• The Staphylococcus enterotoxin A ( sea ) gene carried by virulent strains of S. aureus is encoded by multiple phages, including ϕ 11, ϕ 12, ϕ 13, 80 α , and 42D [ 18 - 21 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It presents the cell with the signals that ultimately lead to gene regulation-the turning on or off of gene expression. (springer.com)
  • Further investigation is necessary that takes into account the detailed knowledge of gene regulation gained from biochemical studies. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Simultaneous specific and global regulation thus constitutes an additional-but often neglected-layer of complexity in gene expression. (embopress.org)
  • We thereby uncover two principles of joint regulation: (i) specific regulation by repression dominates the transcriptional response during metabolic steady states, largely repressing the biosynthesis genes even when biosynthesis is required and (ii) global regulation sets the maximum promoter activity that is exploited during the transition between steady states. (embopress.org)
  • An experimental‐computational approach is applied to dissect the contribution of specific transcription factor‐mediated versus global growth‐dependent regulation to bacterial gene expression, and obtain a quantitative understanding of dynamic adaptations in arginine biosynthesis of E. coli . (embopress.org)
  • We show that growth rate can be used to predict the unregulated expression baseline of a gene, since growth rate dependence of global regulation occurs both in steady state and during transient changes in growth rate. (embopress.org)
  • We obtain a quantitative understanding of both specific and global regulation in arginine biosynthesis, as demonstrated by accurate model‐based predictions of complex transient geneexpression responses to simultaneous perturbation in growth rate and arginine availability. (embopress.org)
  • A new study reveals that the multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) of persons with diabetes have diminished capacity to fight off bacterial infection, providing new understanding into the basis of diabetes-associated immune dysfunction. (phys.org)
  • A team led by a plant pathologist at the University of California, Riverside, has identified a regulatory, genetic mechanism in plants that could help fight bacterial infection. (phys.org)
  • Discovery of a gene that helps plants control their response to disease could aid efforts to develop crops that are resistant to infection, research suggests. (phys.org)
  • Researchers at Harvard Medical School and Children's Hospital Boston have retraced the evolution of an unusual bacterial infection as it spread among cystic fibrosis patients by sequencing scores of samples collected during the outbreak, since contained. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a hereditary disease that renders the lungs susceptible to bacterial infection. (innovations-report.com)
  • The group where the gene for Toll2 was switched off, survived the bacterial infection," says Wiersinga. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Because a microbe's ability to survive killing by phagocytes correlates with its ability to cause disease ( 2 , 3 ), the identification of genes that are preferentially transcribed in the intracellular environment of the host is central to our understanding of how pathogenic organisms mount a successful infection. (sciencemag.org)
  • A ) A library of S. typhimurium-bearing plasmids with random DNA fragments inserted upstream of a promoterless gfp gene ( 39 ) was used to infect a monolayer of RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 5:1. (sciencemag.org)
  • A substantial number of genes can be inserted into or deleted from genomes through the process of lateral transfer. (nih.gov)
  • We have analyzed 50 bacterial complete genomes from nine groups. (nih.gov)
  • Because bacterial genomes have high gene content, forces that operate on the base composition of individual genes could help shape the overall genomic base composition. (pnas.org)
  • Bacterial genomes are highly variable in their overall base compositions, with sequenced genomes ranging from 13% to 75% G+C ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • These studies revealed that mutation is universally biased toward A+T, suggesting selection as an agent that maintains the contemporary base compositions in bacterial genomes ( 11 ⇓ - 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, because bacterial genomes are composed primarily of protein-coding genes ( 14 ), a selective force that acts on each gene to increase its G+C content can cumulatively influence the overall genomic base composition. (pnas.org)
  • Similar results were obtained when arrays were probed with RNA prepared from B. subtilis cells that were stored in RNA later for one week at 4°C. RNA later is thus an ideal solution for maintaining the expression profile of bacterial mRNA when immediate RNA isolation is not possible or practical. (thermofisher.com)
  • Yong Wang, assistant professor of physics, and graduate student Asmaa Sadoon have been studying how molecules travel through bacterial cytoplasm in order to understand more about how these tiny organisms function. (phys.org)
  • This selection methodology should be generally applicable to the identification of genes from pathogenic organisms that are induced upon association with host cells or tissues. (sciencemag.org)
  • Recently, however, studies based on the comparative analyses of gene sequences have challenged the notion that base composition is driven solely by mutational biases. (pnas.org)
  • 1984. Experiments with Gene Fusions. (asmscience.org)
  • Cells infected with a fluorescent bacterium were readily distinguished from uninfected cells or cells infected with S. typhimurium -bearing unproductive gfp gene fusions. (sciencemag.org)
  • About 50% of these clones will have replaced the original wild type gene with a mutated one and at the same time got rid of the suicide plasmid backbone from the chromosme. (protocol-online.org)
  • Parts for controlling gene expression are of special importance in living systems, and specifically promoters are needed for enabling and simplifying rational design. (diva-portal.org)
  • Generally, in these mechanisms, a transcription terminator is located between a promoter and a downstream gene(s), and the efficiency of the terminator is controlled by a regulatory effector that can be a metabolite, protein, or RNA. (asm.org)
  • The pores in bacterial cell walls are too small for the charged luciferin molecules to fit through. (photonics.com)
  • Using the method, we have constructed two chromosomal deletions in the chemotaxis gene region of S. typhimurium. (pnas.org)
  • Along with graduate student Yun Zhang and professor of veterinary medicine Gregory J. Phillips, Yeung used the chemiluminescence technique to perform quantitative studies of gene expression in two bacterial lines. (photonics.com)
  • Light of different wavelengths can serve as a transient, noninvasive means of regulating gene expression for biotechnological purposes. (diva-portal.org)
  • We applied DFI to identify S. typhimurium genes that are induced in phagocytic cells (Fig. 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Approximately a third to a half of all S. typhimurium that were recovered after one enrichment cycle contained a gfp gene fusion with host cell-dependent activity. (sciencemag.org)
  • The problem is i am using a suicide vector pFS100 a derivative of pGP704 carrying a 'pir' dependent origin of replication from plasmid R6K and gene encoding resistance to ampicillin and kanamycin but no sacB gene marker in it. (protocol-online.org)
  • We present a model‐based approach to quantitatively dissect simultaneous contributions from specific transcription factors and the global growth status to bacterial gene expression, based on parameter inference from GFP‐based promoter activity measurements. (embopress.org)
  • I check for the gene knockout in 'centrimide+kan+amp' plate with PAO1 using the gene inserted suicide vector pFS100 and get no growth (showing the gene is essential) whereas the control plate without antibiotic markers show growth. (protocol-online.org)
  • The results reveal that there is poor correlation of genes inserted, deleted, and duplicated with evolutionary branch length. (nih.gov)
  • I know that counterselectable markers are often instrumental for the construction of mutants when under appropriate growth conditions, a counterselectable gene promotes the death of the microorganisms harboring it. (protocol-online.org)
  • In a gene pool, purifying selection weeds out those harmful changes even as positive selection spreads helpful ones. (innovations-report.com)