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  • protein
  • A phylogenetic inference based on the nucleotide sequences of all mitochondrial protein coding genes revealed the Baikalian species to be a monophyletic group relative to the nearest non-Baikalian species with a completely sequenced mitochondrial genome - Gammarus duebeni . (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1 Central Dogma of Genetics Within each cell the genetic information flows from DNA to RNA to protein. (docplayer.net)
  • Sixty-nine protein genes and eight ORFs conserved with those found in land plant chloroplasts have also been found. (pnas.org)
  • The zinc-finger antiviral protein recruits the RNA processing exosome to degrade the target mRNA," PNAS, Jan. 2, 2007, vol. 104 (No. 1), p. 151-156. (patentgenius.com)
  • One embodiment of the invention is directed towards a method of inactivating a viral genome in a cell that includes administering to the cell comprising an engineered zinc finger protein and a DNA-cleavage domain, wherein the engineered zincfinger proteins (ZFPs) comprise a plurality of zinc fingers. (patentgenius.com)
  • We cloned the gene encoding the 44-kDa protein of the agent of HGE (aoHGE) by probing an aoHGE lambda ZAP II genomic DNA expression library with sera from aoHGE-infected mice. (asm.org)
  • The gene encoding the aoHGE 44-kDa antigen has now been cloned, and the humoral response to the recombinant protein has been characterized. (asm.org)
  • They contain a genetic system that encodes a number of protein-coding genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, which yields the bulk of the ATP made in cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • Alarmone synthesis is linked to many physiological processes involving rRNA degradation, gene activation/repression, protein translation, enzyme activation, and replication. (asm.org)
  • BA-induced apoptosis requires new protein, but not RNA, synthesis, is independent of p53, and results in p21 protein accumulation in the absence of a cell cycle arrest. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Drugs reported to induce apoptosis in glioma cells not only include common cancer chemotherapy drugs such as N,N ′-bis(2-chloroethyl)- N -nitrosourea and cisplatin but also several drugs that, among other actions, interfere with the activation of protein kinase C, including staurosporine, calphostin C, hypericin, and the hydroxy-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor, lovostatin. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We find that BA-induced apoptosis of glioma cells is characterized by a sequential requirement for new protein, but not RNA, synthesis, generation of reactive oxygen species, and caspase processing associated with poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase cleavage. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The complete circular mt genome sequence for A. perfoliata is 14,459 bp in size, and includes 12 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The relationship among the four families obtained by Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences based on predicted amino acid sequences of protein-coding genes is consistent with that based on their mt gene arrangement similarities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Platyhelminthe mt genomes comprise 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal and 22 transfer RNA genes [ 15 ], but lack the atp8 gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 0 to 24 hours) exhibited a significant temporal and force-dependent reduction in Notch 3 receptor expression, concomitant with a significant reduction in Epstein Barr virus latency C promoter-binding factor-1/recombination signal-binding protein of the Jκ immunoglobulin gene-dependent Notch target gene promoter activity and mRNA levels when compared with unstrained controls. (ahajournals.org)
  • The result produced by the comparison of two or more gene or protein sequences in order to determine their degree of base or amino acid similarity. (sdsc.edu)
  • Each of the 64 different nucleotide triplets in DNA that, when transcribed into RNA , are then translated into an aminoacid in a protein. (bmj.com)
  • Upon receptor trimerization, activated Fas and TNF-α-receptor type 1 initiate rapid protein interactions at the cell membrane, leading to the formation of a death inducing signaling complex responsible for downstream apoptotic events, which include the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria ( 29 ) and a proteolytic cascade of caspase activation ( 35 ). (physiology.org)
  • The established iPSCs were supplemented with leukemia inhibitory factor and bone morphogenetic protein 4 to maintain and stabilize the expression of stemness genes and their pluripotency. (mdpi.com)
  • In this regard, knowledge on the 3D structure of a protein, especially unknown or hypothetical protein, is frequently useful to elucidate the structure-function relationship of the uncharacterized gene product. (mdpi.com)
  • Critical to the expression of the CD11c gene is its interaction with the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Specifically, in plants, the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system (UPS) regulates protein degradation and contributes significantly to development of a wide range of processes, including immune response, development and programmed cell death. (jove.com)
  • shRNA
  • This study demonstrated that α v β 3 integrin increases survival of α v β 3 -LNCaP cells upon IR while small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of α v β 3 integrin in PC-3 cells sensitizes to radiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • species
  • 1983). Subsequently, the NGF gene has been characterized in a number of other species including several mammals, birds, reptiles and fishes (Schwarz et al. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The genome of H. duospinosa contains some unusual features including a Hox complex broken over two scaffolds, in a different manner to other arthropod species, a lack of odorant receptor genes and an apparent lack of environmentally responsive DNA methylation, unlike many other arthropods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Such a revolutionary perspective has been accompanied and triggered by the development of powerful technologies for profiling short RNAs expression, both at the high-throughput level (genome-wide identification) or as single-candidate analysis (steady state accumulation of specific species). (jove.com)
