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  • chromosome
  • MN1 is a gene found on human chromosome 22 , with gene map locus 22q12.3-qter. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the first successful gene mapping work and provides important evidence for the Boveri-Sutton chromosome theory of inheritance . (wikipedia.org)
  • While the physical map could be a more "accurate" representation of the genome, genetic maps often offer insights into the nature of different regions of the chromosome, e.g. the genetic distance to physical distance ratio varies greatly at different genomic regions which reflects different recombination rates, and such rate is often indicative of euchromatic (usually gene-rich) vs heterochromatic (usually gene poor) regions of the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of gene expression programming consists of a linear, symbolic string or chromosome of fixed length composed of one or more genes of equal size. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of a chromosome with two genes, each of size 9, is the string (position zero indicates the start of each gene): 012345678012345678 L+a-baccd**cLabacd where "L" represents the natural logarithm function and "a", "b", "c", and "d" represent the variables and constants used in a problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • The silver dapple trait is caused by a missense mutation (labeled Z) in the PMEL17 gene on horse chromosome 6. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Causality in the regulatory genome: The reasons why genes are expressed when and where they are in the spatial domains of the developing organism are revealed in network "architecture," that is, in the total aggregate pattern of regulatory linkages. (pnas.org)
  • However, non-viral vectors do not lead to DNA integration of the gene of interest into the host genome. (bioscirep.org)
  • Genes can be viewed as one special type of genetic markers in the construction of genome maps, and mapped the same way as any other markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many experiments of this sort measure an entire genome simultaneously, that is, every gene present in a particular cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human genome contains on the order of 25,000 genes which work in concert to produce on the order of 1,000,000 distinct proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • They explain exactly how genomic sequence encodes the regulation of expression of the sets of genes that progressively generate developmental patterns and execute the construction of multiple states of differentiation. (pnas.org)
  • A gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The maize P gene encodes a Myb homolog that recognizes the sequence CCT/AACC, in sharp contrast with the C/TAACGG bound by vertebrate Myb proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In gene mapping, any sequence feature that can be faithfully distinguished from the two parents can be used as a genetic marker. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are grouped in distinct families on the basis of closer sequence similarities in the bHLH domain: Genes of the ASC and Ngn families, and possibly members of the family of ato homologues, have a similar proneural function in vertebrates to that of their Drosophila counterparts, whereas other neural bHLH genes are involved in specifying neuronal fates or in neuronal differentiation, but have no proneural role. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence based techniques, like RNA-Seq , provide information on the sequences of genes in addition to their expression level. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Some regulatory modules control the activities of the genes encoding regulatory proteins. (pnas.org)
  • These genes, and the proteins they encode, are important new potential targets for novel drugs that could selectively cut off a tumor's blood supply without affecting the blood vessels of healthy tissues, overcoming one of the major concerns of current anticancer therapies targeted at blood vessel growth. (nih.gov)
  • MHC class II genes provide instructions for making proteins that are present on the surface of certain immune system cells. (nih.gov)
  • Proneural genes encode a group of bHLH proteins that play crucial roles in controlling cell fate in a variety of tissue types. (wikipedia.org)
  • This implies that each of these proteins is capable of regulating both common target genes for neurogenesis and unique target genes for neuronal subtype characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is due to alternative splicing , and also because cells make important changes to proteins through posttranslational modification after they first construct them, so a given gene serves as the basis for many possible versions of a particular protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • While knowledge of the precise proteins a cell makes ( proteomics ) is more relevant than knowing how much messenger RNA is made from each gene, gene expression profiling provides the most global picture possible in a single experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • By comparing the gene expression profiles of endothelial cells from regenerating liver to those derived from tumor-bearing livers, the researchers found 13 distinct genes that were selectively overexpressed (turned on to a greater degree than other genes) during disease-related angiogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Beta-catenin helps control the activity (expression) of particular genes and promotes the growth and division (proliferation) of cells and the process by which cells mature to carry out specific functions (differentiation). (nih.gov)
