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  • bacteria
  • Duke University biomedical engineers have harvested genes for ion channels from bacteria that, with a few tweaks, can create and enhance electrical signaling in human cells, making the cells more electrically excitable. (innovations-report.com)
  • While bacterial genes encoding sodium channels are different than their human counterparts, evolution has conserved many similarities of ion channel design since multi-celled animals diverged from bacteria hundreds of millions of years ago. (innovations-report.com)
  • The team set out to sequence the genomes of 112 B. dolosa isolates taken from 14 of the infected patients, mapping genetic changes over time to reveal both the route of the infection's spread and which genes faced the greatest selective pressure - in other words, how the bacteria evolved when challenged by human defenses and medical treatment. (innovations-report.com)
  • Microarray analysis was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed when pneumococci replicated in the vitreous of rabbit eyes as compared with bacteria grown in vitro in Todd Hewitt medium. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers have developed a way to use firefly luciferase - which is much brighter than bacterial luciferase - as a chemiluminescent reporter in bacteria. (photonics.com)
  • A lab manual was published, which emphasized how genetics can be used to study pathogenic bacteria, a growing field with a dramatic need for researchers trained in bacterial genetics. (asmscience.org)
  • By using the sacB gene onto the suicide plasmid will convert sucrose to levans which are toxic to the gram-ve bacteria. (protocol-online.org)
  • Herein, we review engineered light-sensor systems with potential for in vivo regulation of gene expression in bacteria, and highlight different means of extending the range of available light input and transcriptional output signals. (diva-portal.org)
  • To demonstrate the effectiveness of RNA later at preserving RNA in intact bacteria, samples from five bacterial species, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Campylobacter fetus, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, were suspended in RNAlater and incubated at 25°C or 4°C for up to one week. (thermofisher.com)
  • To determine if storage of bacteria in RNA later affects gene expression patterns, we compared the expression profile obtained with RNA isolated from B. subtilis that had been stored overnight in RNA later at 25°C (Figure 2A) with the profile from RNA prepared from freshly harvested B. subtilis (Figure 2B). (thermofisher.com)
  • A comparison of these replicate arrays demonstrates that RNA later is extremely effective at preserving gene expression profiles in bacteria. (thermofisher.com)
  • Wiersinga and the Laboratory for Experimental Internal Medicine discovered which gene-protein combination renders the lethal bacteria B. pseudomallei harmless. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Seemingly simple organisms, such as bacteria and amoebas, have a much higher gene density than humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • They took a gene from a bacterium that provided resistance to the antibiotic kanamycin, inserted it into a plasmid and then induced another bacteria to uptake the plasmid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Boyer and Cohen expressed other genes in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because mannanase is not commonly found in similar beetles, and the characteristic of the gene is bacterial, the gene is thought to have originated from bacteria in the beetle's gut, and transposed to the beetle's genome through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes have been known to occur, albeit rarely, the HhMAN1 is the first to have a known and beneficial function to the recipient. (wikipedia.org)
  • These unique features and other features gave significance of the T-even phages, this includes transduction which is responsible for transfer of drug resistant features, lysogenic conversion is responsible for acquisition of new characteristics such as the formation of new enzymes, random insertion into bacterial chromosome can induce insertional mutation, epidemiological typing of bacteria (phage typing), phages are used extensively in genetic engineering where they serve as cloning vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Equipped with this gene, the former II-R strain bacteria were now protected from the host's immune system and could kill the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • It serves as a riboswitch that binds directly to thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) to regulate gene expression through a variety of mechanisms in archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • The genomic contexts are determined with a multiple center star clustering topology on the basis of a user-provided protein sequence and all (or a set of) chromosomes from the publicly available archaeal and bacterial genomes. (nih.gov)
  • Genetics: Analysis of Genes and Genomes, 6th edition. (wikipedia.org)
  • GLIMMER 3.0 also improves the generated training set data by comparing the long-ORF with universal amino acid distribution of widely disparate bacterial genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since cereals that absorbed extra nitrogen would typically lodge, or fall over before harvest, semi-dwarfing genes were bred into their genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Escherichia
  • The bacterium Escherichia coli carries approximately 3000 genes, but this total repertoire describes its potential properties and, in reality, only a small subset of this genetic information is expressed at any given moment. (springer.com)
  • Fully genetically encoded light sensors take advantage of the favorable characteristics of light, do not need the supplementation of any chemical inducers or co-factors, and have been demonstrated to control gene expression in Escherichia coli. (diva-portal.org)
  • Genetic
