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  • yeast
  • A stochastic model correctly predicts changes in budding yeast cell cycle dynamics upon periodic expression of CLN2. (nih.gov)
  • Next, in order to test the predictive ability of the stochastic model, we focus on a recent experimental study in which forced periodic expression of CLN2 cyclin (driven by MET3 promoter in cln3 background) has been used to synchronize budding yeast cell colonies. (nih.gov)
  • Pheromone-regulated genes required for yeast mating differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of the yeast phosphoglycerate kinase gene (PGK) requires the binding of RAP1 to the activator core sequence within the upstream activating sequence (UAS) of PGK. (hku.hk)
  • The results suggest that effects of assembled Pol III complexes on transcription of neighboring Pol II promoters are of greater magnitude than previously appreciated, that such effects influence expression of adjacent genes at transcriptional start site and translational levels, and may explain a function of the conserved ETC sites in yeast. (nih.gov)
  • Yeast TAF(II)145 required for transcription of G1/S cyclin genes and r" by Scott S. Walker, Wu-Cheng Shen et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • TFIID comprises the TATA box-binding protein and a set of highly conserved associated factors (TAF(II)s). yTAF(II)145, the core subunit of the yeast TAF(II) complex, is dispensable for transcription of most yeast genes but specifically required for progression through G1/S. Here we show that transcription of G1 and certain B-type cyclin genes is dependent upon yTAF(II)145. (umassmed.edu)
  • At high cell density or following nutrient deprivation, yeast cells cease division, enter a G0-like state, and terminate transcription of most genes. (umassmed.edu)
  • We developed a procedure to measure mRNA decay rates in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and applied it to the determination of half-lives for 20 mRNAs encoded by well-characterized genes. (umassmed.edu)
  • In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mob1p interacts with the Dbf2p kinase and cells containing mutations in these genes arrest in late anaphase . (umassmed.edu)
  • In yeast it is encoded by the ERG9 gene, in mammals by the FDFT1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitosis
  • Mob1p is required for Sid2p localization, and Mob1p localization requires the function of the cdc7, cdc11, cdc14, spg1, sid1, sid2, and sid4 genes, suggesting that together with Sid2p, Mob1p functions at the end of the signaling cascade required to regulate the onset of cytokinesis at the end of mitosis. (umassmed.edu)
  • The cohesin pathway is involved in cohesion of sister chromatids during mitosis, DNA repair, chromosome segregation and the regulation of developmental gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • The mutation of the cre1 locus has specifically occurred in RUT C30.Some of the genes that are lacking in RUT C30 could be correlated with pronounced alterations in its phenotype, such as poor growth on alpha-linked oligo- and polyglucosides (loss of maltose permease), or disturbance of osmotic homeostasis.Our data place a general caveat on the use of H. jecorina RUT C30 for further basic research. (nih.gov)
  • To date this and an additional frame-shift mutation in the glycoprotein-processing beta-glucosidase II encoding gene are the only known genetic differences in strain RUT C30. (nih.gov)
  • As the reason for this gene deletion in RUT C30 is unknown, we wondered whether it would be topologically related to the cre1.1 mutation. (nih.gov)
  • Loci
  • Results indicated a strong tendency for alkaloid loci to have conserved cores that specify the skeleton structures and peripheral genes that determine chemical variations that are known to affect their pharmacological specificities. (nih.gov)
  • Loline alkaloid biosynthesis loci (LOL) in epichloae and the homologous loci in other Clavicipitaceae.LOL genes are indicated by single letters, whereby F = lolF, C = lolC, and so forth. (nih.gov)
  • symbionts
  • The fungal family Clavicipitaceae includes plant symbionts and parasites that produce several psychoactive and bioprotective alkaloids. (nih.gov)
  • The lolines are insecticidal and insect-deterrent compounds that are produced in grasses infected by endophytic fungal symbionts of the genus Epichloë (anamorphic species: Neotyphodium). (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Truncating the CTD altered RNAPII occupancy, leading to not only decreases, but also increases in mRNA levels.This suggested a positive role of Cdk8 in relationship to RNAPII, which contrasted with the observed negative role at the activated INO1 gene.Here, loss of CDK8 suppressed the reduced mRNA expression and RNAPII occupancy levels of CTD truncation mutants. (nih.gov)
  • Using genetic interaction, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by microarrays (ChIP-on-chip) and mRNA expression analysis, we found that truncating the CTD resulted in distinct changes to cellular function. (nih.gov)
  • The mediator subunit Cdk8 was enriched at promoters of these genes, and its removal not only restored normal mRNA and RNAPII occupancy levels, but also reduced the abnormally high cellular amounts of Rpn4. (nih.gov)
  • Here, loss of CDK8 suppressed the reduced mRNA expression and RNAPII occupancy levels of CTD truncation mutants. (nih.gov)
  • Focusing on CTD-length dependent genes, we observed Cdk8 occupancy at the promoters of genes with increased mRNA levels in the rpb1-CTD11 mutant (Figure 8A), while very little Cdk8 was observed at the set of genes with decreased levels (data not shown). (nih.gov)
