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  • pathogens
  • A few of these classes are significantly more prevalent in the fungal pathogens than in the saprobe N. crassa , suggesting that these groups contain paralogs required for virulence. (asm.org)
  • Like bacteria, many filamentous fungi are significant plant or human pathogens, and analysis of fungal HKs may result in key information about the biology of these pathogens. (asm.org)
  • Similar to many plant pathogens, Z. tritici possesses three catalase-peroxidase genes that are known to detoxify H2O2 accumulated in the foliage during colonization. (wur.nl)
  • The whole of creation was then subjected to a negative turn of events, including the emergence of fungal pathogens that cause death and disease in plants and animals. (icr.org)
  • Recently, several new studies were published showing how fungal pathogens adapted to their hosts through large-scale genomic changes involving a type of genome degradation marked by gene losses. (icr.org)
  • genomes
  • The success in identifying a lipase gene inducible with olive oil and the suitability of the functional screening and bioinformatic survey carried out herein, support the premise that the strategy can be used in other microorganisms with sequenced genomes to search for true lipases, or other enzymes belonging to large protein families. (mdpi.com)
  • they appear to have been transferred from β-lactam producing bacteria [ 13 - 15 ], unlike the IAT-encoding penDE gene, which contains three introns and seems to have been recruited from the fungal genomes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • fungus
  • When the researchers compared the genome of this fungus to the fungus from which they believed it was derived, they claimed that it "lost 2,324 genes in relation to the acquisition of obligate biotrophy. (icr.org)
  • So how could a loss of genes contribute to this fungus becoming a renegade parasite living off its human host? (icr.org)
  • 2014. Comparative Genomics Suggests That the Human Pathogenic Fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii Acquired Obligate Biotrophy through Gene Loss. (icr.org)
  • 2014. Gene Loss Rather Than Gene Gain Is Associated with a Host Jump from Monocots to Dicots in the Smut Fungus Melanopsichium pennsylvanicum. (icr.org)
  • Using the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa , we identified two genes ( qc-1 and qc-2 ) that encode proteins homologous to mammalian glutaminyl cyclases. (osti.gov)
  • The gene codifying 526309 was expressed when the fungus grew in a medium with olive oil as carbon source. (mdpi.com)
  • Host-induced gene silencing, whereby the host crop produces siRNA molecules targeting crucial genes in the invading fungus and targeting the gene for degradation, has shown to be promising in its ability to inhibit fungal growth and decrease aflatoxin contamination. (springer.com)
  • molecular
  • Importantly, to significantly strengthen her career the applicant will learn several novel and valuable techniques including gene array methodology, associated bioinformatics and molecular genetics approaches applied to Aspergillus spp. (europa.eu)
  • fungi
  • In this project ligninolytic enzymes of the litter-decomposing fungi and fungal oxalate decarboxylase, an essential part of effective lignin degradation, will be heterologously produced and characterised. (europa.eu)
  • Here, we provide direct evidence of integration by sequencing across host-virus gene boundaries and carry out phylogenetic analyses of fungal hosts and totivirids (dsRNA viruses of fungi and protozoans). (blogspot.com)
  • When both these genes are functioning normally Dectin-1 senses the presence of fungi and prompts the immune cells to send signals and mount a response. (brighthub.com)
  • The scientists discovered that if there is a mutation in any one of these genes then the body struggles to control the fungi. (brighthub.com)
  • resistance
  • and the analysis of genes determining resistance to fungicides. (bio.net)
  • Progress in tagging, mapping and cloning of several resistance (R) genes against aforesaid stresses has led to marker assisted multigene introgression into elite cultivars for multiple and durable resistance. (springer.com)
  • Though expression of some genes was noted to be inhibited under combined pest challenge, such effects did not result in compromise in resistance against any of the target pests. (springer.com)
  • While R genes generally tended to respond to specific pest challenge, several of the downstream defense genes responded to multiple pest challenge either single, sequential or simultaneous, without any distinct antagonism in expression of resistance to the target pests in two of the pyramided lines RPNF05 and RPNF08. (springer.com)
  • While breeding for host plant resistance against the biotic stresses as the most desirable approach of their management is well recognized, recent progress in tagging, mapping and cloning of several of the resistance (R) genes against these pests has made this goal a lot more precise and easy. (springer.com)
  • 2016 ). Resistance against BL is reported to be conferred by over 100 genes including three recessive and 22 cloned genes (Sharma et al. (springer.com)
  • ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of this study on grapevine was to genetically characterise, validate and map the reported fungal disease resistance genes of Pölöskei Muskotály (PM), Kishmish Vatkana (KV) and Villard Blanc (VB) in South Africa using QTL analysis. (sun.ac.za)
  • These fungal resistant parents were crossed with other varieties that have desirable fruit qualities in an effort to combine fungal disease resistance with desirable fruit qualities in a single variety. (sun.ac.za)
  • It does however have VB in its pedigree so the assumption was made that the same QTL/genes present in VB contribute to this resistance. (sun.ac.za)
  • KV's resistance to powdery mildew reportedly originates from the REN1 gene located on chromosome 13. (sun.ac.za)
  • This study succeeded in genetically characterising the fungal disease resistance genes of two different sources of grapevine and provided exclusionary information on a third resistance source for future breeding applications. (sun.ac.za)
  • pathways
  • As it turns out, 42% of the missing genes were involved in amino acid and purine metabolism-standard biochemical pathways that are built-in to most creatures. (icr.org)
  • Sharon is interested in signalling pathways that control fungal virulence. (edu.au)
