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  • interference
  • RNA interference has revolutionized human functional genomics and therapeutics, but its impact on neuroscience research has been limited by the lack of simple and efficient methods to deliver oligonucleotides to primary neurons and the brain. (selectbiosciences.com)
  • miR-320 directs the association of RNA interference (RNAi) protein Argonaute-1 (AGO1), Polycomb group (PcG) component EZH2, and tri-methyl histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) with the POLR3D promoter. (pnas.org)
  • differentially
  • Proteomic technologies, predominantly mass spectrometry, are used to identify proteins in the blood that are differentially regulated and/or post-translationally modified with disease state. (stanford.edu)
  • Preliminary analysis of the sequence data identified 15 (6 known and 9 novel) microRNAs that were highly differentially expressed between the two lines of chickens. (usda.gov)
  • TaqMan microRNA assay was used to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in plasma of cohort of patients with AH versus controls followed by construction of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the candidates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • He has also studied the biology of differentiation and phenotypic switching in vascular SMCs, first identifying differentially regulated genes associated with SMC lineage determination, and then focusing on the epigenetic regulation of SMC differentiation state. (stanford.edu)
  • A selection of 10 miRNAs found to be differentially expressed between the groups was measured in the independent validation cohort using single TaqMan microRNA Assays. (bmj.com)
  • cancers
  • The HIF pathway plays a central role in sensing and responding to changes in cellular oxygen levels, and, since increased expression of HIF-α is observed in many human cancers, understanding how HIF-α becomes deregulated in cancer could lead to new therapeutic strategies. (jci.org)
  • Here, we report the targeted delivery of anti-miRNA to cancers via RNA micelles. (osu.edu)
  • Dysregulated miRNA expression has been implicated in several human cancers ( 7 ), each cancer type having unique miRNA expression patterns that likely affect genes relevant to tumor pathogenesis ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we generated comprehensive miRNA and gene expression profiles for ovarian cancer by comparing papillary serous ovarian cancers, the most common cause of ovarian cancer deaths in women, with established ovarian cancer cell lines and short-term primary cultures of normal ovarian surface epithelium (NOSE). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Reportedly, the growth of various tumors, including cancers, is mediated by dysfunctional regulation by miRNAs, and differential expression of miRNA is associated with virus infection and tumorigenesis. (usda.gov)
  • polymerase
  • Furthermore, in each of these species, the mature miRNA sequence is located within −1 to −200 bp of the proximal known gene TSS, suggesting the functional importance of this conserved genomic context in the antisense orientation ( 14 ) ( Fig. 1 A ). miR-320 is encoded directly upstream of the cell cycle gene POLR3D, which is a conserved subunit specific to RNA polymerase III ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • In plants, miRNA genes (MIR) are transcribed by RNA polymerase II to form 5′-capped, spliced and 3′-poly (A)-tailed primary transcripts, known as primary-miRNAs (pri-miRNAs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • pathways
  • He has examined gene expression within the vascular wall, identifying patterns and pathways that characterized atherogenesis. (stanford.edu)
  • Many of the potential target genes of these miRNAs are involved in IL-27 associated pathways, such as JAK/STAT, MAPKs, and PI3K and several were also previously reported to be involved in the regulation of human DC function. (mdpi.com)
  • Establish new therapeutics for diabetic nephropathy by controlling miRNA expression via signal transduction pathways and transcription factors uncovered in this study. (cityofhope.org)
  • Overexpression
  • Overexpression of miR-7 repressed RELA and FOS expression and prevented GC cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. (rupress.org)
  • Our previous research showed that PRRSV downregulates the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a pivotal cytoprotective enzyme, postinfection and that overexpression of HO-1 inhibits PRRSV replication. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, miR-31 overexpression induced a global gene expression pattern in OVCAR8 associated with better prognosis in tumors from patients with advanced stage serous ovarian cancer, potentially affecting many genes underlying disease progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the present study, we found that overexpression of miR-29c inhibited cyclin E expression by targeting 3' untranslated region of cyclin E messenger RNA in ESCC cells. (docphin.com)