  • regulates
  • The histone H3K36 demethylase Rph1/KDM4 regulates the expression of the photoreactivation gene PHR1. (nih.gov)
  • Mutants of in planta inducible genes not only exhibited sensitive to oxidative stress but also failed to infect rice.These experimental validations clearly demonstrated the value of TF expression patterns in predicting the function of individual TF genes.The regulatory network of TF genes revealed by this study provides a solid foundation for elucidating how M. oryzae regulates its pathogenesis, development, and stress responses. (nih.gov)
  • The regulatory network of TF genes revealed by this study provides a solid foundation for elucidating how M. oryzae regulates its pathogenesis, development, and stress responses. (nih.gov)
  • It regulates gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • Simulated return maps for successive cells with and without forced CLN2 expression.No forcing is applied in (A) and (C), whereas the forcing period is 90 min in (B) and (D). "D" and "M" stand for daughters and mothers, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • In higher plants, they are used to control phototropism, chloroplast relocation, and stomatal opening, whereas in fungal organisms, they are used for adjusting the circadian temporal organization of the cells to the daily and seasonal periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome sequence
  • A BLAST search of the H. jecorina genome sequence database with the cloned cre1 gene identified it to be located on scaffold 2: 786955-789433 (ID 120117), and thus distant from the locus of the lesion which was identified in this paper. (nih.gov)
  • species
  • Transcript contigs, protein sequences from multiple fungal species, and ab initio gene predictions were included as evidence sources in the Maker gene prediction pipeline, resulting in 6,992 consensus gene models. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We profiled the alkaloids and sequenced the genomes of 10 epichloae, three ergot fungi (Claviceps species), a morning-glory symbiont (Periglandula ipomoeae), and a bamboo pathogen (Aciculosporium take), and compared the gene clusters for four classes of alkaloids. (nih.gov)
  • Environmental Exposure Exposure to fungal species that secrete gliotoxin is common because airborne Aspergillus fungal spores are ubiquitous in many environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • This involves the study of the genotype of microbial species and also the expression system in the form of phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromatin
  • Our study demonstrates that the histone demethylase Rph1 is associated with a specific chromatin locus and modulates histone modifications to repress a DNA damage responsive gene under control of damage checkpoint signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Type A HATs are located in the nucleus and are involved in the regulation of gene expression through acetylation of nucleosomal histones in the context of chromatin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial
  • Bacterial examples include: Bartonella henselae Francisella tularensis Listeria monocytogenes Salmonella Typhi Brucella Legionella Mycobacterium Nocardia Rhodococcus equi Yersinia Neisseria meningitidis Fungal examples include: Histoplasma capsulatum. (wikipedia.org)
  • defects
  • These Set1 mutants were evaluated in vivo by determining the levels of K4-methylated H3, assaying the strength of gene silencing at the rDNA and using a genetic assessment of kinetochore function as a proxy for defects in Dam1 methylation. (nih.gov)
  • Regulation of Rpn4 levels partly mediated the suppression of rpb1-CTD11 defects by loss of CDK8. (nih.gov)
  • enzymes
  • The AK-HSD gene codes for aspartate kinase, an intermediate domain (coding for the linker region between the two enzymes in the bifunctional form), and finally the coding sequence for homoserine dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Aspergillus fumigatus, the enzymes needed for gliotoxin biosynthesis are encoded in 13 genes within the gli gene cluster. (wikipedia.org)
  • When this gene cluster is activated, these enzymes mediate the production of gliotoxin from serine and phenylalanine residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histones
  • DNA is wrapped around histones, and, by transferring an acetyl group to the histones, genes can be turned on and off. (wikipedia.org)
  • inducible
  • Because the Rph1 phosphorylation triggered by, UV irradiation may reflect a transient response, we attempted to examine the immediate response by use of the GAL inducible expression system. (nih.gov)
  • Mutants of in planta inducible genes not only exhibited sensitive to oxidative stress but also failed to infect rice. (nih.gov)
  • dependent
  • Since several of these genes are pheromone dependent for their expression yet contain only PRE sites that differ from the consensus, these results indicate that variant PRE sites are likely to be important for Ste12p-dependent regulation of some genes (e.g. (nih.gov)
  • Gex1 expression was induced under conditions of iron depletion and was principally dependent on the iron-responsive transcription factor Aft2. (nih.gov)
  • Another example of structural variability is seen in vertebrates, in which 3 paralogues of subunits of the cyclin-dependent kinase module have evolved by 3 independent gene duplication events followed by sequence divergence. (wikipedia.org)
  • LOV domains have been found to control gene expression through DNA binding and to be involved in redox-dependent regulation, like e.g. in the bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. (wikipedia.org)
