
  • In addition, in the genomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida glabrata, several PEX genes appear to have been duplicated, exemplified by the presence of paralogs of the peroxins Pex5p and Pex21p, which were absent in other organisms. (nih.gov)
  • The success in identifying a lipase gene inducible with olive oil and the suitability of the functional screening and bioinformatic survey carried out herein, support the premise that the strategy can be used in other microorganisms with sequenced genomes to search for true lipases, or other enzymes belonging to large protein families. (mdpi.com)
  • At least 36 fungal genomes are already available at public databases and several more are being sequenced. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The sequenced genomes cover fungal species broadly and include industrially, medically and agriculturally important species with very diverse genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For these reasons fungal genomes form one of the most attractive eukaryotic datasets for comparative genomics research and method development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The increase in fungal genome sequencing presents an opportunity to reconstruct evolutionary events using entire genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A dataset of 345,829 genes was extracted from 42 publicly available fungal genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The assembled gene sequences were used to reconstruct evolutionary relationships between the heteroploid fescue-derived endophytes and putative ancestral sub-genomes derived from known sexual Epichloë species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results are consistent with previous studies while also providing novel phylogenetic insights, particularly through inclusion of data from the endophyte lineage-specific gene, as well as affording evidence for the origin of cytoplasmic genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We studied the importance of HGT in plant pathogenic fungi by identifying horizontally transferred genes in the genomes of three members of the genus Colletotrichum . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Scientists in the Biology and Fungal Pathogenicity Unit at the Institut Pasteur and INRA, in collaboration with 12 other teams, sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 182 strains of C. albicans isolates, either commensal or responsible for superficial or invasive infections, from around the world. (pasteur.fr)
  • Here, a gene cluster ( vdt ) responsible for viriditoxin synthesis was identified, via a bioinformatics analysis of the genomes of Paecilomyces variotii and Aspergillus viridinutans that both are viriditoxin producers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The cellulolytic and xylanolytic capacity of rumen fungi was also studied in detail by characterizing the enzyme encoding genes. (scielo.br)
  • In this project ligninolytic enzymes of the litter-decomposing fungi and fungal oxalate decarboxylase, an essential part of effective lignin degradation, will be heterologously produced and characterised. (europa.eu)
  • We have screened the available protein and DNA databases to identify putative peroxin orthologs in 17 fungal species (yeast and filamentous fungi) and in humans. (nih.gov)
  • When both these genes are functioning normally Dectin-1 senses the presence of fungi and prompts the immune cells to send signals and mount a response. (brighthub.com)
  • The scientists discovered that if there is a mutation in any one of these genes then the body struggles to control the fungi. (brighthub.com)
  • Dozens of "decay-stage-dependent" ortho-genes were isolated, narrowing a pool of candidate genes with time-dependent regulation unique to brown rot fungi. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we developed a real time PCR method as a simple, rapid and reliable tool to detect and quantify fungal abundance using the β-actin gene, which is known to appear as a single-copy gene in fungi. (frontiersin.org)
  • We have carried out a computational genome wide comparison of protein coding gene content of Saccharomycotina and Pezizomycotina, which include industrially important yeasts and filamentous fungi, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The genes found in all fungi except Saccharomycotina are slightly better characterised and predicted to encode mainly enzymes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we provide direct evidence of integration by sequencing across host-virus gene boundaries and carry out phylogenetic analyses of fungal hosts and totivirids (dsRNA viruses of fungi and protozoans). (blogspot.com)
  • At present, these Ecl1 family genes, which are extenders of chronological lifespan, have been identified only in fungi groups. (isharonline.org)
  • The recent development of a microarray that has subarrays for the gene clusters of key mycotoxigenic fungi has provided an excellent tool for examining in more detail the impact that changes in interacting environmental factors may have on the relative expression of these gene clusters and relating this to phenotypic mycotoxin production [ 14 , 15 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The aims of this research project were to isolate chitinolytic and glucanolytic fungi from soil and to clone the genes encoding for chitinase and glucanase enzymes. (edu.au)