  • Consequently, this results in genomic integration of the potentially therapeutic gene into chromosomes of the desired target cells, and thus conferring stable expression. (bioscirep.org)
  • Gene delivery can be achieved ex vivo , whereby donor-derived cells are cultured and genetically modified in vitro and subsequently reintroduced to autologous or allogeneic recipients [ 8 ]. (bioscirep.org)
  • Alternatively, in vivo gene transfer is applied locally or systemically to genetically modify the target cells in situ [ 9 ]. (bioscirep.org)
  • Proneural genes encode transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) class which are responsible for the development of neuroectodermal progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the same ectodermal cell types, neural or epidermal cells can develop based on interactions between proneural and neurogenic genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, proneural genes mutants fail to develop neural precursor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proneural genes are expressed in groups of cells (proneural clusters) from which one progenitor cell - typically the one in the middle - will be singled out, leading to the formation of many different types of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells within a cluster that express a proneural gene (called a proneural cluster) can be thought of as cells of an equivalence group. (wikipedia.org)
  • In neuroectoderm, neurogenic genes are required to single out cells from within proneural clusters to form neuronal precursors, leaving the remaining cells of proneural clusters to develop into epidermal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the genes underlying tobiano, dominant white, frame overo spotting and the Leopard complex common to the Appaloosa, the champagne gene does not affect the location of pigment-producing cells in the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many factors determine whether a gene is on or off, such as the time of day, whether or not the cell is actively dividing, its local environment, and chemical signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, skin cells, liver cells and nerve cells turn on (express) somewhat different genes and that is in large part what makes them different. (wikipedia.org)
  • HeLa cells helped develop the polio vaccine and aided in the success of in vitro fertilization, cloning, and gene mapping. (independent.com)
  • mutations
  • Researchers have identified more than 1,800 mutations in the BRCA2 gene. (nih.gov)
  • Most BRCA2 gene mutations lead to the production of an abnormally small, nonfunctional version of the BRCA2 protein from one copy of the gene in each cell. (nih.gov)
  • As a result, less of this protein is available to help repair damaged DNA or fix mutations that occur in other genes. (nih.gov)
  • Many of the same BRCA2 gene mutations that increase the risk of breast cancer (described above) also increase the risk of ovarian cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Women with BRCA2 gene mutations have an approximately 12 to 25 percent chance of developing ovarian cancer in their lifetimes, as compared with 1.6 percent in the general population. (nih.gov)
  • More than 30 inherited BRCA2 gene mutations have been found to increase the risk of prostate cancer. (nih.gov)
  • BRCA2 gene mutations likely reduce the BRCA2 protein's ability to repair DNA, allowing potentially damaging mutations to persist in various other genes. (nih.gov)
  • Inherited mutations in the BRCA2 gene also increase the risk of several other types of cancer, including pancreatic cancer and an aggressive form of skin cancer called melanoma. (nih.gov)
  • More than 150 PSEN1 gene mutations have been identified in patients with early-onset Alzheimer disease, a degenerative brain condition that begins before age 65. (nih.gov)
  • Mutations in the PSEN1 gene are the most common cause of early-onset Alzheimer disease, accounting for up to 70 percent of cases. (nih.gov)
  • Almost all PSEN1 gene mutations change single building blocks of DNA (nucleotides) in a particular segment of the PSEN1 gene. (nih.gov)
  • Studies suggest that the PSEN1 gene mutation that causes hidradenitis suppurativa has a different effect on γ-secretase function than the mutations that cause early-onset Alzheimer disease. (nih.gov)
  • Several mutations in the APC gene have been found in people with a type of aggressive but noncancerous (benign) growth called a desmoid tumor. (nih.gov)
