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  • genomes
  • As Jian, Rivera and Lake (1999) put it: "Increasingly, studies of genes and genomes are indicating that considerable horizontal transfer has occurred between prokaryotes" (see also Lake and Rivera, 2007). (wikipedia.org)
  • Current researchers have developed gene transfer systems on the basis of conservative transposition which can integrate new DNA in both invertebrates and vertebrate genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Using complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray technology to examine in vitro and in vivo global cellular gene expression profiles in the rat brain, cultured human astrocytes and human neuronal cells after viral transduction, host antiviral responses were observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene electrotransfer was first described in the 1980s and since then due to its ease of application and efficiency become a routine method for introducing foreign genes into bacterial, yeast, plant, and animal cells in vitro and into different tissues, including muscle, tumors, liver, and skin in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms involved in gene electrotransfer using high- and low-voltage pulses -An in vitro study, Bioelectrochemistry 74:265-271 Aihara H, Miyazaki J (1998). (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • The technology has contributed to understand the functions of the many genes discovered in the genome projects (functional genomics). (mybiosource.com)
  • The baculoviral genome has a large capacity for foreign gene insert with up to 38 kb have been tried successfully. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grafting of one plant to another can transfer chloroplasts (organelles in plant cells that conduct photosynthesis), mitochondrial DNA, and the entire cell nucleus containing the genome to potentially make a new species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transposase coding region of these transposons is replaced by a gene of interest intended to be integrated into the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • successfully
  • Non-invasive bioluminescent imaging (BLI) has been successfully used for evaluation of cell and gene therapies in small animal models [ 3 - 6 ], though it has not yet been systematically applied to analysis of physical gene transfer methods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Introductory chapters review the delivery methods presented, discussing their advantages and disadvantages, how they have been used successfully for gene delivery, and the future of their technology. (springer.com)
  • These barriers allow for protection against the threat that every fertilization event could become a potentially mutagenic one.4 Transgenic animals have been produced successfully using gene transfer techniques such as sperm-mediated gene transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoter
  • Plasmid DNA carrying the firefly luciferase (LUC) reporter gene under the control of the human Cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter/enhancer was transfected into mouse skin and liver using biolistic methods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • pathology
  • Gene transfer strategies for medical management of the Osteoarthritis have attracted the attention of scientists due to the complex pathology of this chronic disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • liposomes
  • Effective gene transfer to solid tumors using different nonviral gene delivery techniques: Electroporation, liposomes, and integrin-targeted vector, Cancer Gene Ther 9:399-406 Heller R, Jaroszeski M, Atkin A, Moradpour D, Gilbert R, Wands J, Nicolau C (1996). (wikipedia.org)
  • FuGene 6 and modified cationic liposomes are two non-viral gene delivery methods that have so far been utilized for gene delivery to cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liposomes have shown to be an appropriate candidate for gene delivery, where cationic liposomes are made to facilitate the interaction with the cell membranes and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • To investigate whether molecular variation in the renin gene contributes to the greater blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) versus normotensive Brown Norway (BN) rats, we measured blood pressure in an SHR progenitor strain and an SHR congenic strain that are genetically identical except at the renin gene and an associated segment of chromosome 13 transferred from the BN strain. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These findings demonstrate that (1) under the environmental circumstances of the current study, the greater blood pressure of SHR versus BN rats cannot be explained by strain differences in the renin gene and (2) a quantitative trait locus affecting lipid metabolism exists on chromosome 13 within the transferred chromosome segment. (biomedsearch.com)
  • donor
  • RESULTS: Antisense gene transfer resulted in markedly downregulation of B7.1 in the donor livers, attenuated acute immune rejection against liver allografts, prolonged the survival time of rats, and decreased the number of infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ cells in livers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • target tissues
  • The plasmids were coupled to gold microspheres (1 μm diameter) using different DNA Loading Ratios (DLRs), and "shot" into target tissues using a helium-driven gene gun. (biomedcentral.com)
  • transposon
  • it is an enzyme that cuts through double-stranded DNA to remove the transposon, then transfers and pastes it into a target site. (wikipedia.org)
  • All simple transposons contain a transposase encoding region flanked by terminal inverted repeats, but the additional genes within the transposon DNA can vary. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Sleeping Beauty transposon system is an example of gene transfer system developed for use in vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • In 1944 Oswald Avery established that the substance transferred between cells was DNA. (mybiosource.com)
  • There are a number of factors that can influence the efficiency of gene electrotransfer, such as: temperature, parameters of electric pulses, DNA concentration, electroporation buffer used, cell size and the ability of cells to express transfected genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene transfer into mouse lyoma cells by electroporation in high electric fields, EMBO J 7:841-845 Drury L (1996). (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Backcross breeding and molecular selection at the renin locus were used to create the SHR congenic strain (designated SHR.BN-Ren) that carries the renin gene transferred from the normotensive BN strain. (biomedsearch.com)