  • To achieve these aims, fungi with activity against chitin and glucan were isolated, the activity quantified by colorimetric and inhibition assays and gene fragments with homology to known chitinase and glucanase genes were isolated and their sequences determined. (edu.au)
  • This analysis reveals a constant flux of genes from bacteria to fungi throughout the evolution of subphylum Pezizomycotina. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fungi have a large number of plasmids both inside and outside of fungal mitochondria [ 17 ], and have been implicated as the vector for this type of transfer [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cat2 codes for a putative catalase subunit of 745 amino acids and belongs to a different gene family coding for the large-subunit catalases similar to ones found in bacteria and filamentous fungi. (edu.au)
  • To develop a convenient promoter analysis system for fungi, a null-pigment mutant (NPG) of Aspergillus nidulans was used with the 4′-phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase) gene, npgA, which restores the normal pigmentation in A. nidulans, as a new reporter gene. (bvsalud.org)
  • The functional organization of serially deleted promoter regions of the A. nidulans trpC gene and the Cryphonectria parasitica crp gene in filamentous fungi was representatively investigated to establish a novel fungal promoter assay system that depends on color complementation of the NPG mutant with the PPTase npgA gene. (bvsalud.org)
  • Genomic sequencing of the fungus provided evidence of genes associated with causing tree disease, and allowed comparisons with related fungi. (fed.us)
  • The gene products of alb1 (for "albino 1"), arp1 (for "aspergillus reddish-pink 1"), and arp2 have high similarity to polyketide synthases, scytalone dehydratases, and hydroxynaphthalene reductases, respectively, found in the dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin pathway of brown and black fungi. (asm.org)
  • To date, molecular genetic studies have identified three different genes involved in the DHN-melanin biosynthetic pathway in brown and black fungi. (asm.org)
  • Fungi produce a diverse array of polyketide-derived biaryl compounds with biological activities that are of interest as pharmaceutical lead molecules or through modulating fungal interactions with other species in the environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fungal diversity was determined by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal RNA derived from fungi collected in air and dust samples from 31 homes participating in the Kansas City Safe and Healthy Homes Program (KCSHHP). (cdc.gov)
  • The ability of infectious agents to evolve different host ranges contributes to the emergence of new diseases, and this host switching could also account for the wide variety of fungal associations with animals, plants and other fungi. (prolekare.cz)
  • Such host switching probably accounts for the wide variety of fungal associations with animals, plants and other fungi . (prolekare.cz)
  • When the researchers compared the genome of this fungus to the fungus from which they believed it was derived, they claimed that it "lost 2,324 genes in relation to the acquisition of obligate biotrophy. (icr.org)
  • So how could a loss of genes contribute to this fungus becoming a renegade parasite living off its human host? (icr.org)
  • 2014. Comparative Genomics Suggests That the Human Pathogenic Fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii Acquired Obligate Biotrophy through Gene Loss. (icr.org)
  • 2014. Gene Loss Rather Than Gene Gain Is Associated with a Host Jump from Monocots to Dicots in the Smut Fungus Melanopsichium pennsylvanicum. (icr.org)
  • The gene codifying 526309 was expressed when the fungus grew in a medium with olive oil as carbon source. (mdpi.com)
  • Three genes that contribute to the ability of the fungus Nectria haematococca to cause disease on pea plants have been identified. (nih.gov)
  • The three new PEP genes, in addition to PDA1, can independently increase the ability of the fungus to cause lesions on pea when added to an isolate lacking the supernumerary chromosome. (nih.gov)
  • Host-induced gene silencing, whereby the host crop produces siRNA molecules targeting crucial genes in the invading fungus and targeting the gene for degradation, has shown to be promising in its ability to inhibit fungal growth and decrease aflatoxin contamination. (springer.com)
  • Unlike most defense-related genes that are activated faster and stronger in resistant interactions, JAmyb induction by blast fungus is much higher in susceptible interactions, accompanied by large lesions and extensive tissue damage. (nih.gov)
  • PDA , a gene encoding pisatin demethylating activity (pda) in the pea-pathogenic fungus Nectria haematococca, also was used in an attempt to reduce pisatin levels. (apsnet.org)
  • Molecular identification of M. oryzae AVR genes will tremendously facilitate race identification of blast fungus and help rapid and effective deployment of R genes in rice cultivation. (plantcell.org)