  • APC gene mutations typically cause formation of desmoid tumors in the abdomen, but these tumors can also occur in other parts of the body. (nih.gov)
  • Although APC -related desmoid tumors are commonly associated with a form of colon cancer called familial adenomatous polyposis (described below), APC gene mutations can cause tumors in individuals without this inherited disease. (nih.gov)
  • Most APC gene mutations that cause sporadic desmoid tumors lead to an abnormally short APC protein. (nih.gov)
  • More than 700 mutations in the APC gene have been identified in families with the classic and attenuated types of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). (nih.gov)
  • Mutations in the APC gene are also responsible for a disorder called Turcot syndrome, which is closely related to familial adenomatous polyposis. (nih.gov)
  • Approximately two-thirds of people with Turcot syndrome have mutations in the APC gene. (nih.gov)
  • Somatic mutations in the APC gene may be involved in the development of a small percentage of stomach (gastric) cancers. (nih.gov)
  • More than 30 mutations in the ATP1A2 gene have been identified in people with familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2). (nih.gov)
  • ATP1A2 gene mutations can also cause sporadic hemiplegic migraine. (nih.gov)
  • protein
  • A missense mutation is a change in a single nucleotide in a gene that results in the cell making a different amino acid, thus changing the protein and effect of the gene itself. (bcm.edu)
  • S1PR2 is a basic protein that affects how important genes are expressed in the inner ear. (bcm.edu)
  • They are the chief protein components of chromatin, acting as spools around which DNA winds, and play a role in gene regulation. (genenames.org)
  • The BRCA2 gene provides instructions for making a protein that acts as a tumor suppressor. (nih.gov)
  • Among the genes identified was CD276, a gene that encodes a protein located on the cell surface, as well as other known and previously undescribed genes. (nih.gov)
  • The PSEN1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called presenilin 1. (nih.gov)
  • The APC gene provides instructions for making the APC protein, which plays a critical role in several cellular processes. (nih.gov)
  • The ATP1A2 gene provides instructions for making one part (the alpha-2 subunit) of a protein known as a Na+/K+ ATPase. (nih.gov)
  • The known ATP1A2 gene mutation associated with this condition replaces a single protein building block (amino acid) in Na+/K+ ATPase: the amino acid threonine is replaced with the amino acid asparagine at protein position 378 (written as Thr378Asn or T378N). (nih.gov)
  • Others prevent the production of any protein from one copy of the ATP1A2 gene in each cell. (nih.gov)
  • The HLA-DPB1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that plays a critical role in the immune system. (nih.gov)
  • The protein produced from the HLA-DPB1 gene attaches (binds) to the protein produced from another MHC class II gene, HLA-DPA1 . (nih.gov)
  • Having variants of the HLA-DPB1 gene that contain the protein building block (amino acid) glutamic acid at position 69 (written as E69) increases the risk of developing beryllium sensitization or chronic beryllium disease. (nih.gov)
  • Cadherin-1 also known as CAM 120/80 or epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) or uvomorulin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDH1 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • In sorghum, the corresponding yellow seed 1 gene (y1) also encodes a R2R3 type of Myb domain protein that regulates the expression of chalcone synthase , chalcone isomerase and dihydroflavonol reductase genes required for the biosynthesis of 3-deoxyflavonoids . (wikipedia.org)
  • D site of albumin promoter (albumin D-box) binding protein , also known as DBP , is a protein which in humans is encoded by the DBP gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning of a cDNA encoding a DNA-binding protein TAXREB302 that is specific for the tax-responsive enhancer of HTLV-I". Gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • How are genetic conditions and genes named? (nih.gov)
  • Viral vectors are most commonly used for clinical gene therapy resulting in the marketing authorization approval for several products to treat genetic diseases and cancer [ 1 , 2 ]. (bioscirep.org)
  • While both maps are a collection of genetic markers and gene loci, genetic maps' distances are based on the genetic linkage information, while physical maps use actual physical distances usually measured in number of base pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their linkage with other genetic markers are calculated in the same way as if they are common markers and the actual gene loci are then bracketed in a region between the two nearest neighbouring markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process is often referred to as " positional cloning ", and it is used extensively in the study of plant species The great advantage of genetic mapping is that it can identify the relative position of genes based solely on their phenotypic effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene pool is the set of all genes , or genetic information, in any population , usually of a particular species . (wikipedia.org)
