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  • proteins
  • However, when both factors are eliminated simultaneously a block is uncovered at the transition between pre-B and immature B cells, indicating that these proteins exert a critical function in developing B lymphocytes. (nih.gov)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a GTPase activating protein that binds to focal adhesion kinase and mediates the activity of the GTP binding proteins RhoA and Cdc42. (cancerindex.org)
  • Although the diverse immunoglobulin (Ig) receptors on different B lymphocytes generally can bind to a large variety of different substances, the T-cell receptor (TCR) for antigen is built in such a way that it binds preferentially to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encoded molecules that present various peptides, which are degradation products of either cell exogenous or cell endogenous proteins. (springer.com)
  • 1. the RAG genes and RSSs were originally a transposon, and the RAG proteins had transposase activity. (antievolution.org)
  • Interestingly, at distinct stages of T lineage development, both the increased and decreased rearrangement of particular Vδ gene segments is highly sensitive to the dosage of the E2A gene products, suggesting that the concentration of the E2A proteins is rate limiting for the recombination reaction involving these Vδ regions. (rupress.org)
  • kappa
  • In addition, we show that in B cell progenitors VkappaJkappa joining rapidly initiates kappa chain expression, irrespective of the presence of a mu chain. (nih.gov)
  • specificity
  • The CDR1 and CDR2 regions encode two out of the three parts of the variable region that determine the antigenic specificity of the heavy-chain V region. (europeanmedical.info)
  • IRF4 is located on chromosome 6 at the telomeric extremity of the short arm, and lies between the DUSP22 (dual specificity phosphatase 22) and EXOC2 (exocyst complex component 2) genes. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Imprecise fusion at the junctions from insertions and deletions through the activity of terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase creates additional combinatorial diversity (junctional diversity) and the sequence from the V-D, through the D segment to the D-J junction (or V-J junction in light chains) is known as the complementarity determining region (CDR) 3 that is critical for the antibody's antigen specificity ( 9 , 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • lineage
  • Lymphocytes belong to the lymphoid lineage and are considered as divergent from other blood cells lineages as those from the myeloid or erythroid lineage. (intechopen.com)
  • although virtually all T lymphocytes of the αβ lineage express only one particular TCRβ chain, a significant proportion ofT-cells can express two different a chains at the cell surface (6,7) . (springer.com)
  • Whereas IgH VDJ gene rearrangements are specific for and restricted to B lineage cells, the presence of TCR-β VDJ gene rearrangements identifies a T cell. (rupress.org)
  • In addition, assembly of the V region genes is regulated in a developmentally stage-specific manner within developing B and T lineage cells. (rupress.org)
  • progenitors
  • the common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) can differentiate into all types of lymphocytes but lack the myeloid potential under physiological conditions, although some myeloid-related genes can be detected in CLPs depending on experimental conditions [ 1 , 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • In mouse mutants incapable of expressing mu chains, VkappaJkappa joints are detected in the CD43(+) B cell progenitors. (nih.gov)
  • tumor
  • L19-IL2 is a tumor targeted immunocytokine constituted of a single chain Fr. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Further research is needed to assess the influence of preoperative chemotherapy and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes on the miRNA and mRNA patterns in WT. (cancerindex.org)
  • The presence and pattern of somatic mutations in the rearranged V genes identified germinal center B cells as the precursors of the tumor cells ( 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • In a minority of cHD cases (∼5-15%), however, H/RS cells express cytotoxic T cell markers (granzyme B, perforin, and T cell intracellular antigen 1 [TIA-, raising the possibility that the tumor cells in these cases might originate from T lymphocytes ( 6 )( 7 )( 8 )( 9 ). (rupress.org)
  • lymphoblasts
  • The neoplastic cells are both small lymphocytes and larger, transformed lymphoblasts, and they invade the mantle zone of splenic follicles and erode the marginal zone, ultimately invading the red pulp of the spleen. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • The latest PCR analysis of archive peripheral blood smears confirmed B lymphocyte clonality without diagnostic criteria for lymphoproliferative disease of CLL type. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Lymphocyte morphology, as evaluated on the peripheral blood smear, can also be an important clue as to the possible cause of the lymphocytosis. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • The neoplastic cells circulating in the peripheral blood are termed villous lymphocytes due to their characteristic appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Circulating villous lymphocytes are sometimes observed in peripheral blood samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • This research identified immune responses characterized by lymphocyte infiltration of genetically dissimilar grafts (but not of autografts, which healed in and remained) as being responsible for rejection in both species, and by implication in others. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • VpreB
  • In this study, we report an analysis of the human surrogate L chain VpreB promoter. (lu.se)
  • In addition to this, ectopic expression of EBF induces the activity of a reporter gene under control of the VpreB promoter in epithelioid HeLa cells, an effect augmented by coexpression of the basic-helix-loop helix transcription factor E47. (lu.se)
  • sequence
  • The inherent variability in the upstream 5′ terminus of the H and L chains results in low sequence homology. (clontech.com)