  • Moreover, overexpression of miR-29c induced cell cycle G(1)/G(0) arrest through suppression of cyclin E expression, without affecting other G(1) phase-related proteins level, such as cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 2 and CDK6. (docphin.com)
  • Both overexpression and knockdown approaches can be informative in revealing the normal function of a candidate gene. (purdue.edu)
  • miRs
  • With increasing knowledge of microRNA (miR) regulation in the context of cardiovascular disease, and with improving technical options permitting alteration of miR-expression levels in vitro and in vivo, we are offered a glimpse into the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities of using miRs to treat vascular pathobiology. (stanford.edu)
  • While studies have shown that miRs can regulate the activity and interplay of vascular inflammatory cells, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, all key elements leading to AAA formation, much work remains to be done. (stanford.edu)
  • inhibits
  • Specifically, human let-7 and miR-34 are poorly expressed or deleted in lung cancer, and over-expression of let-7 or miR-34 in lung cancer cells inhibits their growth, demonstrating a role for these miRNAs as tumor suppressors in lung tissue. (selectbiosciences.com)
  • They found that miR-31 inhibits two tumor-suppressor genes, allowing lung cancer to grow. (dartmouth.edu)
  • tumor
  • After our previous work indicating a tumor suppressor function of miR-15a/16-1 by targeting the BCL2 oncogene, here, we produced a high-throughput profiling of genes modulated by miR-15a/16-1 in a leukemic cell line model (MEG-01) and in primary CLL samples. (nih.gov)
  • Retinoblastoma is a pediatric retinal tumor initiated by biallelic inactivation of the retinoblastoma gene (RB1). (jci.org)
  • In addition, we detected miR-29c expression in 26 pairs of esophageal tumor-in-site-tissues and 60 pairs of ESCC tissues. (docphin.com)
  • Taken together, our findings indicated that miR-29c was frequently downregulated in ESCC tissues and cells and suppressed tumor growth by inducing cell cycle G(1)/G(0) arrest mainly through modulating cyclin E expression. (docphin.com)
  • sRNAs
  • Plant genetic resistance against hemipterans provides a model to explore the regulatory roles of sRNAs in plant defense. (frontiersin.org)
  • transcripts
  • Each miRNA is predicted to regulate hundreds of transcripts, but only few have experimental validation. (nih.gov)
  • Upon further examination, we observed that the primary transcripts containing the stem-loop structures of all 10 miRNAs were encoded within the promoter regions of their proximal known genes, suggesting that these miRNAs could potentially target their opposite strand sequences in cis with perfect complementarity. (pnas.org)
  • Expression of the short and long CFH transcripts differed markedly between the retina and liver. (arvojournals.org)
  • Functionally, miRNAs bind to complementary sequences in the 3′ untranslated region of target gene transcripts, leading to mRNA degradation and/or translational repression ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • sequence
  • Luciferase reporter assays revealed that miR-4455 inhibited VASP expression by targeting the 3′-UTR sequence of VASP. (springer.com)
  • The sequence alignment or the binding energy of miRNA/mRNA pairs can sometimes hold definitive information in screening target genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This extremely large fraction of human DNA is composed of many different types of sequence and so serves many different roles and none. (biology-online.org)
  • mRNAs
  • By comprehensively profiling expression of miRNAs and mRNAs in serous ovarian tumors and cell lines and normal ovarian surface epithelium, we identified hundreds of potential miRNA-mRNA targeting associations underlying cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our approach is based on the model combining a machine learning tool, SVM, which uses the datasets of gene expression profiles, and a scoring method, which uses the sequences of miRNAs and mRNAs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • novel
  • The objective of the research project lead by Marko Kallio, Principal Scientist at VTT, was to identify novel microRNAs participating in the regulation of cell division among the over 1000 microRNAs found in human. (eurekalert.org)
  • This laboratory is also focused on the identification of proteins with expression restricted to the surface of cancer cells which can be used as novel targets for molecular imaging technologies. (stanford.edu)
