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  • murine leuke
  • We hypothesized that the gp70 Env product of an endogenous murine leukemia virus could be a target antigen for TS/A-specific CTLs and investigated this possibility in four different TS/A cell lines engineered with the genes that encode IFN-α, IFN-γ, interleukin-4, and B7.1, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Murine leukemia virus (MLV) vector particles can be pseudotyped with a truncated variant of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope protein (Env) and selectively target gene transfer to human cells expressing both CD4 and an appropriate co-receptor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1984. A mutant murine leukemia virus with a single missense codon in pol is defective in a function affecting integration. (asmscience.org)
  • 1984. Construction and analysis of deletion mutations in the pol gene of Moloney murine leukemia virus: A new viral function required for productive infection. (asmscience.org)
  • The viral genome has the coding capacity for the Moloney murine leukemia virus gag gene product and contains large deletions in pol and env genes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Retroviruses
  • Retroviruses pack multiple genes into relatively small genomes by encoding several genes in the same genomic region with overlapping reading frames. (nih.gov)
  • A general phylogenetic analysis based on the TM proteins of retroelements, and including those with no clearly identified immunosuppressive domain, could then be derived and compared with pol -based phylogenetic trees, providing a comprehensive survey of retroelements and definitive evidence for recombination events in the generation of both the endogenous and the present-day infectious retroviruses. (asm.org)
  • proteins
  • Two main groups of LTR retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) are found throughout eukaryotes, and are distinguished by the organization of their pol genes and similarities among their encoded RT proteins [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CTL responses to Gag, Pol and Nef proteins at 3 month and 1 year post infection were detected with Gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay using optimized consensus overlapping peptides, as well as the viral quasispecies sequences from the synchronous plasma. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In contrast to the pol gene, the env gene, encoding the protein involved in virus entry, has long been considered a highly diverging sequence in relation to the highly diverse sequences of the receptor molecules with which the env proteins interact for virus-cell interaction and entry. (asm.org)
  • We have applied the yeast two-hybrid system to monitor protein-protein interactions between viral proteins, and to identify new host proteins that interact with the Gag, Pol and Env gene products. (columbia.edu)
  • Sequencing
  • Sequencing of gag, nef, and pol was performed in 37 epidemiologically linked recipients from Zambia at the time of identified infection and every 3 mo for the first year. (nih.gov)
  • Sequencing of the gag genes, LTRs, and untranslated regions of several ev/J proviruses revealed a high level of identity between isolates, indicating that they have not undergone significant sequence variation since their introduction into the avian germ line. (asm.org)
  • envelope
  • Among them, the transmembrane (TM) subunit of the envelope gene is involved in virus entry through membrane fusion. (asm.org)
  • This family was identified during our investigation into the origin of the novel subgroup J envelope gene that was found several years ago in unusual strains of avian leukosis virus (ALV) (called ALV-J) in England ( 46 ). (asm.org)
  • Subunit
  • Vaccinia virus-encoded ribonucleotide reductase: sequence conservation of the gene for the small subunit and its amplification in hydroxyurea-resistant mutants. (asm.org)
  • Molecular
  • The artificial introduction of new traits into living cells by means of molecular gene transfer techniques has been developed into a routine procedure, applicable to both prokaryotic and various eukaryotic organisms. (springer.com)
  • enzyme
  • This enzyme is essential for the life cycle of all retroid elements, but other genes are also endowed with conserved essential functions. (asm.org)
  • cells
  • Tumorigenicity of adenovirus-transformed cells: collagen interaction and cell surface laminin are controlled by the serotype origin of the E1A and E1B genes. (asm.org)
  • contrast
  • The SU-coding region of the subgroup J env gene, in contrast, shows only 40% identity to those of the subgroup A to E viruses ( 4 , 5 , 9 , 58 ). (asm.org)
  • antigen
  • To examine the extent of active immune response to virally encoded CEs, we analyzed human leukocyte antigen class I-associated polymorphisms in HIV-1 gag, pol, and nef genes from a large cohort of South Africans with chronic infection. (nih.gov)
  • Virus isolation should not only be evaluated with HTLV-specific tests (antigen assay or immunofluorescence) but, where available, also by assays for particle-associated RT, preferentially product-enhanced RT (PERT) assay. (asmscience.org)
  • sequence
  • However, the subgroup J env gene also included regions that were not related to E51 or to any other sequence in the GenBank database, indicating that if E51-type proviruses contributed to the generation of the subgroup J env gene, there must have been other elements that contributed as well. (asm.org)
  • virus
  • Identification of herpes simplex virus type 1 genes required for origin-dependent DNA synthesis. (asm.org)
  • Four viral genes independently contribute to attenuation of live influenza A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (H2N2) cold-adapted reassortant virus vaccines. (asm.org)
  • small
  • What small gram-positive, non-spore-forming rod is a facultative intracellular parasite that grows in the cold and is associated with unpasteurized milk products? (cram.com)
  • The transfer of a marker gene by MLV/HIV-1 vectors is therefore a safe and simple method to assay entry mediated by HIV-1 Env and can be used to evaluate HIV-1 entry inhibitors, such as small molecules or neutralizing antibodies in sera of vaccinated animals or patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • transfer
  • For higher plants, nature itself has evolved an elegant and sophisticated gene transfer system in the Ti-plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens . (springer.com)
  • elements
  • These groups are referred to as Ty1/copia elements (Pseudoviridae) and Ty3/gypsy elements (Metaviridae), which respectively display a PR, IN, RT, RH and PR, RT, RH, IN gene organization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • region
  • A PCR assay was unable to amplify the junctional region between the downstream MoMLV element and the adenoviral E2B gene, consistent with a break in that element. (medsci.org)