• Many experiments of this sort measure an entire genome simultaneously, that is, every gene present in a particular cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human genome contains on the order of 25,000 genes which work in concert to produce on the order of 1,000,000 distinct proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Section IV, In Silico Assessment of Regulatory cis-Elements and Gene Regulation, and Section V, Cardiac Single Network Polymorphisms, emphasize new analytical approaches for deciphering the functional elements buried in the 3 billion nucleotides of the human genome and other model genomes. (springer.com)
  • As we see huge efforts mounting all over the developed world to understand the structure and organization of several complex eukaryotic genomes in the form of Gene Projects and Genome Centers, we have to remember that without understanding the basic mechanisms that gov- ern the use of genetic information, much of this effort will not be very productive. (springer.com)
  • 2002) Design and implementation of microarray gene expression markup language (MAGE‐ML). Genome Biology 3(9): research 0046.1-0046.9. (els.net)
  • The genome of gene expression programming consists of a linear, symbolic string or chromosome of fixed length composed of one or more genes of equal size. (wikipedia.org)
  • This example shows how to identify differentially expressed genes from microarray data and uses Gene Ontology to determine significant biological functions that are associated to the down- and up-regulated genes. (mathworks.com)
  • Determining if changes in gene expression are statistically significant between different conditions, e.g. two different tumor types, and determining the biological function of the differentially expressed genes, are important aims in a microarray experiment. (mathworks.com)
  • Conceptual design of microarray‐based gene expression database ArrayExpress. (els.net)
  • Schena M, Shalon D, Davis RW and Brown PO (1995) Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray. (els.net)
  • Intervening there is an opportunity to arrest or slow down the retinal remodeling process to allow for interventions and understanding which genes are involved is a good first step. (utah.edu)
  • These databases allow one to access, select, retrieve and combine for analysis gene expression datasets generated by one's own or other laboratories. (els.net)
  • The finding of a discontinuous transgene expression gradient in 3 out of 3 transgenic lines with one of the constructs suggests the existence of a "topographical" regulatory element which defines spatial expression across the retina. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • the sequence tells us what the cell could possibly do, while the expression profile tells us what it is actually doing at a point in time. (wikipedia.org)
  • With respect to a gene, the two strands may be labeled the "template strand," which serves as a blueprint for the production of an RNA transcript, and the "coding strand," which includes the DNA version of the transcript sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Velculescu VE, Zhang L, Vogelstein B and Kinzler KW (1995) Serial analysis of gene expression. (els.net)
  • Many factors determine whether a gene is on or off, such as the time of day, whether or not the cell is actively dividing, its local environment, and chemical signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, skin cells, liver cells and nerve cells turn on (express) somewhat different genes and that is in large part what makes them different. (wikipedia.org)
  • This paper by Karin Roesch , Michael B. Stadler and Constance L. Cepko looks at gene expression changes in the Müller cells, one of the glial cells of the retina as the rd1 mouse retina degenerates. (utah.edu)
  • Some cells like to spit out genes more rapidly than others. (bio.net)
  • If it's toxic to the cells, even a very low level of baseline expression will select in favor of cells that do not express the gene. (bio.net)
  • This will facilitate the generation of animal models of human disease and may have implications for future attempts towards gene therapy, particularly in light of the finding that mutations in the rhodopsin gene are responsible for some forms of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In genetics, gene expression is the most fundamental level at which the genotype gives rise to the phenotype, i.e. observable trait. (wikipedia.org)
  • In computer programming, gene expression programming (GEP) is an evolutionary algorithm that creates computer programs or models. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complex nature of mitochondrial gene expression that relies on two different genomes calls for a multidisciplinary approach in which different teams of researchers join forces. (eurekalert.org)
  • A gene is a stretch of DNA that encodes information. (wikipedia.org)
  • The randomly generated string below is an example of one such gene: 0123456789012345678901234567890 *b+a-aQab+//+b+babbabbbababbaaa It encodes the expression tree: which, in this case, only uses 8 of the 31 elements that constitute the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the field of molecular biology , gene expression profiling is the measurement of the activity (the expression ) of thousands of genes at once, to create a global picture of cellular function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac Gene Expression: Methods and Protocols presents both cutting-edge and established methods for studying cardiac gene expression. (springer.com)
  • Section I, Cardiac Gene Expression Profiling: The Global Perspective, discusses several different approaches to examining, identifying, and analyzing changes in transcriptome gene expression. (springer.com)
  • Direct injection of DNA into mouse skeletal and cardiac muscle has been shown to result in muscle expression. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • It is well accepted that genes are simultaneously involved in multiple biological processes and that genes are coordinated over the duration of such events. (hindawi.com)
  • While knowledge of the precise proteins a cell makes ( proteomics ) is more relevant than knowing how much messenger RNA is made from each gene, gene expression profiling provides the most global picture possible in a single experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression is the process by which DNA is used to make proteins, which then go on to perform various important functions in the body. (news-medical.net)
  • If the DNA is correctly "read" and its recipe precisely followed, the "right" proteins will be produced in the cell and the gene will have been "expressed. (conservapedia.com)
  • In gene expression programming the linear chromosomes work as the genotype and the parse trees as the phenotype, creating a genotype/phenotype system. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the mathematical expression: ( a − b ) ( c + d ) {\displaystyle {\sqrt {(a-b)(c+d)}}\,} can also be represented as an expression tree: where "Q" represents the square root function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus invades a host cell and uses the cell's machinery as a system to generate viral gene products. (news-medical.net)
  • Some age-related gene expression changes are prevented by caloric restriction, the most robust intervention that slows down the aging process. (hindawi.com)
  • A popular approach to class discovery involves grouping similar genes or samples together using one of the many existing clustering methods such the traditional k-means or hierarchical clustering , or the more recent MCL and clust methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the expression data of all 42 samples in the dataset, extract the data of the 10 MD samples and the 10 Mglio samples. (mathworks.com)
  • Conduct a t-test for each gene to identify significant changes in expression values between the MD samples and Mglio samples. (mathworks.com)
  • In any test situation, two types of errors can occur, a false positive by declaring that a gene is differentially expressed when it is not, and a false negative when the test fails to identify a truly differentially expressed gene. (mathworks.com)
  • This means that the size of the coding regions varies from gene to gene, allowing for adaptation and evolution to occur smoothly. (wikipedia.org)