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  • isoforms
  • The Ral isoforms share an 80% overall match in amino acid sequence and 100% match in their effector-binding region. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the above functions appear to be shared between the two Ral isoforms, their differential subcellular localizations result in their differing involvement in certain biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of these protein isoforms, filamin 1 (also called ABP-280) is the founding and most widely distributed ( 11 , 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Statistical and structural analyses support a functional evolution scenario, where Rap1 isoforms of retrogenic origin are functionally distinct from their parental proteins. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We furthermore demonstrate that these three Rap1 isoforms exhibit distinct affinities for the Ras-binding domain of RalGDS. (beds.ac.uk)
  • mammalian
  • Signal-transducing protein phosphorylation cascades mediated by Ras/Rho proteins in the mammalian cell: the potential for multiplex signalling. (bio-rad.com)
  • Instead the protein, which is predominantly expressed at high levels in mammalian postmitotic central nervous system neurons, functions in diverse processes such as synaptic plasticity and neuronal migration through phosphorylation of proteins required for cytoskeletal organization, endocytosis and exocytosis, and apoptosis. (cancerindex.org)
  • Furthermore, we could convert an intrabody which does not bind RAS in mammalian cells into a high‐affinity reagent capable of inhibiting RAS‐mediated NIH 3T3 transformation by exchanging VH and VL complementarity‐determining regions onto its consensus scaffold. (embopress.org)
  • Genes
  • However, there is still limited information on the nature of the genes and gene products whose aberrant expression and activity promote the malignant conversion of nasopharyngeal epithelium. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For example, genes indicating cell cycle aberrations (cyclin D2, cyclin B1, activator of S-phase kinase, and the cell cycle checkpoint kinase, CHK1) and invasive-metastatic potential (matrix metalloproteinase 11, v-Ral, and integrin β 4 ) were highly expressed in tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • genes encode small monomeric proteins of low molecular mass (20-30 kDa) which share at least 30% homology to RAS proteins. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • This has launched the development of novel anticancer agents, interfering with the proteins encoded by the identified mutated genes. (embl.de)
  • The Ras protein is involved in signal transduction: it passes on stimuli from extracellular factors to the cell nucleus, thereby changing the expression of a number of growth regulating genes. (embl.de)
  • The selected pathways were used to design panels of real-time PCR primers tailored for the top-ranked genes for differential gene expression analysis. (bio-rad.com)
  • Reference genes are used in relative gene expression analysis to normalize for variation in the amount of input messenger RNA (mRNA) among samples. (bio-rad.com)
  • To streamline reference gene selection, we offer PCR primers for a set of commonly used reference genes that can be used individually, easily screened using our preplated 96-well and 384-well reference panels or added to custom-designed plates. (bio-rad.com)
  • Recently, gene cloning technologies have allowed the genes for coding antibodies to be manipulated and expressed intracellularly ( Cattaneo and Biocca, 1999 ). (embopress.org)
  • tumor
  • COMPARE and hierarchical cluster analyses of microarray-based transcriptomic mRNA expression data of 59 tumor cell lines revealed a specific gene expression profile predicting sensitivity or resistance towards honokiol. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • kinase
  • Palmitoylation of rPLD1 is not necessary for catalytic activity, since N-terminal truncation mutants lacking the first 168 or 319 amino acids exhibit high basal activity although they cannot be stimulated by protein kinase C (PKC). (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • This gene encodes a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase that is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family of proteins. (cancerindex.org)
  • phospholipase
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phospholipase D (PLD), encoded by the SPO14 gene, catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine, producing choline and phosphatidic acid. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • 3. The method of claim 2, wherein candidate compounds which bind to enzyme phospholipase D2 are identified. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • transmembrane
  • That Rab plays a role in endocytic recycling, regulating apical recycling of several transmembrane proteins including cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator/CFTR, epithelial sodium channel/ENaC, potassium voltage-gated channel, and voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel. (genecards.org)
  • GTP-binding proteins mediate the transmembrane signaling initiated by the occupancy of certain cell surface receptors. (genetex.com)
  • oncogenic
  • Markedly, human hRap1B-retro and mouse mRap1A-retro1 acquired mutations in the 12th and 59th amino acids, respectively, corresponding to residues mutated in constitutively active oncogenic Ras proteins. (beds.ac.uk)
  • cellular
  • Rac1-induced polyphosphoinositide synthesis causes cellular actin assembly by uncapping actin filament ends ( 4 ), and the actin filament severing and barbed end capping protein gelsolin participates in this process ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Apart from Ras, they also target other cellular proteins that require farnesylation to become activated, e.g. (embl.de)
  • epithelial
  • The interactions between epithelial ion channels and actin that have been elucidated to date are predominantly indirect, being mediated through scaffolding proteins [e.g. (physiology.org)
  • The PDZ domains of scaffolding proteins typically bind to short consensus sequences situated within the extreme COOH termini of epithelial ion channels (see Refs. (physiology.org)
  • residues
  • These modified Ras proteins carry a number of different, natural and non-natural lipid residues, and the process was extended to also provide access to a number of fluorescently labeled derivatives. (embl.de)
  • Furthermore, a preliminary study on the biological activity of the natural Ras protein derivative (containing the normal farnesyl and palmitoyl lipid residues) has shown full biological activity. (embl.de)
  • biological
  • p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge. (uniprot.org)
  • Furthermore, access to bioconjugates that embody the correct structure of the protein but that may additionally carry different lipid groups or labels (i.e., fluorescent tags) by which the protein can be traced in biological systems, could provide invaluable reagents. (embl.de)
  • Each pathway belongs to one or more general biological categories such as cancer. (bio-rad.com)
  • Whereas
  • Here, we show that in fibroblasts, insulin, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and serum activate ATF2 via a so far unknown two‐step mechanism involving two distinct Ras effector pathways: the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway induces phosphorylation of ATF2 Thr71, whereas subsequent ATF2 Thr69 phosphorylation requires the Ral-RalGDS-Src-p38 pathway. (embopress.org)
  • cell migration
  • Despite the similarities, the functions of Rap1 and Rap2 have not been completely elucidated although recent studies suggest that both Rap proteins may be involved in cell migration and adhesion. (ubc.ca)