• The better characterization of proteins that interact with MHC class I and II promoters and the isolation of genes encoding several of these transcription factors, such as H-2RIIBP/RXR beta, NK kappa B, I-kappa B, hXBP-1 and NF-Y, allow the functional analysis of these molecules in MHC gene regulation. (nih.gov)
  • Gene expression converts the information coded by our genes into proteins. (springer.com)
  • Regulation of nuclear-encoded photosynthetic proteins by nitrogen is achieved through mechanisms affecting transcription and/or mRNA stability. (pnas.org)
  • A regulatory gene , located before the operon, continually makes repressor proteins that bind with the operator and prohibit the function of RNA polymerase. (factmonster.com)
  • The 20,000 protein coding genes in the human cell produce a repertoire of ~100,000 proteins through the process of alternative splicing. (le.ac.uk)
  • Gene expression is the process in which a gene's coding sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). (yeastgenome.org)
  • PPARγ is activated by prostaglandins and leukotrienes and regulates the gene expression of proteins involved in the storage of fatty acids. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In addition, animal virus genomes contain elements and encode proteins that are very useful for the design of vectors for gene cloning and expression in mammalian cells. (waterstones.com)
  • Regulation of gene expression by regulatory proteins and non-coding RNAs enables the pathogens to adapt their metabolic needs and to coordinately express virulence determinants during different stages of infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are major modulators of alternative splicing, a key generator of proteomic diversity and flexible means of regulating gene expression likely to be crucial in plant environmental responses. (mdpi.com)
  • Computational biologists at Carnegie Mellon University have developed a more accurate computational method for reconstructing the full-length nucleotide sequences of the RNA products in cells, called transcripts, that transform information from a gene into proteins or other gene products. (outlookseries.com)
  • The aim of the research is to identify metal regulatory elements (MREs) within the promoters of two C. elegans MT genes, and isolate and characterize proteins that interact with the candidate MREs. (epa.gov)
  • Complementary DNAs (cDNAs) encoding metal-regulatory proteins will be obtained by screening C. elegans expression libraries with oligonucleotides based on the partial amino acid sequence. (epa.gov)
  • To assess whether myelin-associated neurite growth inhibitory proteins contribute to this regulation, we applied the neutralizing antibodies IN-1 against one of the main inhibitory components of central myelin (NI-250) either in vivo or in vitro to organotypic cerebellar cultures. (jneurosci.org)
  • Since then, the genes of the ancestral cyanobacterium have been either lost or transferred to the nucleus of the host cell and the chloroplast genome only encodes a fraction (50-150) of the proteins required for its own expression or for the photosynthetic function. (ibpc.fr)
  • In histone acetylation and deacetylation, histone proteins are acetylated and deacetylated on lysine residues in the N-terminal tail as part of gene regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regulation of transcription factors, effector proteins, molecular chaperones, and cytoskeletal proteins by acetylation and deacetylation is a significant post-translational regulatory mechanism These regulatory mechanisms are analogous to phosphorylation and dephosphorylation by the action of kinases and phosphatases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The definition of retina-specific promoters will make possible targeted expression of heterologous and altered genes to the retina. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Interestingly, this dynamic regulation of the MIEP by chromatin structure in latency extends not only into lytic infection but also for the regulation of multiple viral promoters in all phases of infection. (nih.gov)
  • HCMV lytic infection is characterised by a timely and co-ordinated pattern of gene expression that now has been shown to correlate with active post-translational modification of the histones associated with early and late promoters. (nih.gov)
  • For each of the four genes, sequences upstream of the coding region are tissue-specific promoters, as shown by their ability to drive expression of a reporter gene (lacZ) in the appropriate muscle type. (genetics.org)
  • To further characterize the myosin gene promoters and to examine the types of enhancer sequences in the genome, we have initiated a screen of C. elegans genomic DNA for fragments capable of enhancing the myo-2 promoter. (genetics.org)
  • IL-18 gene expression may be regulated in a wide range of cell types by the activities of these two distinct promoters. (jimmunol.org)
  • The receptor dimer is then capable of interacting with specific progesterone-responsive elements (PREs) within target gene promoters. (asm.org)
  • As illustrated in Figure 1 , Rex regulates viral mRNA expression at the post-transcriptional level by interacting with a complex stem-loop RNA structure termed the Rex-responsive element (RXRE), present at the 3′ portion of all plus-strand viral transcripts. (frontiersin.org)