  • During this time, Nabel became known for her research in the fields of vascular biology and molecular cardiology, and for her gene transfer studies of the cardiovascular system. (wikipedia.org)
  • congenital
  • Two groups of investigators have reported independently on their initial observations from Phase I clinical trials of gene transfer for Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) caused by mutations in the RPE65 gene. (nih.gov)
  • developmental
  • The 35th N:osbach Colloquium "The Impact of Gene Transfer Techniques in Eukaryotic CeU Biology" brought together a number of speakers interested in various aspects of cellular and developmental biology and over 600 other scientists, who listened to the lectures and participated in the lively discussions. (springer.com)
  • Function
  • Proof-of-concept' studies in animal models of LCA demonstrated gene transfer techniques to be safe, effective, and long-lasting in restoring visual function. (nih.gov)
  • No conclusions can be made at present as to whether gene transfer will restore visual function in people with LCA or impede further progression of the disease. (nih.gov)
  • To be effective, a gene delivery technology must not interfere with normal cellular function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brinster and longtime collaborator Richard Palmiter pioneered techniques to transfer foreign genes into mammals, and they utilized these methods to elucidate the activity and function of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erwin Wagner's studies are focused in the area of gene function in both healthy and pathological states. (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • The related genes were mainly those associated with innate immunity, including several of the genes involved in Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • manipulation
  • Now, and for some time to corne, these contri- butions and the resulting increase in our understanding of life will be the main result of gene manipulation. (springer.com)
  • effective
  • Since gene electrotransfer is very simple, rapid and highly effective technique it first became very convenient replacement for other transformation procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • delivery
  • There are a variety of gene delivery methods currently available, with the main purpose of any given strategy being to efficiently transfer and express the target gene(s) of interest without adverse side-effects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An accompanying volume, Volume 1: Nonviral Gene Transfer Techniques, focuses on gene delivery by a variety of chemical and physical methods. (springer.com)
  • Simultaneous delivery of multiple genes to the same cell is feasible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the method is not systemic, but strictly local one, it is still the most efficient non-viral strategy for gene delivery. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • These Phase I clinical trials are designed as a preliminary assessment of the safety of gene transfer techniques in treating people with LCA. (nih.gov)
  • These insights will enable investigators to refine the gene transfer techniques and will provide the preliminary information needed to design the Phase II and Phase III clinical trials that are necessary to determine both safety and effectiveness in a rigorous way. (nih.gov)
  • Also first phase I clinical trial of gene electrotransfer in patients with metastatic melanoma was reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are currently several ongoing clinical studies of gene electrotransfer, where safety, tolerability and effectiveness of immunization with DNA vaccine, which is administered by the electric pulses is monitored. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • Currently, flu vaccines are produced in specialized chicken eggs, but that technique does not allow for speedy mass vaccinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • In October 2003, researchers succeeded in cloning two laboratory rats by nuclear transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • Dr. Jacques Cohen, an embryologist of the Institute, discovered a technique called the cytoplasmic transfer in 1996 in which the contents of a fertile egg from a donor are injected into the infertile egg of the patient who has undergone unsuccessful attempts of IVF along with the sperm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some in vitro fertilization techniques, particularly injecting a sperm into an oocyte, may interfere with this. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is a transgenic technique that transfers genes based on the ability of sperm cells to spontaneously bind to and internalize exogenous DNA and transport it into an oocyte during fertilization to produce genetically modified animals.1 Exogenous DNA refers to DNA that originates outside of the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • These barriers allow for protection against the threat that every fertilization event could become a potentially mutagenic one.4 Transgenic animals have been produced successfully using gene transfer techniques such as sperm-mediated gene transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Using this integrated approach we can discover novel genes and regulators in cancer development and metastasis. (umich.edu)
  • This project represents an opportunity to harness the novel techniques of synthetic cell bioengineering to establish a UK platform for the optimisation and manufacture of biologics that is robust, flexible/adaptable yet more affordable with the impact of making currently prohibitively expensive therapeutics more widely available and expanding the market into animal health. (ed.ac.uk)
  • neural
  • The wealth of insights into the brain's functioning gained by neuroscience in recent years led to the development of new possibilities for intervening in the brain such as neurotransplantation, neural prostheses and brain stimulation techniques. (indigo.ca)
  • cell
  • This previously unidentified progenitor occurs as a temporally discrete population during ES cell differentiation, and differs from the preceding and succeeding populations in gene expression and differentiation potential, with the unique ability to form surface ectoderm in response to BMP4 signalling. (biologists.org)
  • This is such a popular technique that it has added a new dimension to the fields of molecular biology, cell biology, and biochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • Huntington's disease) to common multi-factorial disorders (e.g. hypertension) that result from the interactions between inherited gene variants and environmental factors, including chemical , physical, biological, social, infectious, behavioural or nutritional factors. (pharmaceuticalconferences.com)
  • material
  • Energy transfer in material solids is driven primarily by differences in intensive thermodynamic quantities such as pressure and temperature. (xonl.de)