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  • sequences
  • Transcriptome sequencing has long been the favored method for quickly and inexpensively obtaining a large number of gene sequences from an organism with no reference genome. (rna-seqblog.com)
  • transcripts
  • Using as their benchmarks the known transcripts from these well-annotated genomes (sequenced a decade ago), they assessed how SOAPdenovo-Trans and two other popular transcriptome assemblers handled such practical issues as alternative splicing and variable expression levels. (rna-seqblog.com)
  • fold
  • Using a hierarchical method, a clustering graph was created from those miRNAs with increased (red) or decreased (blue) fold of expression from 3 soleus muscles (left graph) and dorsal root ganglia (right graph) in the group of rats that sustained denervation for 6 months, entrapment for 6 months, or decompression for 3 months against those from the sham control group. (nih.gov)
  • 2-fold change of expression, when non proliferative ROP subjects were included in the control group. (arvojournals.org)
  • 3,000 tumor-intrinsic genes differed by at least 3-fold between the two groups. (aacrjournals.org)
  • profiles
  • To compare the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in neurons and innervated muscles after sciatic nerve entrapment using a non-constrictive silastic tube, subsequent surgical decompression, and denervation injury. (nih.gov)
  • We tested reproducibility by comparing the expression profiles provided by U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChips® for 3 independently amplified RNA samples: a high degree of correlation between the replicates was obtained. (unimi.it)
  • identify
  • As a result, it is necessary to develop tools that can identify sets of interacting genes that discriminate phenotypes without requiring that the classification boundary between phenotypes be convex. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cell
  • One example was a strong correlation between high proliferation rates in metastatic cancers and overexpression of genes that participate in cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, and DNA repair. (aacrjournals.org)
  • unknown
  • The correlation between peripheral gene expression and coronary plaque composition by intravascular ultrasound with radiofrequency backscatter (IVUS/VH) is unknown. (amegroups.com)
  • chromosome
  • An example of a chromosome with two genes, each of size 9, is the string (position zero indicates the start of each gene): 012345678012345678 L+a-baccd**cLabacd where "L" represents the natural logarithm function and "a", "b", "c", and "d" represent the variables and constants used in a problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA expression
  • The hormone level differences between males and destrous females can be shown by the differences in Kiss 1 mRNA expression between male and female rats during their neonatal period (time period between existing in the maternal uterus and existing completely independently). (wikipedia.org)
  • The lactase persistent phenotype involves high mRNA expression, high lactase activity, and thus the ability to digest lactose, while the lactase nonpersistent phenotype involves low mRNA expression and low lactase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • While knowledge of the precise proteins a cell makes ( proteomics ) is more relevant than knowing how much messenger RNA is made from each gene, gene expression profiling provides the most global picture possible in a single experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression is the process by which DNA is used to make proteins, which then go on to perform various important functions in the body. (news-medical.net)
  • Kisspeptins are a group of proteins that come from precursors that are approximately 145 amino acids in length that get reduced to 54 and then finally about 10, 13, or 14 amino acid carboxyl terminals and are encoded by the Kiss 1 gene and are thought to be involved in the initiation of puberty by stimulating the release of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). (wikipedia.org)
  • The rearrangement and organization of these gene segments during the maturation of B cells produce functional proteins.The entire process of rearrangement and organization of these gene segments is the vital source where our body immune system gets its capabilities to recognize and respond to variety of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • existing cluster
  • A popular approach to class discovery involves grouping similar genes or samples together using one of the many existing clustering methods such the traditional k-means or hierarchical clustering , or the more recent MCL and clust methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • For example, a normal tissue sample can be compared against a corresponding tumor to determine which genes tend to be more (or less) active. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of these selective properties, the majority of cells within a tumor will share a common profile of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of note, similar gene expression patterns associated with metastatic behaviour of breast cancer tumor cells have also been found in breast cancer of dog, the most common tumor of the female dog. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • whereas in a gene regulatory network (GRN) a directed edge connects two genes, representing a biochemical process such as a reaction, transformation, interaction, activation or inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reporter
  • The expression distribution of the reporter gene can be determined by visualizing it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reporter genes can be visualized in living organisms, but both immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization must be performed in fixed tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • Housekeeping gene - typically a constitutive gene that is transcribed at a relatively constant level across many or all known conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcript
  • With respect to a gene, the two strands may be labeled the "template strand," which serves as a blueprint for the production of an RNA transcript, and the "coding strand," which includes the DNA version of the transcript sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • nodes
  • The vertices (nodes) are represented by various regulatory elements and gene products while the edges (links) are represented by their interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A gene co-expression network (GCN) is an undirected graph, where each node corresponds to a gene, and a pair of nodes is connected with an edge if there is a significant co-expression relationship between them. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • A popular approach to class discovery involves grouping similar genes or samples together using k-means or hierarchical clustering. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • In situ hybridization is an alternate method in which a "probe," a synthetic nucleic acid with a sequence complementary to the mRNA of the gene, is added to the tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Most early expression profiling experiments, and many current ones, have this form which is known as class discovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current cancer research makes use primarily of DNA microarrays in which an arrayed series of microscopic spots of pre-defined DNA oligonucleotides known as probes are covalently attached to a solid surface such as glass, forming what is known as a gene chip. (wikipedia.org)
  • similar
  • The figure above represents the output of a two dimensional cluster, in which similar samples (rows, above) and similar gene probes (columns) were organized so that they would lie close together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each element in this matrix shows how similar the expression level of two genes change together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heavy chain contains similar gene segments such as VH, JH and CH, but also has another gene segment called D (diversity). (wikipedia.org)
  • represents
  • For example, the mathematical expression: ( a − b ) ( c + d ) {\displaystyle {\sqrt {(a-b)(c+d)}}\,} can also be represented as an expression tree: where "Q" represents the square root function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting matrix, called adjacency matrix, represents the graph of the constructed gene co-expression network. (wikipedia.org)
  • messenger
  • For example, in the case of embryonic Drosophila development, the genes nanos and bicoid are asymmetrically expressed in the oocyte because maternal cells deposit messenger RNA (mRNA) for these genes in the poles of the egg before it is laid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cap analysis gene expression (CAGE) is a technique used in molecular biology to produce a snapshot of the 5′ end of the messenger RNA population in a biological sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways , respond to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • level
  • Baseline - a measure of the gene expression level of a gene or genes prior to a perturbation in an experiment, as in a negative control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Random rearrangements and recombinations of the gene segments at DNA level to form one kappa or lambda light chain occurs in an orderly fashion. (wikipedia.org)