  • 0.01) mRNA expression was reduced in obese (nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic) subjects and was negatively correlated with the BMI of the subjects ( r = −0.63, P = 0.02). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We analyzed genome-wide mRNA expression and DNA methylation in cervical and anterior thoracal spinal cord segments of five human fetuses and show development-dependent gene expression asymmetries. (mpi.nl)
  • An analysis of mRNA expression in T47D breast cancer cells treated with the synthetic progestin R5020 revealed a subset of progesterone receptor (PR) target genes that are enriched for E2F binding sites. (asm.org)
  • Leptin mRNA expression was significantly and selectively decreased in adipose tissue and embryonic fibroblasts, along with drastically reduced plasma leptin levels, in GABA(B)R1-null mice than in wild-type mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Part I focuses on approaches for studying control of mRNA expression and determining target genes for a given transcription copy. (nhbs.com)
  • If not blocked, it passes over the operator and reaches the protein-producing genes where it creates the mRNA that instructs the ribosomes to create the desired protein. (factmonster.com)
  • Repressors bind with the operator and prevent RNA polymerase from proceeding to create mRNA by prohibiting access to the remainder of the protein-producing genes. (factmonster.com)
  • RNA polymerase must create RNA by moving along the chromosome and "reading" the genes in the process of transcription. (factmonster.com)
  • These genes were induced or repressed in proportion to the number of chromosome sets, regardless of the mating type. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the case of the non-coding Xist gene, which is the trigger of X-chromosome wide silencing, its asymmetric expression may be initiated by such fluctuations in chromatin folding. (europa.eu)
  • In the course of the ERC programme, we also demonstrated that this type of monoallelic gene expression is not just a characteristic of the X chromosome but can also be found at several hundred loci on autosomes. (europa.eu)
  • This reveals that a double dose of some X chromosome genes must provide a checkpoint, to ensure that dosage compensation is achieved, in order for development to proceed normally. (europa.eu)
  • The int gene of bacteriophage P2 is the only viral gene necessary for the integration of P2 into the Escherichia coli host chromosome. (asm.org)
  • Pathogenic bacteria have evolved numerous strategies to survive in and to attack hosts, which can be reflected by transcriptional and posttranscriptional changes in specific genes especially including those encoding virulence determinants. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, in many bacterial species, regulation of metabolic functions, particularly those relating to virulence, involves cell-to-cell signalling molecules (such as N -acylhomoserine lactones in gram-negative bacteria). (asm.org)
  • This will facilitate the generation of animal models of human disease and may have implications for future attempts towards gene therapy, particularly in light of the finding that mutations in the rhodopsin gene are responsible for some forms of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • abi3, fus3 and lec2 mutations affect At2S3 expression in seeds. (biologists.org)
  • Stephan Sanders and his colleagues have previously shown that spontaneous, or de novo , mutations (seen only in the child and not in either parent) are important risk factors for autism and can be used to find the genes involved in causing autism. (sfari.org)
  • To find these mutations, they plan to build a map of the differences in gene expression between males and females in multiple brain regions and across multiple stages of brain development. (sfari.org)
  • They hope to look for a group of genes that have mutations in girls with autism and that also show a difference in brain expression between the sexes. (sfari.org)
  • This LFY-induced expression of AP3 depends in part on the function of the APETALA1 ( AP1 ) floral homeotic gene, since mutations in AP1 reduce LFY-dependent induction of AP3 expression. (biologists.org)
  • By simultaneously examining the changes in transcription and translation along HCMV infection, using ribosome profiling and RNA-seq, we uncover diverse and dynamic translational regulation for subsets of host genes. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The expression of at least four other mitochondrially encoded cytochrome subunits is dependent upon specific translation factors, raising the potential for translational regulation as a general mechanism. (asm.org)
  • The bacterium Escherichia coli carries approximately 3000 genes, but this total repertoire describes its potential properties and, in reality, only a small subset of this genetic information is expressed at any given moment. (springer.com)
  • Genetic expression is the process where genotypes coded in the genes are exhibited by the phenotypes of the individuals. (factmonster.com)
