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  • retroviral
  • Phylogenetic analyses of retroviral elements, including endogenous retroviruses, have relied essentially on the retroviral pol gene expressing the highly conserved reverse transcriptase. (asm.org)
  • Among the gag , pol , and env retroviral genes, the pol gene, encoding reverse transcriptase (RT), is by far the most conserved among the retroid elements ( 33 ). (asm.org)
  • Due to most probably very stringent constraints for enzymatic activity, this gene is highly conserved not only among retroviral elements but also among a large series of elements requiring a reverse transcription step, including endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) and retrotransposons, group II introns, and the cellular telomerase genes, as well as some plasmidic elements from procaryotes ( 51 ). (asm.org)
  • By using antibody against recombinant env gene product we observed the presence of human endogenous retroviral antigen in the placenta. (nii.ac.jp)
  • However, to utilize retroviral vector for gene delivery in humans it must be targeted to deliver its payload to a specific tissue or cell type. (hubpages.com)
  • subtype
  • In this study, we analyzed the viral env quasispecies of six mother-infant transmission pairs (MIPs) and characterized the genetic features of envelope glycoprotein that could influence HIV-1 subtype C perinatal transmission. (nih.gov)
  • endogenous
  • One of env gene product derived from human endogenous retrovirus like genomic DNA was produced in E. coli. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This suggestion was based on the fact that the subgroup J env gene included regions that showed a high degree of identity to the env gene of a previously identified avian endogenous virus called E51, a member of the ancient endogenous virus family (EAV) (see below and references 13 , 14 and 22 ). (asm.org)
  • antibody
  • Our results highlight the low immunogenic potential of the HIV-1 Env and demonstrate that different Envs have different potentials to raise low titer neutralizing antibody. (umassmed.edu)
  • phenotype
  • Identification of an env-defective HIV-1 mutant capable of spontaneous reversion to a wild-type phenotype in certain T-cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • Env-defective HIV may have a different phenotype as cell-free versus cell-associated virus. (nih.gov)
  • Sera
  • Sera from rabbits primed with the HXB-2 Env DNA were, for the most part, type-specific for neutralization of IIIb. (umassmed.edu)
  • Infections
  • Single genome amplification characterized the infections of 2 unprotected animals in the gag-env immunized group, both of which had reduced acute plasma viral loads that ended as transient infections indicating partial immune control. (nih.gov)
  • Infection
  • The ability of HIV containing an env G367R mutation in cell-free and cell-associated viruses to cause infection and to revert to wild-type was measured using several T cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • I. Immune response to recombinant FIV env gene products and outcome after challenge infection. (uzh.ch)
  • contrast
  • The SU-coding region of the subgroup J env gene, in contrast, shows only 40% identity to those of the subgroup A to E viruses ( 4 , 5 , 9 , 58 ). (asm.org)
  • Immune
  • The techniques in this study can be used to define the extent of variability of the env gene product among different virus isolates and may identify the nature and patterns of the humoral immune response that lead to an immunologically protected state. (sciencemag.org)
  • sequence
  • Sequencing of the gag genes, LTRs, and untranslated regions of several ev/J proviruses revealed a high level of identity between isolates, indicating that they have not undergone significant sequence variation since their introduction into the avian germ line. (asm.org)
  • However, the subgroup J env gene also included regions that were not related to E51 or to any other sequence in the GenBank database, indicating that if E51-type proviruses contributed to the generation of the subgroup J env gene, there must have been other elements that contributed as well. (asm.org)
  • Comparative sequence analysis of VP7 genes from five Australian porcine rotaviruses. (naver.com)
  • Animals
  • Because there were only 2 infected animals in the gag-env vaccinated rhesus compared to 10 infected rhesus in the other 2 groups, the significance of finding single env variants in the gag-env vaccinated group could not be established. (nih.gov)
  • The results demonstrated that VSV-vectored GM-CSF abrogated the protective effect of the vaccine, since 4 of 6 animals were protected in gag-env group, whereas addition of GM-CSF reduced protection to 1 of 6 animals in gag-env-GM-CSF group as previously reported . (nih.gov)
  • high
  • Following challenge with SIVsmE660, 5 of the 6 RhMs were infected in gag-env-GM-CSF group with relatively high PVLs that were comparable to the control group [Fig. 1C]. (nih.gov)
  • response
  • Patient 710 had a vigorous Env- and Gag-specific CTL response during the majority of monthly visits (Fig. 2). (nih.gov)
  • ability
  • Mutations in the env gene of HIV may be able to exert a differential influence on viral transmission ability in regard to cell-free and cell-associated viral forms.The persistence of defective forms can potentially lead to the emergence of virulent forms.The heterogeneity of cell types that constitute the HIV reservoir can contribute to viral variability, even among similar types of cells. (nih.gov)
  • Mutations in the env gene of HIV may be able to exert a differential influence on viral transmission ability in regard to cell-free and cell-associated viral forms. (nih.gov)
  • human
  • Publications] KITAMURA et al: 'A retinoic acid responsive gene,MK,is preferentially expressed in the proximal tubiles of the kidney and human tumor cell lines' American Journal of Pathology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • surface
  • Both the SU and TM domains are encoded by the viral env gene and are translated from spliced mRNA as a single polyprotein precursor that must be proteolytically cleaved by host proteases during transport to the cell surface. (hubpages.com)
  • group
  • Four of 6 rhesus were infected in the gag-env + GM-CSF group which demonstrated that GM-CSF abrogated protection. (nih.gov)