  • The expression of 43 conserved and 13 novel miRNAs significantly changed in response to salinity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our approach provides a novel framework into screening target genes by considering the gene regulation of miRNAs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this paper, we propose a novel approach for screening miRNA targets by considering gene expression profiles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results show that the initial activation of Akt kinase by TGF-β and diabetic conditions can trigger novel coordinated mechanisms that result in the downstream sustained activation of a key microRNA that contributes to the development of diabetic nephropathy. (cityofhope.org)
  • Exogenous
  • RNAi-induced gene silencing following uptake of exogenous dsRNA was successfully demonstrated in several hemipterans and the presence of sid-1 like genes support the concept of a systemic response in some species. (frontiersin.org)
  • tissues
  • To investigate how potentially functional genetic variants are coinherited on each of four common complement factor H ( CFH ) and CFH -related gene haplotypes and to measure expression of these genes in eye and liver tissues. (arvojournals.org)
  • Deep sequencing yielded 498 and 502 microRNA sequences expressed in spleen tissues of the highly inbred line 63 and line 72 chickens at 10 days of age, respectively. (usda.gov)
  • Furthermore, it is difficult to generate gene expression profiles in diverse tissues, stages, and environments of transgenic lines due to the high cost. (biomedcentral.com)
  • epigenetic
  • The evolution of GC has been characterized as progressing through a multistep process whereby cells acquire a series of genetic and epigenetic alterations in key growth-regulatory genes that endow them with proliferative and survival advantages. (rupress.org)
  • Our results suggest the existence of an epigenetic mechanism of miRNA-directed transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) in mammalian cells. (pnas.org)
  • molecules
  • In the future, the research group will attempt to verify the results in a more extensive patient study, with the additional objective of developing new diagnostic methods based on the expression of microRNA molecules. (eurekalert.org)
  • The results of the research project headed by Dr. Kallio give new perspectives on earlier microRNA studies, and reinforce the theory that cancer cells take advantage of microRNA molecules when striving to multiply and spread. (eurekalert.org)
  • We use gene transfer techniques including infection with viral vectors or electroporation of plasmid DNA (in chicken embryos) to manipulate the levels of candidate molecules during development. (purdue.edu)
  • vitro
  • Our research tools include transgenic and knockout mice and tissue culture cells for in vitro gene expression. (stanford.edu)
  • The in vitro effects of miR-4455 expression in MGC-803 cells on their proliferation, invasion, and migration were assessed by MTT assays and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine staining, matrigel-invasion analysis and wound healing assays. (springer.com)
  • human
  • miR-21, miR-155, let-7 and miR-34 are microRNAs implicated in human cancer. (selectbiosciences.com)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs regulating gene expression that play roles in human diseases, including cancer. (nih.gov)
  • In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the most common adult human leukemia, miR-15a and miR-16-1 are lost or down-regulated in the majority of cases. (nih.gov)
  • Because miRNAs are known to exhibit tissue-specific expression, we compared the expression profiles of miR-320 and POLR3D in human brain and testis. (pnas.org)
  • Ten years have passed since the association between variation in the human complement factor H ( CFH ) gene and risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was discovered, 1 - 3 yet this knowledge has not yet been translated into preventive measures for the aging population or treatments for patients with AMD. (arvojournals.org)
  • Expression of miR-4455 was compared in human GC tissue samples and paired adjacent normal tissue samples. (springer.com)
  • When its expression was knocked back, cancer growth was significantly reduced in both mouse and human cell lines. (dartmouth.edu)
  • There are also various self replicating genetic elements that exist in huge numbers in the human genome alu alone numbers about 500,000 compared to about 30,000 protein coding genes. (biology-online.org)
  • investigate
  • The aim of this project was to investigate the miRNA expression during Hantavirus infection, and analyze the difference in miRNA expression between pathogenic hantaviruses (Hantaan virus), non-pathogenic (Prospect Hill virus), and mock-infected cells. (bibsys.no)