  • methylation
  • Examples of mechanisms that produce such changes are DNA methylation and histone modification, each of which alters how genes are expressed without altering the underlying DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alleles
  • Transposon insertion alleles corresponding to 20 genes that are novel or had not previously been known to be pheromone regulated were examined for effects on the mating process. (nih.gov)
  • amino acids
  • In bacteria, uORFs are called leader peptides, and were originally discovered on the basis of their impact on the regulation of genes involved in the synthesis or transport of amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • In addition, the crucial checkpoint protein Rad53 acted as an upstream regulator of Rph1 and dominated the phosphorylation of Rph1 that was required for efficient PHR1 expression and the dissociation of Rph1. (nih.gov)
  • We analyzed the distribution of Gex1 and Gex2 in strains with the corresponding genes tagged at the chromosomal locus (at the carboxy terminus of the encoded protein) with GFP or HA. (nih.gov)
  • Although they are called untranslated regions, and do not form the protein-coding region of the gene, uORFs located within the 5' UTR can be translated into peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 50% of human genes contain uORFs in their 5'UTR, and when present, these cause reductions in protein expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each subdomain contains an ACT domain that allows for complex regulation of several different protein functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukocyte antigen CD37 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD37 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • An upstream regulatory element termed the PRE has been identified as mediating the pheromone-induced transcription of a number of genes involved in the mating response (e.g. (nih.gov)
  • To determine if Cdk8 played a direct regulatory role at these genes, we generated a genome-wide map of Cdk8 occupancy under wild type conditions (Complete dataset can be found in array-express, code E-MTAB-1379). (nih.gov)
  • A model for the regulatory network controlling the expression of conidiation-specific TF genes.Solid diamonds indicate the genes deleted in ΔMohox2, ΔMohox4, ΔMoaps1, ΔMoaps2, ΔMoleu3, and ΔMonit4. (nih.gov)
  • transcription factor
  • Using quantitative real-time PCR, we analyzed the expression patterns of 206 transcription factor (TF) genes in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae under 32 conditions, including multiple infection-related developmental stages and various abiotic stresses. (nih.gov)
  • Cdc14
  • Here we show that FEAR homologs in S. pombe do not promote release of the Cdc14 homolog Clp1p/Flp1p from the nucleolus, and that Clp1p/Flp1p is not required for nucleolar and telomeric DNA segregation suggesting that this aspect of Cdc14 regulation and function may not be universally conserved. (umassmed.edu)
  • mutants
  • Spheres correspond to up-regulated (red line) or down-regulated (blue line) TF genes in one or more of these mutants. (nih.gov)
  • Kinase
  • Additionally, the aspartate kinase-homoserine dehydrogenase gene is primarily expressed in actively growing, young plant tissues, particularly in the apical and lateral meristems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homoserine dehydrogenase and aspartate kinase are both subject to significant regulation (refer to figure 3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenotype
  • Some of the genes that are lacking in RUT C30 could be correlated with pronounced alterations in its phenotype, such as poor growth on alpha-linked oligo- and polyglucosides (loss of maltose permease), or disturbance of osmotic homeostasis. (nih.gov)
  • repressor
  • This strain has been reported to contain a truncated carbon catabolite repressor gene cre1 and is consequently carbon catabolite derepressed. (nih.gov)
  • Cell Cycle
  • We demonstrate that the model correctly predicts the experimentally observed synchronization levels and cell cycle statistics of mother and daughter cells under various experimental conditions (numerical data that is not enforced in parameter optimization), in addition to correctly predicting the qualitative changes in size control due to forced CLN2 expression. (nih.gov)
  • evident
  • Fungal tissue remains evident on GMS stains indicating that despite surviving the infection, these mice have not entirely cleared the fungal infection. (nih.gov)
  • infection
  • CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive transcriptome analysis substantially enhances our understanding of the A. apis genome and its expression during infection of honey bee larvae. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These symptoms, likely due to the large inflammatory response characteristic of these mice when exposed to fungal antigens, included ruffled fur, hunched posture, and lethargic movement as early as 24 hours post-infection. (nih.gov)
  • sequences
  • Sequences similar to the consensus Ste12p binding site in the upstream regions of the FIG1, FIG2, KAR5/FIG3, and FIG4 genes. (nih.gov)
  • We searched the regions immediately upstream of the four novel FIG genes characterized in this study and found sequences matching the PRE consensus (Fig. 2). (nih.gov)
  • 1992), failed to identify sequences in the upstream regions of the FIG1-4 genes closely matching the consensus binding site. (nih.gov)
  • Functional
  • This result confirms the importance of a functional NADPH oxidase in resistance to Aspergillus infections, and suggests that increased hypoxia prevents proliferation of fungal tissue in the absence of SrbA. (nih.gov)