  • This module covers the structure and expression of genetic material in eukaryotic cells. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • In this session Dr. Doug Higgs, will illustrates how the analysis of the globin genes switching has pioneered the application of genetic engineering to hemoglobinopathies which are amongst the first examples of successful gene therapy, and they provide ideal targets for current developments in therapeutic genome editing. (ehaweb.org)
  • This new method for studying globally regulated genetic systems in E. coli combines detection, cloning, and physical mapping of a battery of coregulated genes in one step. (asm.org)
  • Using real-time RT-qPCR, we analyzed total steady-state transcript levels of the 18 SR and two SR-like genes from Arabidopsis thaliana in seedlings treated with ABA and in genetic backgrounds with altered expression of the ABA-biosynthesis ABA2 and the ABA-signaling ABI1 and ABI4 genes. (mdpi.com)
  • In this paper, we propose an innovative method for finding gene specific co-regulations using genetic algorithm (GA). A sliding window is used to delimit the allowed length of conditions in which gene co-regulations occur and an ad hoc GA, called the progressive GA, is performed in each window position to find those condition subsets having high fitness. (hindawi.com)
  • Such a genetic reprogramming of gene expression in biofilms seems to result from changes in multiple environmental physicochemical conditions. (asm.org)
  • Precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing is an essential step in gene expression mediated by the spliceosome, a large protein complex in the cell nucleus that interacts with specific intronic sequences in the pre-mRNA called splice sites for the proper removal of introns and correct joining of exons. (mdpi.com)
  • A database of tissue-specific gene regulation in human tissues. (pitt.edu)
  • It has recently been discovered that internal signals arising from primary carbon metabolism directly influence photoassimilate production and utilization through the control of gene expression in source and sink tissues. (europa.eu)
  • The regulation of P450 gene expression has been well documented in experimental animals, but at present there is very little information available about the regulation of human P450 genes, particularly in extra-hepatic tissues. (bl.uk)
  • We have characterized the concerted regulation by insulin (3-h hyperinsulinemic clamp) of the expression of 10 genes related to insulin action in skeletal muscle and in subcutaneous adipose tissue, and we have verified whether a defective regulation of some of them could be specifically encountered in tissues of type 2 diabetic patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This study thus provides evidence for a specific defect in the regulation of a group of important genes in response to insulin in peripheral tissues of type 2 diabetic patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In keeping with this hypothesis, the expression of some important genes involved in insulin action and glucose metabolism has been found to be altered in peripheral tissues of type 2 diabetic patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, no prominent expression was seen with mRNA for GABA(B)R2 subunit required for heteromeric orchestration of the functional GABA(B)R by any adipocytic cells and tissues. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Any study of viral gene expression and replication is likely to lead also to new insights in cellular metabolism. (waterstones.com)
  • The other gene, OsGA2ox3, was expressed in every tissue examined and was enhanced by the application of biologically active GA. Recombinant OsGA2ox3 protein catalyzed the metabolism of GA(1) to GA(8) and GA(20) to GA(29)-catabolite. (nih.gov)
  • The discovery of the obese gene in the mouse and its conserved homologue in humans has led to important discoveries in energy metabolism. (epfl.ch)
  • One of the chief findings was the fact that the expression of the leptin gene was regulated and that it, in turn, could regulate metabolism and behavior. (epfl.ch)
  • Methods: The present review examines published data from both in vitro and in vivo studies reporting effects of nutrients and byproducts of microbial metabolism on the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in order to highlight an emerging appreciation for the role of dietary compounds in modulating the innate immune response. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Results: Vitamins A and D, dietary histone deacetylases and byproducts of intestinal microbial metabolism (butyrate and secondary bile acids) have been found to regulate the expression of AMPs in humans. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In addition, byproducts ofgut microbe metabolism could be important for communicating with intestinal epithelial and immune cells, thus affecting the expression of AMPs. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In multicellular organisms, gene regulation drives cellular differentiation and morphogenesis in the embryo, leading to the creation of different cell types that possess different gene expression profiles from the same genome sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is becoming evident is that chromatin structure is becoming as increasingly important for the regulation of viral gene expression as it is for cellular gene expression and thus understanding the mechanisms employed by HCMV to modulate chromatin function could have broader implications on our understanding of the control of gene expression in general. (nih.gov)