  • A large gene pool indicates extensive genetic diversity , which is associated with robust populations that can survive bouts of intense selection . (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression programming belongs to the family of evolutionary algorithms and is closely related to genetic algorithms and genetic programming. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically the color was found in the Dutch Groningen, but the breed was crossbred to produce the Dutch Warmblood and underwent subsequent genetic bottlenecking, so the gene may no longer be present. (wikipedia.org)
  • I believe hox genes are genetic. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • It is the first time that a mutation in the S1PR gene family has been associated with human disease," said Dr. Suzanne Leal , director of the Center for Statistical Genetics at Baylor and a professor of molecular and human genetics at the College. (bcm.edu)
  • However, not everyone who inherits a mutation in the BRCA2 gene will develop cancer. (nih.gov)
  • At least one mutation in the PSEN1 gene has been found to cause hidradenitis suppurativa, a chronic skin disease characterized by recurrent boil-like lumps (nodules) under the skin that develop in hair follicles. (nih.gov)
  • The identified mutation deletes a single DNA building block (nucleotide) from the PSEN1 gene, written as 725delC. (nih.gov)
  • These differences may explain why no single PSEN1 gene mutation has been reported to cause the signs and symptoms of both diseases. (nih.gov)
  • The most common mutation in FAP is a deletion of five building blocks of DNA (nucleotides) in the APC gene. (nih.gov)
  • Although most people with FAP will develop colorectal cancer, the number of polyps and the time frame in which they become cancerous depend on the location of the mutation in the APC gene. (nih.gov)
  • A certain mutation in the APC gene (unrelated to Turcot syndrome) is found in approximately 6 percent of people with Ashkenazi (eastern and central European) Jewish heritage. (nih.gov)
  • At least one mutation in the ATP1A2 gene can cause alternating hemiplegia of childhood. (nih.gov)
  • Champagne is a dominant trait, based on a mutation in the SLC36A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • encodes
  • The randomly generated string below is an example of one such gene: 0123456789012345678901234567890 *b+a-aQab+//+b+babbabbbababbaaa It encodes the expression tree: which, in this case, only uses 8 of the 31 elements that constitute the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • variants
  • Variants of the HLA-DPB1 gene are associated with immune reactions to beryllium, a metallic element that can be toxic. (nih.gov)
  • family
  • The HLA-DPB1 gene is part of a family of genes called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. (nih.gov)
  • The HLA complex is the human version of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a gene family that occurs in many species. (nih.gov)
  • and two ato-related genes, amos and cato, were later-isolated, defining a second family of proneural genes - atonal complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • What would you do if you discovered that one of your family members' genes had been harvested for medical testing without her knowledge? (independent.com)
  • locus
  • Gene mapping describes the methods used to identify the locus of a gene and the distances between genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The entire process is then repeated by looking at more markers which target that region to map the gene neighbourhood to a higher resolution until a specific causative locus can be identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • Proneural genes promote neurogenesis and inhibit gliogenesis but some neurogenic factors can regulate both of these processes, depending on the proneural genes concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • carries
  • Genes contain the instructions for making messenger RNA ( mRNA ), but at any moment each cell makes mRNA from only a fraction of the genes it carries. (wikipedia.org)
  • A silver dapple masked by gray (i.e. carries both genes and, because gray is a dominant gene, becomes white with age) may be identified by use of DNA testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1920s
  • The Russian geneticist Aleksandr Sergeevich Serebrovskii first formulated the concept in the 1920s as genofond (gene fund), a word that was imported to the United States from the Soviet Union by Theodosius Dobzhansky , who translated it into English as "gene pool. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proneural genes were first identified in the 1920s[by whom? (wikipedia.org)
  • alleles
  • Researchers have identified hundreds of different versions (alleles) of the HLA-DPB1 gene, each of which is given a particular number (such as HLA-DPB1*03:01 ). (nih.gov)