  • upstream
  • The results reveal altered intergenic Pol II transcription near TFIIIC binding sites in the mutant strains, where we observe readthrough of upstream transcripts that normally terminate near these sites, 5'- and 3'-extended transcripts, and de-repression of adjacent genes and intergenic regions. (nih.gov)
  • Significantly
  • Significantly higher Cdk8 occupancy occurred at the promoters of genes with increased expression levels in both the wild type and the rpb1-CTD11 mutant. (nih.gov)
  • function
  • Further, the results suggest that the attributes of Set1 required for trimethylation of histone H3 are those required for Pol II gene silencing at the rDNA and kinetochore function. (nih.gov)
  • These experimental validations clearly demonstrated the value of TF expression patterns in predicting the function of individual TF genes. (nih.gov)
  • Since the regulation of gene expression is critical in the proper function of cells, this is an area of study that needs to be investigated further. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of DNA binding is either structural or involves transcription regulation, with the two roles sometimes overlapping. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical
  • Research Area Gene Technology and Applied Biochemistry, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/166-5, A-1060 Wien, Austria. (nih.gov)
  • Genes for the first fully cyclized intermediate, NANL, are indicated in blue, and those for subsequent chemical decorations are shown in red. (nih.gov)
  • homologous
  • Dr. Loros contributed to advancing research techniques by developing a targeted gene disruption technique for use in Neurospora, which had the effect of amplifying gene markers in such a manner as to make identification of low homologous recombination rates possible, which had previously not been the case when using traditional techniques such as Southern Blot tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has fully unlocked the power of this organism, with many genes homologous to human disease genes being identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • The existence in some species of mitochondrion-derived organelles lacking a genome suggests that complete gene loss is possible, and transferring mitochondrial genes to the nucleus has several advantages. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chromosomal location of the EFS gene is 14q11.2 and its genomic coordinates are 14:23356400-23365633 on the reverse strand in GRChB38p2 (Genome Reference Consortium Human Build 38 patch release 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the Human Genome Organization (HUGO) Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) its approved symbol is EFS and its synonyms are "Cas scaffolding protein family member 3", CASS3, EFS1, EFS2, HEFS and SIN. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome is about 43 megabases long and includes approximately 10,000 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its genome, which is approximately 14.1 million base pairs, is estimated to contain 4,970 protein-coding genes and at least 450 non-coding RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017
  • Chhipa H and Kaushik N (2017) Fungal and Bacterial Diversity Isolated from Aquilaria malaccensis Tree and Soil, Induces Agarospirol Formation within 3 Months after Artificial Infection. (dbtindia.nic.in)
  • transcriptional regulation
  • Comparison with the meiotic program of the distantly related Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals an unexpectedly small shared meiotic transcriptome, suggesting that the transcriptional regulation of meiosis evolved independently in both species. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Little is known about the transcriptional regulation of EFS, but several transcriptional regulators for EFS have been proposed based on consensus binding sites in its promoter region for ATF (Activating transcription factor), NF-κβ, NF-κβ1, GATA-3, C/EBPα (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha), glucocorticoid receptors α and β, and p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • insect
  • Unique sRNA profiles, including changes in sRNA biogenesis and expression can also provide insights into susceptibility to insect herbivores. (frontiersin.org)
  • Activation of phytohormone-mediated defense responses against insect herbivory is another hallmark of this interaction, and recent studies have shown that regulation of phytohormone signaling is under the control of sRNAs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Molecular
  • It is important in the elucidation of molecular events involved in circadian rhythms, epigenetics and gene silencing, cell polarity, cell fusion, development, as well as many aspects of cell biology and biochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • circadian
  • Her research focuses on circadian oscillators and their control of gene expression in living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • After joining the faculty of the Giesel School of Medicine, Loros continued her post-doc research into the regulation of messenger RNA by circadian clocks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loros named these two, unlinked, genes ccg-1 and ccg-2, with the initialisms standing for clock-controlled genes, a term which, now prevalent in the circadian clock dialogue, Loros claims to have coined herself.Moreover, her work on the negative feedback loop involved in the FRQ pathway demonstrated that the phosphorylation of negative elements of the clock are not as important in controlling the period as once thought. (wikipedia.org)
