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  • represent genes
  • Synexpression groups in particular represent genes that are simultaneously up- or down-regulated, often because their gene products are required in stoichiometric amounts or are protein-complex subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesoderm
  • Knockout studies in mice indicate that this gene is important for specification of paraxial mesoderm structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • encodes
  • The SALL4 gene encodes at least three isoforms, termed A, B, and C, through alternative splicing, with the A and B forms being the most studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • A key verified target gene encodes the enzyme phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase (PTEN). (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods
  • Divided into five convenient sections, Gene Regulatory Networks: Methods and Protocols details how each of these approaches contributes to a more thorough understanding of the composition and function of gene regulatory networks, while providing a comprehensive protocol on how to implement them in the laboratory. (springer.com)
  • Many contemporary network inference methods rely on a sparsity parameter such as the L1 penalty term used in the LASSO. (diva-portal.org)
  • L1 regularisation methods commonly produce poor network estimates when the data used for inference is ill-conditioned, even when the signal to noise ratio is so high that all links in the network can be proven to exist for the given significance. (diva-portal.org)
  • It also considers approximate validation methods based on data for which the generating network is not known, the kind of situation one faces when using real data. (eurekaselect.com)
  • For this reason, methods that simplify and aid exploration of complex networks are necessary. (uni.lu)
  • thus
  • Thus a yeast cell, finding itself in a sugar solution, will turn on genes to make enzymes that process the sugar to alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the direct connectivity of this network is highly reliable and can provide a systems level view of how network architecture contributes to the precise control of embryonic axes formation and germ layer specification. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, changes in the regulatory patterns of these genes would affect the development of both the fore- and hind-limbs, facilitating co-evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • perturbation
  • Here I report spatiotemporal patterning of 55 regulatory genes and perturbation analyses of key regulatory genes involved in euechinoid oral-aboral patterning of nonskeletogenic mesodermal and ectodermal domains in early development of the cidaroid Eucidaris tribuloides . (pnas.org)