  • The distance between the genes (map units) are equal to the percentage of crossing-over events that occurs between different alleles. (wikipedia.org)
  • dominant gene
  • However, if a horse is homozygous for a dominant gene, it will always pass the gene on to all of its offspring, while if the horse is heterozygous for the gene, the offspring will not always inherit the color. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila
  • Later on, in the 1970s, the achaete-scute complex, a complex of genes that are involved in regulating the early steps of neural development in Drosophila, were identified[by whom? (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Horses affected by these genes can sometimes be confused with champagnes, but champagnes are genetically distinct. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • A team of researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has uncovered a set of genes that are turned on, or expressed, at high levels only in the blood vessels that feed tumors in mice and humans. (nih.gov)
  • inherits
  • If a horse inherits the champagne gene from either or both parents, a coat that would otherwise be chestnut is instead gold champagne, with bay corresponding to amber champagne, seal brown to sable champagne, and black to classic champagne. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Using molecular tools it was possible to isolate the first four genes of this complex: achaete (ac), scute (sc), lethal of scute (lsc) and asense (ase). (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • It is most important to determine regulatory network architecture, and this can be done by experimental perturbation followed by measurement of the effects on function of many individual genes. (pnas.org)
  • Network substructure: Gene regulatory networks are inhomogeneous compositions of different kinds of subcircuits, each performing a specific kind of function. (pnas.org)
  • Proneural genes may function in analogous fashions in vertebrates and invertebrates, specifically they were implicated in early neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Secondary gene pool (GP-2): Members of this pool are probably normally classified as different species than the crop species under consideration (the primary gene pool). (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene pool centres also contain different sub tropical and temperate region species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural bHLH genes have different functions depending on: the sensitivity to lateral inhibition, which determines if a cell becomes epidermal or neuronal, and whether the gene is expressed in the CNS before or after the terminal mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is difficult to distinguish between homozygous and heterozygous champagne, which is different from incomplete dominant dilutions such as the cream gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Harlan and de Wet (1971) proposed classifying each crop and its related species by gene pools rather than by formal taxonomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary gene pool (GP-1): Members of this gene pool are probably in the same " species " (in conventional biological usage) and can intermate freely. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. (nih.gov)
  • hypothesis
  • The results support the hypothesis that the paternal gene pools of Jewish communities from Europe, North Africa and the Middle East descended from a common Middle Eastern ancestral population, and suggest that most Jewish communities have remained relatively isolated from neighboring non-Jewish communities during and after the Diaspora. (aish.com)
  • traits
  • Genes, in this regard, are represented by "traits" that can be faithfully distinguished between two parents. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most distinctive traits of horses with the champagne gene are the hazel eyes and pinkish, freckled skin, which are bright blue and bright pink at birth, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Horses with the champagne gene have a lightened hair coat and specific eye and skin color traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • This means that the size of the coding regions varies from gene to gene, allowing for adaptation and evolution to occur smoothly. (wikipedia.org)
  • given
  • For GEP genes the length of the tail is given by the formula: t = h ( n max − 1 ) + 1 {\displaystyle t=h(n_{\max }-1)+1} where h is the head's length and nmax is maximum arity. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • The researchers proposed to answer the question whether the scattered groups of modern Jews can be identified as the descendants of the ancient Hebrews of the Bible, or whether their common ancestry has been diluted through influx of converts and through intermarriage so that little remains of their 'Jewish genes. (aish.com)
  • viral
  • In addition, the maximum cargo size of viral vectors is restricted, hampering gene transfer of larger therapeutic genes. (bioscirep.org)
  • A variety of non-viral gene delivery methods have been developed to improve the efficacy of gene transfer. (bioscirep.org)