  • systemic
  • RNAi-induced gene silencing following uptake of exogenous dsRNA was successfully demonstrated in several hemipterans and the presence of sid-1 like genes support the concept of a systemic response in some species. (frontiersin.org)
  • duplication
  • Another example of structural variability is seen in vertebrates, in which 3 paralogues of subunits of the cyclin-dependent kinase module have evolved by 3 independent gene duplication events followed by sequence divergence. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • These stable associations have also been shown to regulate gene expression in vivo, and are prevented by mutations in MED12 that produce the human disease FG syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in this gene have been associated with lathosterolosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • In humans, the gene for HMG-CoA reductase is located on the long arm of the fifth chromosome (5q13.3-14). (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • Different forms of sRNAs, with specific modes of action, regulate changes in the host transcriptome primarily through post-transcriptional gene silencing and occasionally through translational repression. (frontiersin.org)
  • human
  • A curated database of candidate human ageing-related genes and genes associated with longevity and/or ageing in model organisms. (ageing-map.org)
  • Chitinases produced in the human body (known as "human chitinases") may be related in response to allergies, and asthma has been linked to enhanced chitinase expression levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • cholesterol
  • Competitive inhibitors of the reductase induce the expression of LDL receptors in the liver, which in turn increases the catabolism of plasma LDL and lowers the plasma concentration of cholesterol, an important determinant of atherosclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Red yeast rice extract, one of the fungal sources from which the statins were discovered, contains several naturally occurring cholesterol-lowering molecules known as monacolins. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Rutin administration attenuated cisplatin-induced alteration in gene expression and structural and functional changes in the kidney. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although its expression has been reported as lower in thymus and lymphocytes, functional studies of EFS to date have best defined it as important for immune system function. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • Clusters of neighboring genes (mostly close to telomeres) are co-expressed early in the process, which reflects a more global control of these genes. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The animal treated with cisplatin showed a significant increase in the expression levels of the IL-1α (260%), TRFA2 (491%), P38 (410%), MKK4 (263%), MKK7 (412%), JNK (680%) and TNF-α (300%) genes compared to control group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • receptors
  • Katzenellenbogen has elucidated structure-function relationships and actions of estrogen receptors alpha and beta, and demonstrated that estrogens have a broad spectrum of effects on gene networks and pathways in breast cancer and other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant
  • Recent research indicates significant roles for sRNA-mediated gene silencing during plant-hemipteran interactions that involve all three of these biological processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Other plant chitinases may be required for creating fungal symbioses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally
  • Gene identification in Neurospora was additionally progressed by Loros' lab when it produced a high density SNP map for Neurospora. (wikipedia.org)
  • cultures
  • By modifying the firefly luciferase gene, Loros was able to achieve several orders more of light production in Neurospora, revolutionizing transcription measurements in N. cell cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through sequential rounds of subtractive hybridization, Loros found 2 such genes that are responsible for transcription in morning specific cultures of Neurospora. (wikipedia.org)
  • strain
  • Alcohol preference may be associated with strain differences in mesolimbic enkephalin gene expression (Ng et al, 1996). (spotidoc.com)
  • A quasi-congenic QTL introgression strain carrying a low alcohol consumption gene from BALB/c has lower voluntary alcohol consumption than C57BL/6, with 96% of loci in common (Vadasz et al, 1996). (spotidoc.com)
  • found
  • One screen for implantation-related genes regulated by progesterone found that EFS was downregulated by 17β-estradiol and progesterone in explants of late proliferative phase endometrium. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • There are no paraloguous genes for this family in yeasts and fungi, diploblasts and nematodes such as C. elegans. (wikipedia.org)
  • least
  • Alcohol preference is due to at least two recessive quantitative trait loci that are sex-restricted in expression (Melo et al, 1996). (spotidoc.com)
  • show
  • Here we show that hundreds of genes are regulated in successive waves of transcription that correlate with major biological events of meiosis and sporulation. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • cell
  • Together with Lee Hartwell and Tim Hunt, Nurse won the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work on cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)