  • Two partial chitinase genes from the soil filamentous ungus Trichoderma asperellum,(ChiA and ChiB) and a novel glucanase gene from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus (Glu1) were cloned. (edu.au)
  • whereby the plant is resistant to a first fungus expressing at least one gene having substantial homology to the first antisense sequence. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 2, wherein the second pest pathogenicity gene is a fungus pathogenicity gene, whereby the plant is resistant to a second fungus expressing at least one gene having substantial homology to the second antisense sequence. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 6. The method of claim 1, wherein the first fungus can cause a fungal disease selected from the group consisting of brown stem rot, stem and root rot, white mold disease, sudden death syndrome, Asian rust, and downy mildew. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa , genes unpaired during meiosis are silenced by a process known as meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA (MSUD). (g3journal.org)
  • In this project we aim to compare the virulence of North American and South Korean genotypes of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, which have never encountered the European chestnut, with that of European fungal genotypes: Are the non-European genotypes more virulent? (wsl.ch)
  • In this study, we phylogenetically predict that the endophytic fungus Metarhizium robertsii acquired a sterol carrier gene from insects through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). (prolekare.cz)
  • In order to simulate this evolutionary event, the sterol carrier gene was transformed into an endophytic insect-pathogenic fungus (Beauveria bassiana) that lacks an endogenous Mr-NPC2a homolog. (prolekare.cz)
  • The gene for HTS-1 is part of a contiguous 22 kb of DNA that is present in isolates of the fungus that make HC-toxin and is lacking in those that do not. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In order to identify the gene(s) encoding the protein responsible for the lipolytic activity, in silico identification and characterization of triacylglycerol lipases from T. harzianum is reported for the first time. (mdpi.com)
  • Supplementary material 2 (PNG 11 kb) Supplemental Fig. S2 Quantitative PCR analysis showing the relative expression levels of the A. flavus beta-tubulin gene normalized to the maize ribosomal protein L10 gene, GRMZM2G024838. (springer.com)
  • The inactivated gene, PLS1 , encodes a putative integral membrane protein of 225 aa (Pls1p). (pnas.org)
  • We show that the PLS1 gene is inactivated in punchless and encodes a putative membrane protein related to the tetraspanin family ( 10 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • The encoding gene was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami (DE3) and the recombinant protein with His(6)-tag was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To isolate novel avirulence genes from M. oryzae , we examined DNA polymorphisms of secreted protein genes predicted from the genome sequence of isolate 70-15 and looked for an association with AVR activity. (plantcell.org)
  • This large-scale study found significantly more presence/absence polymorphisms than nucleotide polymorphisms among 1032 putative secreted protein genes. (plantcell.org)
  • Rapid induction of a protein disulfide isomerase and defense-related genes in wheat in response. (deepdyve.com)
  • Among the differentially expressed genes was a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), which is well known as a molecular chaperone and component of signal-transduction pathways in animal systems but had not been implicated previously in plant defense response. (deepdyve.com)
  • Traven A , Sopta M: Functional characterization of the fungal specific protein Taf14 in S. cerevisiae and C. albicans . (edu.au)
  • Our results confirm that this approach enables us to predictably and gradually titrate the expression level of a protein and thus to investigate the phenotypic consequences of various levels of gene/protein function. (asm.org)
  • Reporter genes include genes that code for fluorescent protein and enzymes that convert invisible substrates to luminescent or coloured products. (nature.com)
  • In addition to the nuclear genome-derived genes, the complete mitochondrial genome (mt genome) sequence was obtained for each of the sequenced endophyte, and phylogenetic relationships between the mt genome protein coding gene complements were also reconstructed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Complex and highly reticulated evolutionary relationships between Epichloë-Neotyphodium endophytes have been predicted on the basis of multiple nuclear genes and entire mitochondrial protein-coding gene complements, derived from independent assembly of whole genome sequence reads. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Researchers reduce the severity of hereditary deafness in mice with the delivery of CRISPR-Cas9 protein-RNA complexes that inactivate a mutant gene in their inner ears. (the-scientist.com)
  • Richard G. Pestell, M.D., Ph.D. and his research team have been studying the cyclin D1 gene and the protein it produces for the past decade. (scienceblog.com)
