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  • genetics
  • Factors such as host susceptibility, genetics and immune function, health care and co-infections as well as viral genetic variability may affect the rate of progression to the point of needing to take medication in order not to develop AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • latent
  • Studies of the mechanisms that enable EBV to infect nonactivated, noncycling B cells provide compelling evidence for a sequence of events in which EBV binding to CD21 on purified resting human B cells rapidly activates the NF-kappaB transcription factor, which, in turn, binds to and mediates transcriptional activation of Wp, the initial viral latent gene promoter. (nih.gov)
  • Given that robust viral reactivation would facilitate antiviral responses and culminate in host cell lysis, regulation of Rta's expression and function is a major determinant of the latent-lytic balance and the fate of infected cells. (nih.gov)
  • c) Effect of shRNA knockdown on prostratin-activated expression of latent HIV-1 provirus in J-Lat 2D10 cells. (nih.gov)
  • The establishment and maintenance of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) latent infection requires distinct viral gene expression programs. (nih.gov)
  • The Z(S186A) mutant cannot activate methylated Nap in reporter gene assays and does not induce Na expression in cells with latent EBV infection. (nih.gov)
  • In the latent phase the amount of viral transcript is heavily reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • This long non-coding RNA accumulates in the latent phase and has been found to suppress the lytic genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the latent phase, researchers have found more methylated chromatin in the lytic genes and less acetylated chromatin, whereas in the LAT region there is less methylation and more acetylation found during latency. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that these genes are controlled through a mechanism affecting the chromatin structure that allows them to be expressed in the latent phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • A remarkable fact concerning the latency of EBV is that different patterns of expression exist while it is latent, known as latency programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • cART restricts the synthesis of infectious virus but does not curtail HIV-1 transcription and translation from either the integrated or unintegrated viral genomes in infected cells. (isharonline.org)
  • U2OS cells were transfected with HPV11 wt or E8- minicircle genomes and their gene expression was studied via 3' RACE, 5' RACE or via real time PCR methods. (nih.gov)
  • Since Qp is essential for long-term maintenance of viral genomes in type I latency and epithelial cell infections, we focused on the role of CTCF in regulating Qp. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we present an analysis of two full-length homologues of this gene, which were found in the genomes of two bacteriophages, which infect the chlorophyll-d containing cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina. (edu.au)
  • genomic
  • Here we show that down-regulation of eEF1A restricts the expression of viral genomic RNA and the release of infectious virus, demonstrating a biological requirement for eEF1A in the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) life cycle. (nih.gov)
  • Disruption of a single gene may also result from integration of genomic material from a DNA virus or retrovirus, and such an event may also result in the expression of viral oncogenes in the affected cell and its descendants. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactivation
  • Recently, our lab investigated a putative interaction between KSHV Rta and PPIase Pin1 in the regulation of Rta-mediated lytic reactivation at multiple stages of the lytic cycle cascade. (nih.gov)
  • RNAs
  • The proportion of viral RNAs containing a spliced TAR structure is high early after infection and decreases at later times. (umassmed.edu)
  • The many RNAs of this class resembled the lin-4 and let-7 RNAs, except their expression patterns were usually inconsistent with a role in regulating the timing of development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Silencing
  • USP7 can deubiquitinate histone H2B and this activity is associated with gene silencing in Drosophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extent to which the miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) is involved in this regulation has not been fully determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • encode
  • Having evolved with their natural host, herpesviruses encode numerous gene products that are involved in modulating host immune responses to facilitate the establishment and maintenance of lifelong chronic infection. (nih.gov)
  • cells
  • The murine gammaherpesvirus immediate-early Rta synergizes with IRF4, targeting expression of the viral M1 superantigen to plasma cells. (nih.gov)
  • Here, using a recombinant virus expressing a fluorescent protein driven by the M1 gene promoter, we identify plasma cells as the major cell type expressing M1 at the peak of infection in the spleen. (nih.gov)