  • On the other hand, the advanced search tool enables a user to search genetic information by categories, custom query, wild-card search and field-specific search, which uses the gene name, the description, the cluster of orthologous groups (COGs) id, the GO term, the KEGG enzyme commission (EC) number, etc. as key words. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic modification involves the mutation, insertion, or deletion of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other methods exploit natural forms of gene transfer, such as the ability of Agrobacterium to transfer genetic material to plants, or the ability of lentiviruses to transfer genes to animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of selective breeding, in which organisms with desired traits (and thus with the desired genes) are used to breed the next generation and organisms lacking the trait are not bred, is a precursor to the modern concept of genetic modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet, T-even phages are in fact among the largest and highest complexity virus, in which these phages genetic information is made up of around 160 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prokaryotes, whose initial cell has additional or transformed genetic material, reproduce through asexual reproduction but may, in lateral gene transfer, display processes such as bacterial conjugation, transformation and transduction, which are similar to sexual reproduction although they do not lead to reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Advances followed that allowed scientists to manipulate and add genes to a variety of different organisms and induce a range of different effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Containing about 160 genes, these virulent viruses are among the largest, most complex viruses that are known and one of the best studied model organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Model organisms are usually required to be simple with as few as five genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The THI element is an extension of a previously detected thiamin-regulatory element, the thi box, there is considerable variability in the predicted length and structures of the additional and facultative stem loops represented in dark blue in the secondary structure diagram Analysis of operon structures has identified a large number of new candidate thiamin-regulated genes, mostly transporters, in various prokaryotic organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a potential cause of bacterial endophthalmitis in humans that can result in ocular morbidity. (nih.gov)
  • resistance
  • The problem is i am using a suicide vector pFS100 a derivative of pGP704 carrying a 'pir' dependent origin of replication from plasmid R6K and gene encoding resistance to ampicillin and kanamycin but no sacB gene marker in it. (protocol-online.org)
  • Since then important traits including dwarfing genes and rust resistance have been introduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • The results consist in a dynamic web page where a consistent color-coding permits a rapid visual evaluation of the relative positioning of genes with similar sequences within the synteny. (nih.gov)
  • In the gene list view, the links "G O D H S T B..." lead the user to a locus information tool, where detailed information such as operon & regulon, domains & families, sequences, annotations, etc. are shown. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • While some of these genes reflect changes in metabolic requirements, some appear to play a role in immune evasion and pathogenesis in the eye. (nih.gov)
  • plasmid
  • About 50% of these clones will have replaced the original wild type gene with a mutated one and at the same time got rid of the suicide plasmid backbone from the chromosme. (protocol-online.org)
  • Under such conditions, certain bacterial genes are turned on leading to the transfer of its tDNA from its root-inducing plasmid (Ri plasmid) into the plant through the wound. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • This included genes from the toad Xenopus laevis in 1974, creating the first GMO expressing a gene from an organism from different kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two-fold cost of sex includes this cost and the fact that any organism can only pass on 50% of its own genes to its offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The right panel shows the speed gained by treating the cells with a trio of bacterial genes to enhance conductivity. (innovations-report.com)
  • Too large, unfortunately, to be readily delivered to cells through a virus -- standard procedure in modern gene therapy techniques. (innovations-report.com)
  • To skirt this size issue, the Duke team delivered smaller ion channels engineered from bacterial genes to primary human cells in a laboratory setting. (innovations-report.com)
  • Our technique, however, uses much smaller bacterial ion channels that proved successful in human cells in the laboratory. (innovations-report.com)
  • Hung Nguyen, a doctoral student in Bursac's laboratory, mutated these bacterial genes so that channels they encode could become active in human cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • The researchers then delivered three genes to the electrically inactive cells: one bacterial gene for a sodium ion channel and two supporting genes encoding a potassium channel and connexin-43, a protein that helps shuttle electrical signals between cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • When delivered to unexcitable cells taken from the skin, heart and brain, the trio of genes caused the cells to become electrically active, speeding up the electrical signals as they raced across the lines. (innovations-report.com)
  • You could imagine using this to alter electrically dead cardiac scar tissue after a heart attack to bridge gaps between healthy cells," said Nguyen, who also points out that all three genes are small enough to be delivered simultaneously by a single virus. (innovations-report.com)
  • Nguyen and Bursac also showed that the gene encoding the bacterial sodium channel could, by itself, enhance the excitability of cells that are already electrically active. (innovations-report.com)
  • In a second experiment, they delivered the sodium channel gene to cardiomyocytes -- electrically active heart cells -- in conditions mimicking various diseases or stressful situations, such as a heart attack. (innovations-report.com)
  • Select genes potentially playing a role in virulence during endophthalmitis were deleted, and mutants were tested for reduced eye pathogenesis and altered adhesion to host cells. (nih.gov)
  • Bacterial adhesion to ARPE-19 cells. (nih.gov)
  • regulatory
  • Implementation of advanced gene regulatory circuits will require orthogonal transcriptional systems that can be simultaneously controlled and that can produce several different control states. (diva-portal.org)
  • identify
  • We sought to identify pneumococcal genes that are differentially expressed during growth in the vitreous humor of the eye in an experimental endophthalmitis model. (nih.gov)
  • small
  • firing small particles from a gene gun. (wikipedia.org)
  • These data included conserved RNA secondary structures often found in the untranslated regions (UTRs) of the relevant genes and the success of procedures to create artificial small molecule-binding RNAs called aptamers. (wikipedia.org)
  • conditions
  • I know that counterselectable markers are often instrumental for the construction of mutants when under appropriate growth conditions, a counterselectable gene promotes the death of the microorganisms harboring it. (protocol-online.org)