  • Gene expression may be measured by looking at the RNA, or the protein made from the RNA, or what the protein does in a cell. (news-medical.net)
  • New research from The Wistar Institute sheds light on the function of the ARID1A protein, encoded by a gene that is among the most frequently mutated across human cancers. (news-medical.net)
  • Bioinformatics Analysis of Upstream Region and Protein Structure of Fungal Phytase Gene', سامانه مدیریت نشریات علمی , 73(3), pp. 229-237. (ac.ir)
  • In this study, we sought to perform bioinformatics analysis of the upstream region and protein structure of fungal phytase to improve its expression and thermostability properties. (ac.ir)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • The abr1 gene (for "aspergillus brown 1") encodes a putative protein possessing two signatures of multicopper oxidases. (asm.org)
  • The resistance of MRSA to β-lactam antibiotics is associated with penicillin-binding protein 2a, encoded by the mecA gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Western immunoblot analysis demonstrated that PmPR10 protein synthesis was activated upon wounding, suggesting that the expression of the wound-activated PmPR10 gene was regulated at the transcription level. (wiley.com)
  • ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of this study on grapevine was to genetically characterise, validate and map the reported fungal disease resistance genes of Pölöskei Muskotály (PM), Kishmish Vatkana (KV) and Villard Blanc (VB) in South Africa using QTL analysis. (sun.ac.za)
  • Comparative genomics has been applied extensively within the phylum Saccharomycotina (for review see [ 1 ]), where a whole genome duplication followed by massive gene loss and specialization has been shown to have occurred [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our comparative genomics identify that while plant biomass degrading genes (CAZy) are widespread in Streptomyces , key enzyme families are enriched in highly cellulolytic strains. (osti.gov)
  • The predicted pathway for the synthesis of viriditoxin was established by a combination of genomics, bioinformatics, gene disruption and chemical analysis processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Escherichia coli strains were grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth in a shaking incubator (150 rpm) at 37 o C. The list of fungal and E. coli strains is given in Table 1 . (scielo.br)
  • A lipolytic screening with fungal strains isolated from lignocellulosic waste collected in banana plantation dumps was carried out. (mdpi.com)
  • Fungal Strains and Growth Conditions. (pnas.org)
  • P1.2 ( MAT 1.2) and M4 ( MAT 1.1) are M. grisea strains from the Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD). (pnas.org)
  • Finally, we constructed a series of C. albicans strains with 3 to 12 AAA codons inserted at the 5′ end of the ARO1 gene, which encodes a pentafunctional enzyme catalyzing five sequential steps of the aromatic amino acid biosynthetic pathway. (asm.org)
  • The effect of changes in temperature/water activity ( a w ) on growth, deoxynivalenol (DON) production and trichothecene gene cluster expression (18 genes) for strains of Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium graminearum was studied. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Microarray data on expression of these genes were significantly related to DON production for both strains. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Furthermore, we found that the Y. lipolytica PEX9 gene, a putative orphan gene, might encode a Pex26p ortholog. (nih.gov)
  • Sequence analysis identified 10 putative open reading frames (ORFs) flanking the previously characterized CTB1 and CTB3 genes that encode, respectively, the polyketide synthase and a dual methyltransferase/monooxygenase required for cercosporin production. (wiley.com)
  • To identify host genes involved in the resistance response, expression profiles of the wheat line Tadinia (containing the Stb4 gene for resistance) and the susceptible line Yecora Rojo, non-inoculated or inoculated with M. graminicola, were compared by differential-display polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR). (deepdyve.com)
  • In contrast, a wheat lipoxygenase was down-regulated in the resistant lines at time points corresponding with peak induction of the PR genes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Host-Induced Gene Silencing of the MAPKK Gene PsFUZ7 Confers Stable Resistance to Wheat Stripe Rust. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Recently, evidence was obtained that wheat tan spot emerged through a lateral gene transfer event some time prior to 1941. (edu.au)
  • Research is underway that will pave the way for new, improved wheat varieties that are more resistant to a significant fungal disease that costs Western Australian growers $108 million each year. (phys.org)
  • Department of Agriculture and Food is using new genomic technology from its counterparts in Victoria to identify and track gene combinations that produce resistance to SNB, for future use in breeding new commercial wheat varieties . (phys.org)