  • Objectives To assess the expression of a large number of miRNAs in the serum of pSS and nSS patients as compared to healthy controls and to investigate their correlation with disease activity. (bmj.com)
  • This prompted us to investigate miRNA expression in subgroups of pSS patients. (bmj.com)
  • promoter
  • One conserved miRNA, miR-320, is encoded within the promoter region of the cell cycle gene POLR3D in the antisense orientation. (pnas.org)
  • Under normal control conditions, Ets-1 binds to the miR-192 promoter and keeps the expression of miR-192 low. (cityofhope.org)
  • angiogenesis
  • In addition, over-expression of miR-378a-5p was found to reduce the sensitivity of cancer cells to paclitaxel treatment and to activate certain cell surface receptors, which transmit signals regulating, for example, angiogenesis. (eurekalert.org)
  • In case of the miR-378a-5p, its over-expression in cancer tissue may stimulate angiogenesis in tumours, enhance the energy metabolism of cancer cells, reduce the sensitivity of cancer cells to paclitaxel therapy, and induce chromosome changes, that all help cancer gain growth advantage. (eurekalert.org)
  • liver
  • We examined RNA-seq profiles in macular and peripheral retina and retinal pigment epithelium/choroid/sclera (RCS) from eight eye donors and three liver samples. (arvojournals.org)
  • study
  • We study non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and when, how, and why they regulate cancer cell viability and drug response. (selectbiosciences.com)
  • Thus, this study provides evidence for a mechanism by which splicing of a microRNA primary transcript can negatively regulate said microRNA in cis as well as other microRNAs in trans . (biologists.org)
  • The observation concerning activation of receptors is consistent with a Canadian study published earlier showing that over-expression of miR-378a-5p stimulates neovascularization in tumours. (eurekalert.org)
  • The present study aimed to examine the miRNA expression profile and drug resistance in the SGC7901 cell line and its isogenic drug‑resistant counterpart, SGC7901/cisplatin (DDP) cell line. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • For example, we have designed a study to use viral gene transfer to deliver microRNAs into the drug-damaged mouse cochlea to attempt to induce hair cell regeneration and rescue hearing loss. (purdue.edu)
  • resistance
  • The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia, is a destructive pest of cereal crops that exhibits virulence to D. noxia resistance genes in wheat. (k-state.edu)
  • Aphid-induced sRNA expression in resistance genotypes delivers a new paradigm in understanding the regulation of R gene-mediated resistance in host plants. (frontiersin.org)
  • cells
  • We have identified ncRNAs that selectively kill cancer cells or lead to their terminal differentiation and ncRNAs that selectively enhance cancer cell response to microtubule-targeting agents, revealing new vulnerabilities of cancer cells mediated by complex regulatory relationships between several classes of coding and non-coding RNAs. (selectbiosciences.com)
  • By combining experimental and bioinformatics data, we identified a miR-15a/16-1-gene signature in leukemic cells. (nih.gov)
  • These RNA micelles carrying anti-miR21 exhibited strong binding and internalization to cancer cells, inhibited the function of oncogenic miR21, enhanced the expression of the pro-apoptotic factor, and induced cell apoptosis. (osu.edu)
  • excess of this particular microRNA in cancer cells leads to significant suppression of Aurora B kinase, which is an essential protein needed for faithful cell division. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, the optimization of the assay was not successful, and quantification of the virus was not achieved.Next-generation sequencing revealed miR-340 as the candidate miRNA with the greatest expression variation in HTNV infected vs. PHV infected or mock-infected cells. (bibsys.no)
  • A decreased luciferase activity of p21 3'‑untranslated region‑based reporter in miR‑17‑5p‑transfected SGC7901/DDP cells suggested that p21 may be a direct target gene of miR‑17‑5p. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In healthy cells, this plays a role in regulating the expression of genes. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The field may be green, but he and his colleagues are making significant strides in understanding how tiny pieces of RNA can wreak havoc on cells-and how to keep that from happening. (dartmouth.edu)
  • In other cases, deafness is the only known defect, and in those cases the responsible genes are often associated with some specialized function of inner ear sensory cells. (purdue.edu)