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  • Genome
  • In multicellular organisms, gene regulation drives cellular differentiation and morphogenesis in the embryo, leading to the creation of different cell types that possess different gene expression profiles from the same genome sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2013, a new "record" for the most efficient eukaryotic genome was discovered with Utricularia gibba, a bladderwort plant that has only 3% noncoding DNA and 97% of coding DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, our understanding of the genetic code permits the prediction of the amino sequence of the protein products of the tens of thousands of genes whose sequences are being determined in genome studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • To the extent it is useful to craft a distinction between these related concepts, RNA silencing may be thought of as referring to the broader scheme of small RNA related controls involved in gene expression and the protection of the genome against mobile repetitive DNA sequences, retroelements, and transposons to the extent that these can induce mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nuclear genes represent the genome of the original host cell, while both of these organelles still retain a small genome, although many of the genes of the organelles have moved to the nucleus during the course of evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Encoded by eukaryotic nuclear DNA in plants and animals and by viral DNA in certain viruses whose genome is based on DNA, miRNAs function via base-pairing with complementary sequences within mRNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human genome may encode over 1000 miRNAs, which are abundant in many mammalian cell types and appear to target about 60% of the genes of humans and other mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some viruses store their genome in RNA instead of DNA and some gene products are functional non-coding RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Akhilesh Kumar Tyagi (born May 15, 1956) is an Indian plant biologist and the director of National Institute of Plant Genome Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2005, he became the director of the Interdisciplinary Centre for Plant Genomics of Delhi University and after serving ICGP till 2009, he moved to National Institute of Plant Genome Research, an autonomous research institution of the Department of Biotechnology as its director, a post he holds to date. (wikipedia.org)
  • Debasis Chattopadhyay (born October 20, 1967) is an Indian plant molecular biologist, geneticist and a scientist at the National Institute of Plant Genome Research (NIPGR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, he joined the National Institute of Plant Genome Research, New Delhi where he holds the position of a Grade VII scientist. (wikipedia.org)
  • His research focus is on abiotic stress tolerance and genome sequencing of plants and he holds a US patent for Chimeric construct of mungbean yellow mosaic india virus (MYMIV) and its uses, a process he has co-developed with two fo his colleagues at NIPGR. (wikipedia.org)
  • National Institute of Plant Genome Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • Sixteen years later, in 1905, Wilhelm Johannsen introduced the term 'gene' and William Bateson that of 'genetics' while Eduard Strasburger, amongst others, still used the term 'pangene' for the fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides, he sits in the editorial boards of journals such as Transgenic Research, Rice, and Molecular Genetics and Genomics, and is a former editorial board member of International Journal of Plant Genomics and Journal for Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiology
  • Plant Physiology 138 (1) : 276-286. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Institute of General Botany and Plant Physiology, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Dornburgerstr. (nih.gov)
  • The concentration of hormones required for plant responses are very low (10−6 to 10−5 mol/L). Because of these low concentrations, it has been very difficult to study plant hormones, and only since the late 1970s have scientists been able to start piecing together their effects and relationships to plant physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the major contributions of Tyagi has been his efforts towards crop improvement in India using molecular physiology, genomics, and transgenics and his work is reported to have assisted in widening our understanding of neo- and sub-functionalization of regulatory gene families in plants during evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is the president of the Indian Society for Plant Physiology and has served as the vice-president of the Society for Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology (1995-2005) and the Indian National Science Academy (2010-11). (wikipedia.org)
  • differentially
  • The obtained results indicate that GS and GOGAT genes are differentially regulated by growth regulators in shoots and roots. (ac.rs)
  • We identified a substantial number of differentially expressed genes associated with signal transduction in response to DBM feeding, and we compared there expression profiles with those of previously reported transcriptome responses induced by other insect herbivores, specifically Pieris rapae, Frankliniella occidentalis, Bemisia tabaci,Myzus persicae, and Brevicoryne brassicae. (nih.gov)
  • Although functionally related genes were differentially represented in leaves, hypocotyls, and roots, the expression of individual genes varied substantially across organ types, indicating that there is no single response to spaceflight. (nih.gov)
  • enzyme
  • The enzyme can also be found in a bifunctional form consisting of an N-terminal aspartokinase domain and a C-terminal homoserine dehydrogenase domain, as found in bacteria such as Escherichia coli and in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene encoding the enzyme (PpLDOX) has been identified in peach and expression has been studied in Vitis vinifera. (wikipedia.org)
  • These can interfere with the insect's enzyme production and decrease the nutrition content of the ingested plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • accelerated evolution
  • I was able to show that the peptidases belonging to MEROPS families A1 and G1 were significantly up regulated during the asymptomatic phase of infection and displayed signatures of accelerated evolution, suggesting their key role in suppression of plant defenses and host specialization. (ethz.ch)
