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  • Scientists
  • In 1998, scientists led by Andrew Fire , now professor of pathology and genetics at Stanford Medical School, and Craig Mello , now professor of molecular medicine at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, characterized the mechanism of gene silencing. (technologyreview.com)
  • Mirkin had previously established that DNA strands attached to gold nanoparticles would bind complementary strands of messenger RNA within cells - effectively 'silencing' the gene that produced the RNA and allowing scientists to control processes within the cell. (nanowerk.com)
  • The soybean rust fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi may meet its match, thanks to a gene-silencing technique that scientists of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) plan to deploy to identify genes that enable plants to naturally resist this fungal foe. (usda.gov)
  • Gene silencing allows scientists to identify a gene's function by disabling that gene in plants or other organisms, challenging the organism in some way such as with exposure to a pathogen and observing the consequences that result from that gene having been "missing in action. (usda.gov)
  • processes
  • All the cells in an organism contain the same information in their DNA so that, in order that two different cellular types can exist and that there can be two different development processes, the genes that are not needed at a specific moment have to be switched off. (brightsurf.com)
  • miRNA
  • miRNA genes encode precursors with complex hairpin structures which are processed by endonucleolytic cleavage to form mature miRNAs. (uniprot.org)
  • To address whether miRNAs might transcriptionally silence gene expression, we searched for miRNA target sites proximal to known gene transcription start sites in the human genome. (pnas.org)
  • One conserved miRNA, miR-320, is encoded within the promoter region of the cell cycle gene POLR3D in the antisense orientation. (pnas.org)
  • To assess whether endogenous miRNAs might direct TGS in mammals, we performed a bioinformatic search for potential miRNA target sites with perfect sequence complementarity in the promoter regions of well-annotated University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) known human genes ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, in each of these species, the mature miRNA sequence is located within −1 to −200 bp of the proximal known gene TSS, suggesting the functional importance of this conserved genomic context in the antisense orientation ( 14 ) ( Fig. 1 A ). miR-320 is encoded directly upstream of the cell cycle gene POLR3D, which is a conserved subunit specific to RNA polymerase III ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • sequences
  • Upon further examination, we observed that the primary transcripts containing the stem-loop structures of all 10 miRNAs were encoded within the promoter regions of their proximal known genes, suggesting that these miRNAs could potentially target their opposite strand sequences in cis with perfect complementarity. (pnas.org)
  • Therapy
  • There has already been some nuts in the US Fundimentalists that have called anther gene, of which a mutant version produces more monogamous people, as something they wouldn't mind seeing gene therapy to induce. (scienceblogs.com)
  • expression
  • SiRNA oligos are usually 19-22 base pairs in length and when introduced into a cell, inhibit specific gene expression in a sequence-dependent fashion. (nova.edu)
  • It is thus far the most effective and feasible method in inhibiting specific gene expression. (nova.edu)
  • Suppression of Hoxb13 gene expression will lead to the suppression of GFP expression since it expresses as a fusion protein. (nova.edu)
  • The strength of the fluorescence also indicates how much RNA is present in the cell, so the particles could also be used to measure gene expression levels. (nanowerk.com)
  • Once we discovered that these particles were good at knocking out gene expression, we realised it would be great to be able to monitor the process in real time,' said Mirkin. (nanowerk.com)
  • Weihong Tan, who researches bionanotechnology at the University of Florida, US, told Chemistry World: 'The ability to detect and quantitate changes in gene expression, especially in real-time and with a degree of sensitivity suitable to the monitoring of minor changes at the single cell level, will have considerable value for biological advances and medical application. (nanowerk.com)
  • repeats
  • While a normal FMR1 gene contains about 30 of these repeats, people with Fragile X have more than 200. (alzforum.org)
  • mutant
  • Put into mice or human cells, the mutant gene left them unchanged, which only added to the puzzle. (alzforum.org)
  • To figure out why, first author Dilek Colak and colleagues examined hESC lines that express the mutant gene. (alzforum.org)
  • They greatly reduced levels of the mutant RNA coded by the gene in a mouse model of the disease without any toxic effects. (news-medical.net)
  • mutation
  • It is pretty exciting to have a first glimpse of how the mutation shuts down the FMR1 gene," said David Nelson, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston. (alzforum.org)
  • plants
  • In Pedley's studies, the gene-silenced plants will be inoculated with spores of P. pachyrhizi , and monitored for a breakdown in resistance. (usda.gov)
  • play a role
  • Homeobox gene Hoxb13 has been reported to play a role in scarless wound healing process. (nova.edu)
  • Molecular biologist Kerry Pedley , at the ARS Foreign Disease-Weed Science Research Unit at Fort Detrick, Md., will use gene silencing to discover plant genes that play a role in orchestrating defense responses to P. pachyrhizi in resistant soybeans. (usda.gov)
  • target
  • The Hoxb13 gene sequence will be inputted into "SiRNA Target Finder" ( www.ambion.com ) which will aid in designing siRNA oligos. (nova.edu)
  • study
  • A good negative control should be inert and not modulate any genes in the system under study. (idtdna.com)
  • system
  • S. R. Scofield, L. Huang, A. S. Brandt, and B. S. Gill, "Development of a virus-induced gene-silencing system for hexaploid wheat and its use in functional analysis of the Lr21 -mediated leaf rust resistance pathway," Plant Physiology , vol. 138, no. 4, pp. 2165-2173, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • cell
  • That is, a gene which would be expressed ("turned on") under normal circumstances is switched off by machinery in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • Efficient virus-induced gene silencing in Arabidopsis using a 'one-step' TYMV-derived vector," The Plant Journal , vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 678-690, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Potato virus X-induced gene silencing in leaves and tubers of potato," Plant Physiology , vol. 134, no. 4, pp. 1308-1316, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • A method of high frequency virus-induced gene silencing in chili pepper ( Capsicum annuum L. cv. (hindawi.com)