  • It is quite a complex process, as it is the accumulated effect of several genes that creates resistance to the fungal disease, but we have now targeted the genes to deploy into breeding wheat suitable for WA growing regions. (phys.org)
  • The research has benefitted greatly from the recent sequencing of the wheat genome, effectively providing a DNA map of the structure and function of genes that provide resistance to SNB. (phys.org)
  • Our analysis predicts that all Pezizomycotina unlike Saccharomycotina can potentially produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites and secreted enzymes and that the responsible gene families are likely to evolve fast. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The synthetic Avr9 gene exhibited the same specificity of action as the authentic C. fulvum Avr9 gene. (pnas.org)
  • The sensitivity and specificity of 18S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the detection of fungal aetiology of microbial keratitis was determined in thirty patients with clinical diagnosis of microbial keratitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Statistical analysis revealed that the PCR to have a sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 94.7% in the detection of a fungal aetiology in microbial keratitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Association analyses of these 316 genes revealed three novel AVR genes, AVR-Pia , AVR-Pii , and AVR-Pik/km/kp , corresponding to five previously known AVR genes, whose products are recognized inside rice cells possessing the cognate R genes. (plantcell.org)
  • However, single-gene analyses are dependent on the gene having an evolutionary history that reflects that of the entire organism, an assumption that is not always true. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expression data for six key transcription genes ( TRI4, TRI5 , TRI6, TRI10, TRI12 and TRI13 ) were analysed using multiple regression analyses to model the relationship between these various factors for the first time. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This approach suggests a more rapid and convenient system than conventional analyses for fungal gene expression studies. (bvsalud.org)
  • Northern blot analyses showed the six genes to be developmentally regulated and expressed during conidiation. (asm.org)
  • Based on DNA sequence similarity, gene disruption results, and biochemical analyses, we conclude that the 19-kb DNA fragment contains a six-gene cluster which is required for conidial pigment biosynthesis in A. fumigatus . (asm.org)
  • As it turns out, 42% of the missing genes were involved in amino acid and purine metabolism-standard biochemical pathways that are built-in to most creatures. (icr.org)
  • A portion of a key gene involved in ethylbenzene metabolism (ElHDO - homogentisate dioxygenase) was isolated and its gene expression monitored as a function of substrate feed, nutrient concentration and transient loading conditions. (utexas.edu)
  • Therefore further studies and exploitation of fungal metabolism appears very promising. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studies of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveal four processes determining life span: metabolism, stress resistance, chromatin-dependent gene regulation, and genome stability. (isharonline.org)
  • The HGT events include genes involved in amino acid, lipid and sugar metabolism as well as lytic enzymes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Collectively, these results support the hypothesis that gene regulation shifts played a pivotal role in brown rot adaptation. (asm.org)
  • These results indicate the existence of a complex catalase system in C. fulvum, with regard to both the structure and regulation of the genes involved. (edu.au)
  • Biofilm are more resistant to antifungals than planktonic cells due to biofilm structural complexity, and biofilm-associated up-regulation of genes like MDR1, MDR2, MDR4 and ROD1. (escrs.org)
  • Regulation of genes play a significant role in determining drug resistance pattern of fungal biofilm formation. (escrs.org)
  • Rice, a major food crop of the world, endures many major biotic stresses like bacterial blight (BB), fungal blast (BL) and the insect Asian rice gall midge (GM) that cause significant yield losses. (springer.com)
  • However, conventional studies mainly focused on the bacterial nitrilase and the potential of fungal nitrilase has been far from being fully explored. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Gene Atlas of a Nitrogen-Fixing Legume Symbiont Understanding how bacterial communities produce biofuels or to remediate contaminated environments is limited due to a lack of knowledge of the functional properties of microbes and their genes. (doe.gov)
  • article{osti_1379648, title = {Identification of Glutaminyl Cyclase Genes Involved in Pyroglutamate Modification of Fungal Lignocellulolytic Enzymes}, author = {Wu, Vincent W. and Dana, Craig M. and Iavarone, Anthony T. and Clark, Douglas S. and Glass, N. Louise}, abstractNote = {The breakdown of plant biomass to simple sugars is essential for the production of second-generation biofuels and high-value bioproducts. (osti.gov)