  • C and D) Activity of the M1 promoter-driven reporter construct containing a mutation (indicated in red) in the putative Rta response element (RREm) was assessed in the P3X63Ag8 plasmacytoma cell line for Rta transactivation (panel C) and in 293T cells for IRF4+Rta synergy (panel D). Transient transfection reporter gene assays were conducted in triplicate and three independent assays were performed. (nih.gov)
  • a) Expression profile of 3 PKDs in HeLa and Jurkat cells. (nih.gov)
  • RNA isolated from HeLa or Jurkat cells was analyzed by qRT-PCR for the expression levels of PKD1, PKD2, or PKD3, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • b) Effect of shRNA knockdown on prostratin-activated HIV-1 expression in HeLa cells. (nih.gov)
  • Bacmid DNA for ΔCTCF and Wt rescue control was introduced into 293 cells and stable transformants were selected for hygromycin and GFP expression. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of TRIM22 in HOS-CD4/CXCR4 cells blocks late steps in HIV replication.A) Induction of TRIM22 RNA levels by IFNβ treatment of HOS-CD4/CXCR4 cells. (nih.gov)
  • B) Stable expression of HA-tagged TRIM22 in HOS-CD4/CXCR4 cells verified by Western blotting. (nih.gov)
  • The TRIM22 expressing cells were infected with different amounts of HIV-1/VSVG pseudotyped virus and analyzed by FACS for GFP expression. (nih.gov)
  • The sum total of genes expressed into RNA in a particular population of cells is referred to as the transcriptome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In either case, expression of these genes promotes the malignant phenotype of cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies have contributed to an understanding of the role that HuR plays in regulating the expression of genes that help pancreatic and ovarian cancer cells survive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sawicki's research also entails identifying stem cells in normal developmental processes and the gene-expression profiles of those cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • The 23 pairs of DNA molecules called chromosomes contain the approximately 21,000 genes comprising the "human blueprint. (wikipedia.org)
  • In healthy situations, the human immune system is biased towards anti-viral readiness. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conditions of social stress however, the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression prepares the body to better deal with bodily injury and bacterial infection which is more likely under conditions of social stress either through hostile human contact, or increased predatory vulnerability due to separation from the social group. (wikipedia.org)
  • It contributes substantially to gene expression regulation across human tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immediately following initiation Pol II becomes trapped in promoter proximal paused positions on the majority of human genes (Figure 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional association of Gdown1 with RNA polymerase II poised on human genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunits
  • The concentrations of 31 candidate protein spots were potentially abnormal in HIV-infected decedents with HIV encephalitis and/or increased expression of immunoproteasome subunits. (nih.gov)
  • reporter gene
  • Z efficiently activates the methylated, but not unmethylated, form of Nap in reporter gene assays, and both ZREs are required. (nih.gov)
  • If this specific promoter region is also attached to a reporter gene, we can measure when the transactivator is being expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein expression
  • The best harvest time depended on the time of baculovirus amplified, recombinant protein expression and the transportation from intracellular to extracellular. (nih.gov)
  • One explanation revolves around the selectionist theory, in which codon bias contributes to the efficiency and/or accuracy of protein expression and therefore undergoes positive selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • induction
  • Gene chip data on TRIM22 induction was confirmed using Northern blot analysis (Figure 1A). (nih.gov)
  • Stability
  • Different factors have been proposed to be related to codon usage bias, including gene expression level (reflecting selection for optimizing translation process by tRNA abundance), %G+C composition (reflecting horizontal gene transfer or mutational bias), GC skew (reflecting strand-specific mutational bias), amino acid conservation, protein hydropathy, transcriptional selection, RNA stability, optimal growth temperature, hypersaline adaptation and dietary nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small-scale mutations include point mutations, deletions, and insertions, which may occur in the promoter of a gene and affect its expression, or may occur in the gene's coding sequence and alter the function or stability of its protein product. (wikipedia.org)
  • infectious
  • RNA editing is extensively studied in relation to infectious diseases, because the editing process alters viral function. (wikipedia.org)