  • Here we overview an efficient protocol (Enhanced Northern Blot) for detecting weakly expressed microRNAs (or other small regulatory RNA species) from Drosophila melanogaster whole embryos, manually dissected larval/adult tissues or in vitro cultured cells. (jove.com)
  • Here we present a modified DIG in situ hybridization protocol, which is fast and applicable on a wide range of plant species including P. abies . (jove.com)
  • The protocol worked equally well for the species and genes studied. (jove.com)
  • genomes
  • Other embodiments for targeted inactivation of viral genomes use small nucleic acid molecules, such as short micro-RNA molecules or short hairpin RNA molecules capable of mediating RNA interference (RNAi) against the hepatitis B virus. (patentgenius.com)
  • Embodiments of the present invention provide methods for targeted inactivation of viral genomes using engineered zinc-finger proteins containing nuclease domains (ZFN), and targeted inactivation of viral gene expression using RNA interference. (patentgenius.com)
  • siRNA
  • the other without biotin as functional RNA (i.e., siRNA). (ucsb.edu)
  • The endo-siRNA pathway, which produces small double-stranded RNAs in Drosophila, appears to be nonessential for robust development of the embryo under ambient uniform temperature and to be necessary only for viral defense. (jove.com)
  • receptors
  • Specific embodiments include neurotrophic factors that bind trk receptors but do not bind to the low affinity NGF receptor. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 12,14 Recent studies demonstrate that Notch receptors and hrt genes are coordinately upregulated in neointimal cells but downregulated in medial cells after vascular injury, an effect that is mimicked by addition of serum mitogens (platelet-derived growth factor) to cultured cells in vitro. (ahajournals.org)
  • Infection
  • Infection with HBV induces a broad spectrum of liver diseases, including acute hepatitis (thatcan lead to fulminate hepatic failure) as well as chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and heptocellular carcinoma (HCC). (patentgenius.com)
  • RNA-PCR studies confirmed that hge-44 is expressed by aoHGE cultured in HL-60 cells and by aoHGE during murine infection. (asm.org)
  • These results indicate that stringent conditions are present during infection and that RSH-dependent derepression of CodY-regulated genes is essential for virulence in S. aureus . (asm.org)
  • amino
  • RSH is the major enzyme responsible for (p)ppGpp synthesis in response to amino acid deprivation (lack of Leu/Val) or mupirocin treatment. (asm.org)
  • Transcriptional analysis showed that the RSH-dependent stringent control in S. aureus is characterized by repression of genes whose products are predicted to be involved in the translation machinery and by upregulation of genes coding for enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism and transport which are controlled by the repressor CodY. (asm.org)
  • Amino acid starvation also provoked stabilization of the RNAs coding for major virulence regulators, such as SaeRS and SarA, independently of RSH. (asm.org)
  • transcription
  • Conversion of DNA encoded information to RNA is called transcription. (docplayer.net)
  • These include the "Hairy Enhancer of Split" ( hes ) gene and HES-related transcription factors (Hrts) that are critically involved in mammalian cell differentiation. (ahajournals.org)
  • occurs
  • adenine (A) A nitrogenous base that occurs in nucleotides of DNA and RNA and pairs through hydrogen bonding complementarity with thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA). (sdsc.edu)
  • Transcriptional
  • Streptavidin is devised as a handle to assemble biotinylated cell penetrating peptides (e.g., transactivating transcriptional activator (TAT)), as well as an insulator between the positive charge of TAT and the dense negative charge of RNA. (ucsb.edu)
  • This branch of molecular biology has been greatly fueled by the discovery of noncoding RNAs as major players in post-transcriptional regulation. (jove.com)
  • molecular
  • Obesity Gene Product This invention is in the general field of molecular biology as applied to pharmaceutical or ~n, m~ 1 health research and development. (google.com)
  • tumor
  • The p53 tumor suppressor gene ( TP53 ) is the most frequently altered gene in human cancer and also is found mutated in human gliomas. (aspetjournals.org)
  • cell
  • Most human lung cancers arise from the bronchial epithelium and belong to the categories of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLCs), including adenocarcinomas (ADCs), large cell carcinomas (LCCs), and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). (rupress.org)
  • infectious
  • Fusion polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to replace the capsid (C), premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes and the prM-E genes of a full-length MODV infectious cDNA clone with the corresponding regions of WNV and CxFV. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cells
  • A very limited amount of RNA is required and the use of material from flow cytometry-isolated cells can be also envisaged. (jove.com)
  • Fusion products were directly transfected into baby hamster kidney-derived cells that stably express T7 RNA polymerase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chimeric virus was recovered in cells transfected with the fusion product containing the prM-E genes of WNV. (biomedcentral.com)
  • target
  • 4. The method of claim 1, wherein the RNAi triggers target approximately 3.5, 2.1, 2, 4, or 0.7 kilo base pair RNAs of the HBV, or any subset thereof. (patentgenius.com)
  • types
  • Two nectary types that evolved with Populus trichocarpa ( Ptr ) and Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides ( Ptt ) were studied from their ecology down to the genes and molecules. (plantphysiol.org)