  • The biosynthetic pathways of fungal aromatic polyketides usually involve a set of successive enzymes, in which a non-reductive polyketide synthase iteratively catalyzes the essential assembly of simple building blocks into (often polycyclic) aromatic compounds. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • These enzymes are responsible for the breakdown of chitin and glucan, two major components of the fungal cell walls. (edu.au)
  • Our results have significant implications for strategies using the gene combination Avr9/Cf-9 to engineer plants with enhanced disease resistance. (pnas.org)
  • Study of fungal prions has led to a characterisation of the sequence features and mechanisms that enable prion domains to switch between functional and amyloid-forming states. (wikipedia.org)
  • The deduced amino acid sequence of another transcribed portion of the PEP cluster, as well as four other open reading frames in the cluster, have a high degree of similarity to known fungal transposases. (nih.gov)
  • Several of the features of the PEP cluster -- a cluster of pathogenicity genes, the presence of transposable elements, and differences in codon usage and GC content from other portions of the genome -- are shared by pathogenicity islands in pathogenic bacteria of plants and animals. (nih.gov)
  • We describe a core gene cluster, comprised of eight genes (designated CTB1-8 ), and associated with cercosporin toxin production in Cercospora nicotianae . (wiley.com)
  • Disruption of the CTB2 gene encoding a methyltransferase or the CTB8 gene yielded mutants that were completely defective in cercosporin production and inhibitory expression of the other CTB cluster genes. (wiley.com)
  • In the present study, six genes, forming a gene cluster spanning 19 kb, were identified as involved in conidial pigment biosynthesis in A. fumigatus . (asm.org)
  • The function of the eight-membered gene cluster of P. variotii was characterized by targeted gene disruptions, revealing the roles of each gene in the synthesis of this molecule and establishing its biosynthetic pathway, which includes a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase catalyzed reaction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 6. An efficient integrative transformation system (PDH25rla) for Alternaria alternata was established by using a plasmid vector PDH25 and a highly repetitive ribosomalRNA gene cluster (rDNA) of A. alternata. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Internal transcribed spacer rRNA gene sequencing analysis of fungal diversity in Kansas City indoor environments. (cdc.gov)
  • The most vulnerable patients, such as those affected by cancer or HIV, are particularly susceptible to life-threatening fungal diseases. (edu.au)
  • In the present study, a fungal nitrilase was cloned from the cDNA sequence of G. intermedia and successfully expressed in E. coli Rosetta-gami (DE3). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Remarkably, a total of 1.68 Mb regions, comprising 316 candidate effector genes, were present in Ina168 but absent in the assembled sequence of isolate 70-15. (plantcell.org)
  • Multiple copies of the translation elongation factor 1-a ( tefA ) and β-tubulin ( tub2 ) 'house-keeping' genes, as well as the endophyte-specific perA gene, were identified for each fescue-derived endophyte taxon from whole genome sequence data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on the genome sequence and gene expression profiles we will identify genes involved in the parasitic interaction of Armillaria ostoyae with its hosts. (wsl.ch)
  • Prevalence of individual fungal phyla determined in the ITS sequence analysis of KCSHHP air and dust samples. (cdc.gov)
  • 60%) of conventional lignocellulolytic genes, implying that ROS adaptations supplanted conventional pathways. (asm.org)
  • In this research, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT PCR) was used to quantify gene expression variations in the biofilm. (utexas.edu)
  • In contrast, neither salicylate nor its functional analogues 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid and 1,2,3-benzothiodiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester resulted in reporter gene induction. (deepdyve.com)
  • This strategy was successful for the cloning of pathogenicity genes in Colletotrichum lindemuthianum ( 7 ), Ustilago maydis, ** and M. grisea ( 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • This coincides with an important switch from a biotrophic to a necrotrophic lifestyle during pathogenesis suggesting that this gene is likely required to overcome H2O2-dependant defence responses during colonization. (wur.nl)
  • The pathosystem is complex and mediated by interaction of multiple fungal necrotrophic effector-host sensitivity gene systems. (edu.au)
  • Furthermore, identification and analysis of M. oryzae AVR genes will help to elucidate fungal mechanisms of pathogenesis and shed light on the mechanisms involved in coevolution of fungal effectors and their host targets. (plantcell.org)
  • Knowing those genes will help better understanding the mechanisms behind necrothrophic tree diseases and developing new control strategies. (wsl.ch)
  • This penetration process is typical of fungal leaf spots such as rice blast caused by the filamentous ascomycete Magnaporthe grisea ( 3 ). (pnas.org)