  • Resistance
  • In order to gain insight into the mechanism of this UV-induced resistance we initiated a study for isolation of genes induced during this process. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Resistance activity was detected for 13 candidate MLA cDNAs in a transient gene expression assay. (uzh.ch)
  • It has an important role in response to wounding of plants and systemic acquired resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • patterns
  • Northern analysis of the gene family revealed tissue-specific expression patterns for each isogene. (deepdyve.com)
  • Leaves, hypocotyls, and roots each displayed unique patterns of response, yet many gene functions within the responses are related. (nih.gov)
  • From 1857 to 1864, in Brno (Czech Republic), he studied inheritance patterns in 8000 common edible pea plants, tracking distinct traits from parent to offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • thaliana
  • A fourth member of the SAT gene family, Sat-106, was also cloned and the complete SAT gene family from A. thaliana is discussed. (deepdyve.com)
  • A. thaliana plants grown under 50 μM CdCl2 for a 24 h time course were also used for northern analysis. (deepdyve.com)
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of representative plant growth regulators, kinetin (KIN), abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellic acid (GA3) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), on the expression of A. thaliana GS and GOGAT genes. (ac.rs)
  • colonization
  • Despite successful use of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agriculture, little is known about specific mechanisms of gene regulation facilitating the effective communication between bacteria and plants during plant colonization. (up.ac.za)
  • This difference was explained by hypersensitivity of UCMB-5137 to the root exudate stimuli impelling it to a sessile root colonization behavior through the CcpA-CodY-AbrB regulation. (up.ac.za)
  • In summary, my PhD work demonstrated the significance of fine-tuning of gene expression regulation of various genes in plant pathogenic fungi to facilitate adaptation to different environmental conditions and host colonization. (ethz.ch)
  • Mycorrhizal symbioses, in general, are ubiquitous in terrestrial ecosystems, and it is possible that these associations helped to facilitate land colonization by plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, it is possible that arbuscular mycorrhizas were a driving force in the plant colonization of land as an expansive new niche, while ectomycorrhizas acted to spur further speciation due to the change of earth's climate to more seasonal and arid, or perhaps simply in response to nutritionally deficient habitats. (wikipedia.org)
  • leaves
  • Sat-5 expression showed particularly high levels of induction in the leaves of treated plants and was chosen for study by in situ hybridisation. (deepdyve.com)
  • After return, the spaceflight plants (FLT), together with ground control plants (GC) (Figure 2C), were recovered from RNAlater and dissected into roots, leaves, and hypocotyls for analysis (Figure 2D). (nih.gov)
  • Expansins are also expressed in ripening fruit where they function in fruit softening, and in grass pollen, where they loosen stigmatic cell walls and aid pollen tube penetration of the stigmain germinating seeds for cell wall disassembly, in floral organs for their patterning, in developing nitrogen-fixing nodules in legumes, in abscissing leaves, in parasitic plants, and in 'resurrection' plants during their rehydration. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Total RBCS and rbcL messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and RBCS and RbcL synthesis simultaneously increased in RBCS-sense plants, although the increase in total RBCS mRNA level was greater. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The amount of RBCS synthesized was tightly correlated with rbcL mRNA level among genotypes but not associated with changes in mRNA levels of other major chloroplast-encoded photosynthetic genes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Plant miRNAs usually have near-perfect pairing with their mRNA targets, which induces gene repression through cleavage of the target transcripts. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein-codi
  • This structural transition can then expose or occlude important regions of RNA such as a ribosome binding site, which then affects the translation rate of a nearby protein-coding gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Roots
  • KIN and 2,4-D repressed GS and GOGAT expression in roots, with little effect on transcript levels in shoots. (ac.rs)
  • We generated and discuss here a list of common genes which are regulated in growing roots and which are common to all three growth stimuli investigated in this study. (nih.gov)
  • EcM plants and fungi exhibit a wide taxonomic distribution and are similarly present across all continents (apart from Antarctica), suggesting the EcM symbiosis has ancient evolutionary roots, as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • epigenetic
  • Despite this early dichotomy, recent evidence in both animals and plants has suggested that there are more than two distinct heterochromatin states, and it may in fact exist in four or five 'states', each marked by different combinations of epigenetic marks. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • They are naturally produced within plants, though very similar chemicals are produced by fungi and bacteria that can also affect plant growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokinins can also be produced by recycled tRNAs in plants and bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • developmental
  • Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, respond to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimuli
  • It was found that the gene regulation in B. atrophaeus UCMB-5137 in response to the root exudate stimuli differed from the reported gene regulation at similar conditions in B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42, which was considered as a paradigm PGPR. (up.ac.za)
  • Since root development of wrky6 plants exposed to P. indica under phosphate limitation is strongly promoted, we propose that common genes which respond to all three growth stimuli are central for the control of root growth and architecture. (nih.gov)
  • Ecosystem
  • Hyperaccumulating plants hold interest for their ability to extract metals from the soils of contaminated sites (phytoremediation) to return the ecosystem to a less toxic state. (wikipedia.org)