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  • precursors
  • These highly disrupted tRNA genes, which account for 63% of all nuclear tRNA genes, are expressed via the orderly and sequential processing of bulge-helix-bulge (BHB) motifs at intron-exon junctions and termini of permuted tRNA precursors, probably by a C. merolae tRNA-splicing endonuclease with an unidentified subunit architecture. (jove.com)
  • MicroRNAs are regulatory RNAs with a mature length of ~21-nucleotides that are processed from hairpin precursors by Dicer-like enzymes. (salk.edu)
  • cellular
  • Thus, in addition to any effect of accompanying genomic elements, these results suggest that the cellular context also determines susceptibility to PyV miRNA-mediated effects. (jove.com)
  • Furthermore, various si/miRNA constructs are widely used in functional genomics, miRNA cellular/tissue profiles are measured in medical diagnostics , and si/miRNAs (and their inhibitors) are in clinical trials for use as medical therapeutics [6, (google.com)
  • Recent studies have shown that cellular signaling pathways can regulate gene transcription and signaling outcomes by controlling Pol II pausing in a wide array of biological systems. (usda.gov)
  • Using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR)-based arrays, changes were determined in miRNA gene copy number, pre-miRNA, and mature cellular miRNA levels for the largest set of PEL examined to date. (proquest.com)
  • All together, these results can be used to characterize the cellular miRNA signature in KSHV-associated malignancies, namely PEL and KS. (proquest.com)
  • siRNA
  • Based on this, methods of determining whether administration of mi/siRNA will have a deleterious effect by upregulating certain genes are provided. (google.com)
  • However, the importance of miRNA was realized seven years later when Ravukon and Horvitz laboratories identified a second miRNA in the same model nematode species (named let-7 ), and when another class of short RNA (siRNA) involved in the process of RNA interference was discovered. (news-medical.net)
  • mechanism
  • We use partially complementary siRNAs to investigate the mechanism by which miRNAs mediate translational repression in human cells. (nih.gov)
  • The specific genes enhanced by this mechanism are dependent on cell type, although some types of genes such as cell cycle genes may be common across multiple cell types. (google.com)
  • We identified network modules that are potentially regulated by miR-34b, and which suggest a mechanism for the role of miR-34b in regulating normal cell motility and cytokinesis. (nih.gov)
  • Promoter-proximal pausing by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a well-established mechanism to control the timing, rate, and possibly the magnitude of transcriptional responses. (usda.gov)
  • Understanding the mechanism of transcription termination by a eukaryotic RNA polymerase (RNAP) has been limited by lack of a characterizable intermediate that reflects transition from an elongation complex to a true termination event. (usda.gov)
  • The results revealed a considerable diversity in eukaryal tRNA intron properties and endonuclease architectures, which will help to elucidate the acquisition mechanism of the BHB-mediated disrupted tRNA genes. (jove.com)
  • transcription
  • High throughput sequencing of RNA populations revealed the generation of small RNAs from divergent transcription in mammalian cells. (mit.edu)
  • However, some of the non-coding RNAs generated by divergent transcription are processed by splicing and polyadenylation and are sufficiently abundant to be considered long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). (mit.edu)
  • It is well known that aberrant epigenetic mechanisms manifest in both global changes in chromatin packaging and in localized gene promoter changes that influence the transcription of genes involved in cancer development [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Members of the Arabidopsis SBP-box gene family of transcription factors have been implicated in promoting the floral transition in dependence of miR156 and, accordingly, transgenics constitutively over-expressing this microRNA are delayed in flowering. (springer.com)
  • MicroRNAs are regulated by gene copy number alteration, transcription, and processing. (proquest.com)
  • inhibition
  • The inhibition appears to be postinitiation because translation driven by the cap-independent processes of HCV IRES and CrPV IRES is repressed by short RNAs. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of the miRNAs targeting NOX4 mRNA increased H 2 O 2 release from endothelial cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • mediate
  • Escherichia coli and yeast DNA-dependent RNA polymerases are shown to mediate efficient nascent transcript stem loop formation-dependent RNA-DNA hybrid realignment. (usda.gov)
  • tRNAs
  • Class II transfer RNAs (tRNAs), including tRNA(Leu) and tRNA(Ser), have an additional stem and loop structure, the long variable arm (V-arm). (jove.com)