  • Our comprehension of the way that the genome is packaged into the nucleus in eukaryotes and of how some genes are expressed or "read" in some cells but not in others in order to produce cellular diversity, has been more challenging. (europa.eu)
  • In addition to their ability to disrupt the integrity of bacterial, viral and fungal membranes, AMPs bind lipopolysaccharides, act as chemoattractants for immune cells and bind to cellular receptors and modulate the expression of cytokines and chemokines. (oregonstate.edu)
  • These effects are mediated by the major IE products (IE72 and IE86) which physically and functionally interact with histone modifying enzymes resulting in the efficient activation of viral gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • We report here that an eight-ring polyamide targeted to a specific region of the transcription factor TFIIIA binding site interferes with 5S RNA gene expression in Xenopus kidney cells. (nih.gov)
  • At present the database contains expression profiles for 19,526 UniGene genes, combinatorial regulations for 7,341 transcription factor pairs and 6,232 putative CRMs for 2,130 RefSeq genes. (pitt.edu)
  • To determine transcription-factor dependence, gene expression changes in space were examined in strains bearing green fluorescent proteintagged (GFP-tagged) reporters for YIL052C (Sfp1 dependent with stress), YST-2 (Sfp1/Rap1 dependent with stress), or SSA4 (Msn4 dependent with stress), along with strains of SSA4-GFP and YIL052C-GFP with individual deletions of the Msn4 or Sfp1. (astrobiology.com)
  • In space, deletion of Sfp1 reversed the SSA4 gene expression effect (0.00% change), but Msn4 deletion yielded a similar decrease in SSA4 expression (34% change), which indicates that SSA4 gene expression is dependent on the Sfp1 transcription factor in space, unlike other stresses. (astrobiology.com)
  • The LFY transcription factor binds to a sequence, with dyad symmetry, that lies within a region of the AP3 promoter required for early expression of AP3 . (biologists.org)
  • Regulation of Protein Levels and Transcription Factor Function. (nhbs.com)
  • Hence these modifications may up or down regulate the expression of a gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, ploidy regulation of the FLO11 gene had direct consequences for yeast development. (sciencemag.org)
  • We also searched for ABA-responsive cis elements in the upstream regions of the 20 genes. (mdpi.com)
  • If the central dogma held in this case, the neurons might be buffering the effects of heat by altering the expression of these genes. (eurekalert.org)
  • The authors suggest that this calcium-dependent mechanism of transcriptional control may be linked to the expression of the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor and regulation of synaptic plasticity in such neurons. (sciencemag.org)
  • Axon regeneration requires that injured neurons reinitiate long-distance growth and upregulate specific genes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, the inhibitory activity of the IN-1 antigen on axon growth is not restricted to the control of growth cone motility but also involves a retrograde regulation of gene expression in adult central neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • It has been proposed that the expression of growth-associated genes is suppressed in adult neurons by retrograde inhibitory cues ( Skene, 1989 , 1992 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Upregulation of these genes was completely blunted in type 2 diabetic patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Genes encoding cellulases showed little apparent upregulation and thus may be expressed constitutively. (usda.gov)
  • However, strong upregulation of the same genes can be induced in Purkinje cells after colchicine injection into the uninjured adult cerebellum, indicating that their expression could be controlled by retrograde signals. (jneurosci.org)
  • Application of IN-1 antibodies induces the upregulation of c-Jun, JunD, and NADPH diaphorase in Purkinje cells, showing that their expression is suppressed constitutively by myelin-associated neurite growth inhibitors. (jneurosci.org)
  • Virtually any step of gene expression can be modulated, from transcriptional initiation , to RNA processing , and to the post-translational modification of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • We study fundamental aspects of gene regulation, from transcriptional initiation to histone modification and chromatin remodelling. (le.ac.uk)
  • We report here that the level of int expression is affected by several different mechanisms after transcriptional initiation. (asm.org)
  • We found that members of the plant-specific SC35-Like (SCL) Arabidopsis SR protein subfamily are distinctively responsive to exogenous ABA, while the expression of seven SR and SR-related genes is affected by alterations in key components of the ABA pathway. (mdpi.com)
