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  • loci
  • Active genes have a more open or euchromatic structure, while inactive loci have a more condensed nucleosome arrangement that shares many features with constitutively heterochromatic regions of the genome. (genetics.org)
  • In higher eukaryotes, DNA can be methylated at cytosine mainly in the context of CpG dinucleotide sequences, producing 5-methylcytosine (5mC), the accumulation of which at promoter regions is often associated with the repressive state of gene loci as well as its stable maintenance, known as gene silencing. (wiley.com)
  • chromosomal
  • What has become obvious, mainly due to ground-breaking research in yeast and animal systems, is that the packaging of certain genes into a chromosomal matrix is regulated via sophisticated chromatin remodelling mechanisms that define whether and when a gene becomes accessible to the transcription machinery. (deepdyve.com)
  • transcription
  • TFL2/LHP1 represses transcription of numerous genes, including the flowering-time genes FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), as well as the floral organ identity genes AGAMOUS (AG) and APETALA 3 (AP3). (nih.gov)
  • Ubiquitin, and components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, feature extensively in the regulation of gene transcription. (pnas.org)
  • The budding yeast protein Asr1 is the prototypical member of the RPC (RING, PHD, CBD) family of ubiquitin-ligases, characterized by the presence of amino-terminal RING (really interesting new gene) and PHD (plant homeo domain) fingers and a carboxyl-terminal domain that directly binds the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (pol II), Rpb1, in response to phosphorylation events tied to the initiation of transcription. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we present evidence that Asr1-mediated ubiquitylation of pol II is required for silencing of subtelomeric gene transcription. (pnas.org)
  • We show that Asr1 associates with telomere-proximal chromatin and that disruption of the ubiquitin-ligase activity of Asr1-or mutation of ubiquitylation sites within Rpb1-induces transcription of silenced gene sequences. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, we report that Asr1 associates with the Ubp3 deubiquitylase and that Asr1 and Ubp3 play antagonistic roles in setting transcription levels from silenced genes. (pnas.org)
  • Interaction of viral products with the host cell machinery may lead to increased frequency of genetic and epigenetic aberrations that cause harmful alterations in gene transcription. (hindawi.com)
  • In contrast to its effect at telomeres, Sir3N overexpression derepresses transcription of reporter genes inserted in the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) array. (asm.org)
  • Base pair-complementary RNA strands (ssRNA) can be produced by transcription of both template DNA strands of some genes (Figure 1). (wikiversity.org)
  • proteins
  • These genes are also regulated by proteins of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), and it has been proposed that TFL2/LHP1 represents a potential stabilizing factor of PRC2 activity. (nih.gov)
  • SETDB1: a novel KAP-1-associated histone H3, lysine 9-specific methyltransferase that contributes to HP1-mediated silencing of euchromatic genes by KRAB zinc-finger proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Because many class I MAGE genes are highly homologous and are coregulated in gametogenesis and in tumors, it has been suggested that many MAGE proteins have similar or complimentary functions ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • tumor
  • RT "A novel PR/SET domain-containing gene, SET07, as a candidate tumor RT suppressor. (genome.jp)
  • Activating mutations in oncogenes, such as BRAF and NRAS , and inactivating mutations in tumor suppressors genes, such as PTEN , promote this disease by altering cellular processes involved in growth, survival, and migration. (intechopen.com)
  • suppressor
  • With RNA interference and mutant alleles of individual genes, we identified Daughters against dpp ( Dad ) and Olig family ( Oli ) as shep suppressor genes, and both of them restored the adult cellular morphology of shep -depleted bursicon neurons. (genetics.org)
  • Substantial evidence shows that alteration in the expression of NF-kB-induced proinflammatory cytokine TNF- α and interleukins, oncogenes, and tumour suppressor genes typically follows chronic hepatic inflammation associated with epigenetic aberrations [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This regulation is impaired in long-term stocks heterozygous for mutations in Suppressor of variegation 205 [ Su(var)205 ], a gene implicated in the control of telomere length. (genetics.org)
  • suppressors
  • Out of 702 screened deficiencies that covered 86% of euchromatic genes, we isolated 24 deficiencies as candidate suppressors, and 12 of them at least partially suppressed morphological defects in shep mutant bursicon neurons. (genetics.org)
  • Locus
  • More recently, variegated expression has also been noted for reporter genes inserted into the tandemly repeated ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus of yeast ( 4 , 40 ). (asm.org)
  • Here, we report that poplar FLOWERING LOCUS T2 ( FT2 ), a relative of the Arabidopsis thaliana flowering-time gene FT , controls first-time and seasonal flowering in poplar. (plantcell.org)
  • mutations
  • Hepatoepigenetics refers to activation or silencing in the expression of hepatic genes through chemical markers on DNA that do not involve mutations of the underlying sequence [ 7 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Many of these tumors also harbor additional mutations in genes that encode for epigenetic factors. (intechopen.com)
  • cytological
  • Indeed, several genes located at one of these sites (cytological region 31) have increased transcript levels in mutants for HP1 (Hwang et al. (uky.edu)
  • neurons
  • As calcium signaling in neurons plays a crucial role in essential neuronal functions such as learning and memory formation, it is important to understand how this process is regulated at every level in gene expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • phenotypic
  • Our molecular data agree well with the differential phenotypic effect on bw D trans -inactivation of various genes known to be involved in histone modification and cis gene silencing. (genetics.org)
  • Associates
  • We present evidence that the ubiquitin ligase Asr1 associates with subtelomeric DNA and ubiquitylates RNA polymerase II to prevent it from transcribing genes at these locations. (pnas.org)
  • Associates with silent chromatin on CC euchromatic arms. (genome.jp)
  • reporter
  • In addition to inducing apoptosis, MAGE suppression decreases KAP1 complexing with p53, increases immunoreactive and acetylated p53, and activates a p53 responsive reporter gene. (aacrjournals.org)
  • molecule
  • Complete loss of KAP1 function in the homozygous KAP1 knockout mouse is lethal in utero in the presence of functional p53, and KAP1 is increasingly being recognized as a central molecule in gene regulation ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • role
  • This is highlighted by the recent identification of no fewer than three separate genes with a role in the aetiology of oesophageal atresia: those for Feingold syndrome (N‐MYC), anophthalmia‐oesophageal‐genital (AEG) syndrome (SOX2), and CHARGE syndrome (CHD7). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • accompanies
  • Cell fate determination, or lineage commitment, which is often initiated by exposure to developmental cues, accompanies both up-regulation of genes specific for one lineage and down-regulation of genes associated with other lineages. (wiley.com)
  • telomeres
  • Impairment of regulation by TP5 is also seen in a stock derived from Gaiano, a wild-type strain that has elongated telomeres due to a dominant mutation in the Telomere elongation ( Tel ) gene. (genetics.org)
  • cell
  • Ubiquitylation is integral to a myriad of cellular processes, including protein destruction, cell cycle control, and regulation of gene activity. (pnas.org)
  • mechanism
  • Rather, our data suggest that TFL2/LHP1 recognizes specifically H3K27me3 in vivo as part of a mechanism that represses the expression of many genes targeted by PRC2. (nih.gov)
  • however
  • However, three separate genes associated with syndromic OA/TOF in humans have now been identified, 3 , 4 , 5 making this an exciting time for those interested in the aetiology of this malformation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, it was only in 1998 that experiments were described showing the unexpected power of double stranded RNA to block gene expression . (wikiversity.org)