  • The mirVana miRNA Isolation Kit also allows for separation of RNA species smaller than 200 nt (miRNAs, tRNAs, 5S and 5.8S rRNAs, snRNAs) from long RNA species (18S and 28S rRNAs, mRNAs). (thermofisher.com)
  • apoptosis
  • A growing body of evidence shows that miRNAs are one of the key players in cell differentiation and growth, mobility and apoptosis (programmed cell death). (news-medical.net)
  • genomes
  • Growing evidences of disrupted tRNA genes in the genomes of Archaea reveals unique gene structures such as, intron-containing tRNA, split tRNA, and permuted tRNA. (jove.com)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, a phylogenetic profiling analysis showed that combinations of TFs and their target genes have fluctuated dynamically during bacterial evolution. (jove.com)
  • Furthermore, among all samples, bantam was distinctly up-regulated in 23 DSI, and miR-1, miR-71, miR-7-5p, and miR-7 were distinctly up-regulated in 23SSI. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transcript
  • Different patterns of transcript changes (decreased or unchanged) of different target genes in same tissue and of same target gene in different tissues detected in the OsmiR156-overexpressing plants suggested diverse interactions between OsmiR156 and OsSPL target genes in a tissue-specific manner. (plantphysiol.org)
  • tissues
  • The first step in this study was to isolate good quality RNA from normal and diseased pancreatic tissues using an efficient RNA isolation method that would retain the miRNA fraction. (thermofisher.com)
  • mammalian cells
  • Short RNAs repress translation after initiation in mammalian cells. (nih.gov)
  • This work provided one of the first indications of the startling phenomenon of "discontinuous genes" in mammalian cells. (mit.edu)
  • Biomarkers
  • We compare data from patients with findings from animal models and, finally, highlight the challenges and drawbacks that currently prevent the use of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers in clinical routine. (mdpi.com)
  • biological
  • miRNAs regulate diverse aspects of development and physiology, thus understanding its biological role is proving more and more important. (news-medical.net)
  • Thus, this review is aimed to cover the latest knowledge on tRNA gene diversity and further recapitulate the evolutionary and biological aspects that caused such uniqueness. (jove.com)
  • interference
  • RNA interference (RNAi) has dramatically expanded the possibilities for genotype/phenotype analyses in cell biology. (mit.edu)
  • target
  • Of 95 miRNA-target pairs examined, the target mRNAs were significantly upregulated in 35 pairs and paradoxically downregulated in 8 pairs. (ahajournals.org)
  • It is, however, challenging to identify these miRNA-target relationships given the promiscuity of miRNA targeting and the uncertainty of target prediction. (ahajournals.org)
  • Overexpression of two OsmiR156 genes ( OsmiR156b and OsmiR156h ) in rice resulted in severe dwarfism, strongly reduced panicle size, and delayed flowering, suggesting that OsmiR156 and OsSPL target genes are involved in various developmental processes, especially the flower development of rice. (plantphysiol.org)
  • At the same time, Gary Ravkun identified the first miRNA target gene. (news-medical.net)
  • The transcriptomes of 23DSI and 23SSI revealed that the predicted target genes of miRNA-1, miRNA-71, miRNA-7, and miR-7-5p were associated with the ribonucleoprotein complex assembly and microtubule-based process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • vivo
  • However, the functions of polyomaviral miRNAs, particularly during in vivo infection, remain poorly understood. (jove.com)
  • The deep sequencing data revealed that PCV2 does not express miRNAs in an in vivo subclinical infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • epigenetic
  • Many cancers have epigenetic deficiencies in various DNA repair genes (see Frequencies of epimutations in DNA repair genes in cancers ), likely causing increased unrepaired DNA damages. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Recently it was demonstrated that miRNAs are released into the circulation and that the spectrum of circulating miRNAs might be altered during various pathologic conditions, such as inflammation, infection, and sepsis. (mdpi.com)
  • specific
  • Last fall Dr. Peter Sarnow and a team of Stanford University scientists reported that the hepatitis C virus needs a specific microRNA, named miR-122, in order to replicate in cultured liver cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Some miRNAs are located throughout the body, while others are found only in specific tissue. (innovations-report.com)
  • unclear
  • Although evolutionary scenario behind the tRNA gene disruption is still unclear, diversity of tRNA structure seems to be co-evolved with their processing enzyme, so-called RNA splicing endonuclease. (jove.com)