  • Finally, despite pervasiveness of established ABA-responsive promoter elements in Arabidopsis SR and SR-like genes, their expression is likely governed by additional, yet unidentified cis -acting elements. (mdpi.com)
  • The Arabidopsis APETALA3 ( AP3 ) floral homeotic gene is required for specifying petal and stamen identities, and is expressed in a spatially limited domain of cells in the floral meristem that will give rise to these organs. (biologists.org)
  • Thus chromatin appears to play an important role in gene regulation in all phases of infection. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, transfection of the dominant negative Elk-1 gene, and the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIp) assay, supported Elk-1-dependent transcriptional regulation of FUT1 gene expression in DLD-1 cells. (hindawi.com)
  • INO80 is a chromatin remodeling complex that is believed to function in both gene regulation and DNA repair by "unpacking" DNA from nucleosomes to allow access to chromosomal DNA. (phys.org)
  • The direct effects of PR on E2F1 expression were confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis, which indicated that the agonist-bound receptor was recruited to several enhancer elements proximal to the E2F1 transcript. (asm.org)
  • Positive regulation by GABA(B)R1 subunit of leptin expression through gene transactivation in adipocytes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Global regulation of gene expression in Escherichia coli. (asm.org)
  • To get further information on bacterial surface sensing and biofilm-dependent regulation of gene expression in Escherichia coli K-12, random insertion mutagenesis with Mu dX, a mini-Mu carrying the promoterless lacZ gene, was performed with an ompR234 adherent strain, and a simple screen was developed to assess changes in gene expression in biofilm cells versus planktonic cells. (asm.org)
  • The problem of gene specific co-regulation discovery is to, for a particular gene of interest (called target gene), identify the condition subsets where strong gene co-regulations of the target gene are observed and its co-regulated genes in these condition subsets. (hindawi.com)
  • The co-regulations are local in the sense that they occur in some subsets of full experimental conditions. (hindawi.com)
  • The initiating event leading to a change in gene expression includes activation or deactivation of receptors . (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple tissue-specific activation elements are present for all four genes. (genetics.org)
  • Our findings suggest that activation of INO80-associated Uch37 by transient association of proteasomes with the INO80 complex could be one way proteasomes help to regulate gene expression," said Tingting Yao, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Research Fellow and lead author on the paper. (phys.org)
  • The widespread IL-18 mRNA distribution and the special relationship with ICE lead us to the hypothesis that IL-18 expression may be coupled with apoptotic processes involving activation of ICE or ICE-like proteinase. (jimmunol.org)
  • The signals that determine activation and repression of specific genes in response to appropriate stimuli are one of the most important, but least understood, types of information encoded in genomic DNA. (psu.edu)
  • stimulated activation of genes downstream of NF-?B. J Cell Sci. (labome.org)
  • Here we show that the floral meristem identity genes LEAFY ( LFY ) and APETALA1 ( AP1 ) are required for the activation of AP3 . (biologists.org)
  • Experiments using a steroid-inducible form of LFY show that, in contrast to its direct transcriptional activation of other floral homeotic genes, LFY acts in both a direct and an indirect manner to regulate AP3 expression. (biologists.org)
  • LFY is required for AP3 expression, since a loss-of-function lfy-6 mutant shows a dramatic reduction in the levels and domain of AP3 activation ( Weigel and Meyerowitz, 1993 ). (biologists.org)
  • Specific patterns of neural impulses regulate genes controlling nervous system development and plasticity, but it is not known how intracellular signaling cascades and transcriptional activation mechanisms can regulate specific genes in response to specific patterns of action potentials. (jneurosci.org)
  • High expression of c-fos was dependent on the combined activation of the MAPK pathway and phosphorylation of CREB. (jneurosci.org)
  • The objective of the present study was to investigate whether differences in the temporal dynamics of the second messenger Ca 2+ and integration by downstream signaling elements could contribute to specific activation of genes in response to specific patterns of neuronal firing. (jneurosci.org)
  • When compared to two leading assemblers, StringTie and TransComb, Scallop is 34.5 percent and 36.3 percent more accurate for transcripts consisting of multiple exons subunits of a gene that encode part of the gene product. (outlookseries.com)
  • Epigenetic profiling of the gene-dense region in LPS-activated B cells showed that B cells have a very similar histone modification profile to ES cells. (bl.uk)
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb News) - Short-term aggressive behavior in European honey bees involves many of the same gene expression patterns found in the inherently more aggressive Africanized bees, according to research scheduled to appear online this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . (genomeweb.com)