  • enzymes
  • article{osti_1379648, title = {Identification of Glutaminyl Cyclase Genes Involved in Pyroglutamate Modification of Fungal Lignocellulolytic Enzymes}, author = {Wu, Vincent W. and Dana, Craig M. and Iavarone, Anthony T. and Clark, Douglas S. and Glass, N. Louise}, abstractNote = {The breakdown of plant biomass to simple sugars is essential for the production of second-generation biofuels and high-value bioproducts. (osti.gov)
  • protein
  • Supplementary material 2 (PNG 11 kb) Supplemental Fig. S2 Quantitative PCR analysis showing the relative expression levels of the A. flavus beta-tubulin gene normalized to the maize ribosomal protein L10 gene, GRMZM2G024838. (springer.com)
  • We have termed this gene ial because it encodes a protein with high similarity to IAT (IAL for IAT-Like). (beds.ac.uk)
  • We have conducted an investigation to characterize the ial gene and to determine the role of the IAL protein in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway. (beds.ac.uk)
  • genetic
  • Were new genes added by the Creator, or was pre-existing genetic information corrupted, deleted, or altered in some way? (icr.org)
  • Now it looks like we can add gene loss (an aspect of genome degradation) as a key part of the creationist model-explaining genetic mechanisms that underlie the curse on creation. (icr.org)
  • They were confident that the genetic defect lay in an immune-related pathway and therefore focused their mutation search on 100 genes related to immune function, including STAT1 . (medpagetoday.com)
  • bacterial
  • Rice, a major food crop of the world, endures many major biotic stresses like bacterial blight (BB), fungal blast (BL) and the insect Asian rice gall midge (GM) that cause significant yield losses. (springer.com)
  • viral
  • Transcripts were apparent for some gene copies, but, in most cases, the endogenous sequences lacked the residues necessary for normal viral functioning. (blogspot.com)
  • combine
  • Specially the PCR based linked markers have enabled breeders to combine several R genes into a single cultivar through marker assisted backcross breeding without losing the features of the cultivar. (springer.com)
  • novel
  • Our findings reveal that horizontal gene transfer can result in novel gene formation in eukaryotes despite miniaturized genomic targets and a need for co-option of reverse transcriptase. (blogspot.com)
  • All this research should pave the way for the development of novel therapeutics to boost host response where the genes are failing. (brighthub.com)
  • researchers found
  • Analyzing 14 patients from five families affected with CMC, Dutch and British researchers found missense mutations in the STAT1 gene, an important player in immune function, according to an online report in the New England Journal of Medicine . (medpagetoday.com)
  • chromosome
  • When combined with the data from two powdery mildew phenotypic screens a QTL peak spanning the REN1 gene on chromosome 13 of KV was identified. (sun.ac.za)
  • found
  • In the current study, we functionally analysed these three catalase-peroxidase genes and found that MgCatD-1, encoding a secreted catalase-peroxidase, plays an important role in the pathogenicity of Z. tritici. (wur.nl)
  • Explain that a study of five families with patients who had the autosomal dominant form of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis found mutations in the STAT1 gene that were not present in unaffected family members or normal controls. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Three of the genes highlighted earlier in plants challenged by both BB and BL were also found induced in stem under GM challenge. (springer.com)
  • Pi54 the target R gene against BL was also found induced when challenged by GM. (springer.com)
  • Homologues of the ial gene have been found in many other ascomycetes, including non-penicillin producers. (beds.ac.uk)
  • study
  • 2. We study gene-regulatory programs that control microbial pathogenicity. (edu.au)
  • analysis
  • In silico analysis of the P. chrysogenum genome revealed the presence of a gene, Pc13g09140, initially described as paralogue of the IAT-encoding penDE gene. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Important
  • This coincides with an important switch from a biotrophic to a necrotrophic lifestyle during pathogenesis suggesting that this gene is likely required to overcome H2O2-dependant defence responses during colonization. (wur.nl)
  • They also state that the results are important in "highlighting that gene loss rather than gene gain is the hallmark of adaptation after the host jump to the dicot host. (icr.org)
  • expression
  • One module ensures constitutive expression of the tetracycline-dependent transactivator rtTA2 S -M2, and one module harbors the rtTA2 S -M2-dependent promoter that controls expression of the gene of interest (the Tet-on system). (asm.org)
  • We show here that the system is tight, responds within minutes after inducer addition, and allows fine-tuning based on the inducer concentration or gene copy number up to expression levels higher than the expression levels of the gpdA promoter. (asm.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that maize inbred B104 expressing an RNAi construct targeting the A. flavus alpha-amylase gene amy1 effectively reduces amy1 gene expression resulting in decreased fungal colonization and aflatoxin accumulation in kernels. (springer.com)
  • single
  • Our data suggest that like in A. nidulans , the ial and penDE genes might have been formed from a single ancestral gene that became duplicated during evolution, although a separate evolutive origin for the ial and penDE genes, is also discussed. (beds.ac.uk)
  • demonstrate
  • We also validate the Tet-on system for the generation of conditional overexpression mutants and demonstrate its power when combined with a gene deletion approach. (asm.org)
  • present
  • At present, there is little known of the evolution and function of integrated non-retroviral RNA virus genes. (blogspot.com)
  • approaches
  • In these approaches, gene functions are usually inferred from deletion or overexpression mutants. (asm.org)
  • A key resource for these approaches and the understanding of gene functions and networks is knockdown or knockout mutant collections, which provide a wealth of information. (asm.org)
  • essential
  • Finally, we show that the system is especially suitable when the functions of essential genes must be examined. (asm.org)