  • TCPOBOP was shown to be equally effective at influencing human P450 gene expression and, in most cases, the patterns of gene regulation observed in experimental animals were also seen in the human tumours. (bl.uk)
  • The analysis was mainly focused on a 2 Mb gene-dense region containing 68 known closely situated genes, having very diverse expression patterns. (bl.uk)
  • Gene Expr Patterns. (labome.org)
  • These kinetics limited the fidelity with which P-CREB could follow different patterns of action potentials, and P-CREB levels were not well correlated with c-fos expression. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thereafter, specific aspects pertaining to general and specialised mechanisms of gene expression and transcriptional regulation in various prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems will be examined.This module is highly recommended for students intending to take GENE40030 in Stage 4. (studiesabroad.com)
  • Regulation of Gene Expression: Molecular Mechanisms presents a comprehensive overview of methods and approaches for characterizing mechanisms of gene regulation. (nhbs.com)
  • Each of three sections explores mechanisms of gene regulation and expression, and presents methods and protocols for achieving specific experimental goals. (nhbs.com)
  • Shukunami C, Takimoto A, Oro M, Hiraki Y. Scleraxis positively regulates the expression of tenomodulin, a differentiation marker of tenocytes. (labome.org)
  • These findings suggest that TeM is a late marker of tendon formation and that Scx positively regulates TeM expression in a tendon cell lineage-dependent manner. (labome.org)
  • Our study indicates that, in addition to its role in preventing premature differentiation of early endocrine cells, Rbp-j regulates epithelial growth, Pdx1 expression, and acinar cell differentiation during mid-pancreatic development. (labome.org)
  • Previous work has shown that PACAP can increase tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and dopamine release, and we found that the gene for GTP cyclohydrolase, which effectively regulates TH through synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin, was also upregulated by inositol depletion. (broadinstitute.org)
  • These different components of the tumor microenvironment could have stimulatory and inhibitory effects on tumor progression by regulating the gene expression repertoire within the tumor cells on one hand and the stroma cells on the other. (springer.com)
  • Gene regulation is essential for viruses , prokaryotes and eukaryotes as it increases the versatility and adaptability of an organism by allowing the cell to express protein when needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike prokaryotes, multiple gene-regulating mechanisms operate in the nucleus before and after RNA transcription, and in the cytoplasm both before and after translation. (factmonster.com)
  • In subsequent lectures the role of microRNAs in gene regulation and disease will be discussed, together with the factors and mechanisms that control the process of translation. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA or circRNA (for protein-coding genes) and the translation of that mRNA or circRNA into protein. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Eukaryotic gene expression is more complex than prokaryotic gene expression because the processes of transcription and translation are physically separated. (oercommons.org)
  • Second, the ribosome binding site and AUG codon of the int gene are located in a putative stem-loop structure, which may inhibit the initiation of translation. (asm.org)
  • The primary focus will be to obtain a detailed understanding of the general and more specific mechanisms involved in the control of gene expression in both prokaryotic and in eukaryotic systems. (studiesabroad.com)
  • The AP Biology, Gene Regulation and Expression Bundled Unit is a collection of resources that are useful when teaching prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene regulation. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • When the flies are too hot, they make more transcripts of the sei gene and fewer of ppk29. (eurekalert.org)
  • Alternative splicing (AS) occurs when splice sites are differentially recognized, allowing for the production of multiple transcripts from a single gene that can potentially result in different protein isoforms. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition to largely expanding the coding capacity of genomes, AS represents an important means of regulating gene expression, for instance by introducing premature termination codons (PTCs) that then target these transcripts for degradation by a process known as nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The activity of Rex is essential for expression of viral transcripts coding for the virion components and thus represents a potential target for virus eradication. (frontiersin.org)
  • Their software, called Scallop, will help scientists build a more complete library of RNA transcripts and thus help scientists better understand the regulation of gene expression. (outlookseries.com)
  • Whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses based on the v.2.2 P. chrysosporium genome identified 356 genes whose transcripts accumulated to relatively high levels at 96 h and were at least four times the levels found at 40 h. (usda.gov)
  • Transcripts corresponding to 165 genes of unknown function accumulated more than 4-fold after oxidation commenced, and some of them may merit investigation as possible contributors to ligninolysis. (usda.gov)
  • This gene is situated between the phage attachment site, attP, and the repressor C gene, and is cotranscribed with C from the Pc promoter, towards attP. (asm.org)
  • Heme repression is achieved through the action of the ROX1 repressor, the expression of which is transcriptionally activated by heme. (asm.org)
  • In humans, asymmetric gene expression in the fetal cortex has been suggested as the molecular basis of handedness. (mpi.nl)
  • Satoh G, Wang Y, Zhang P, Satoh N. Early development of amphioxus nervous system with special reference to segmental cell organization and putative sensory cell precursors: a study based on the expression of pan-neuronal marker gene Hu/elav. (labome.org)
  • Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products ( protein or RNA ), and is informally termed gene regulation . (wikipedia.org)
  • If DNA encoding a specific gene is to be transcribed into RNA, the nucleosomes surrounding that region of DNA can slide down the DNA to open that specific chromosomal region and allow for the transcriptional machinery (RNA polymerase) to initiate transcription ( Figure ). (oercommons.org)
  • Spatial regulation of specific gene expression through photoactivation of RNAi. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of this research project is to identify molecular mechanisms responsible for the regulation of metal-inducible metallothionein (MT) gene expression in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans . (epa.gov)
  • overall 'Regulation of Gene Expression: Molecular Mechanisms' would certainly be of use to life sciences undergraduates, it would also be a useful reference work for a Molecular Toxicology laboratory. (nhbs.com)
  • Zhou X, Feng H, Guo Q, Dai H. Identification and characterization of the first reptilian CD9, and its expression analysis in response to bacterial infection. (labome.org)
  • However, there is still limited information available on bacterial surface sensing at the gene expression level. (asm.org)
  • The finding of apparent integration site-independent expression with this same constructis suggestive of a rhodopsin locus control region (LCR), analogous to that seen with beta-globin. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Small molecules that target specific DNA sequences have the potential to control gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • Eukaryotic gene expression begins with control of access to the DNA. (oercommons.org)
  • Embryonic development requires exquisite control of the expression of large numbers of genes, integrating components from the genome, transcriptome and proteome. (findaphd.com)
  • The reactions contain in vitro transcribed and translated control plasmids (lane 1) or FUS3 expression plasmid (lanes 2-17). (biologists.org)
  • To understand how the IL-18 gene (and consequently Th1 function) is regulated, we have determined the gene structure and investigated the mechanisms of transcriptional control and cell type expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • D, the up-regulation of DEC1 in hypoxia in HeLa and MCF-7 cells serves as a positive control for confirming physiologically relevant hypoxia. (aacrjournals.org)
  • C, Western blot analysis for RAD52 expression was performed on whole-cell lysates in MCF-7 cells following pretreatment (24 h) with anti-miR-210, anti-miR-373, or negative control #1 anti-miR ( anti-miR-NC ) and exposure to normoxia or hypoxia (48 h, 0.01% O 2 ), as described in Materials and Methods. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Though the promoter binds transcription factors and drives some aspects of CFTR gene expression, it cannot alone account for tissue specific control. (luriechildrens.org)
  • This project led us not only to discover the TAD organisation that hosts the Xist gene but also to identify some of the DNA sequences that likely control the folding within TADs and ensure monoallelic expression. (europa.eu)
  • However, the third and probably most important control of int expression in P2 seems to be that of posttranscriptional autoregulation. (asm.org)
  • Part I. Gene Expression Control at the mRNA Level. (nhbs.com)
  • Chloroplast gene expression now relies on a mosaic of mechanisms inherited from the cyanobacterial ancestor or acquired after -endosymbiosis, to allow the host cell to tightly control the activity of its symbiont. (ibpc.fr)
  • 2) The nuclear control of chloroplast gene expression and how trans-acting factors recognize their chloroplast target. (ibpc.fr)
  • A wide variety of mechanisms that control gene expression in bacteria are based on conditional transcription termination. (asm.org)
  • Further mutants will be isolated using different approaches so that we can ultimately isolate more genes encoding components of the sensing and signalling system for subsequent manipulation. (europa.eu)