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  • receptor
  • In mature B cells, BTK is tyrosine phosphorylated upon membrane IgM receptor cross-linking ( 16 )( 17 ). (rupress.org)
  • The kinetics of tyrosine phosphorylation suggest that Reln interacts directly with a receptor on neurons that express Dab1, and the effects of a generic phosphotyrosine inhibitor suggest that the Reln receptor is linked to a tyrosine kinase. (sdbonline.org)
  • Furthermore, a dominant negative form of Rap1 (Rap1N17) inhibited T-cell receptor-mediated LFA-1 activation in Jurkat T cells and LFA-1/ICAM-1-dependent cell aggregation upon differentiation of HL-60 cells into macrophages, suggesting that Rap1 is critically involved in physiological processes. (asm.org)
  • The rdgB acronym is derived from a retinal degeneration mutant phenotype (type B) in Drosophila , and the Nir acronym is derived from a reported interaction with the amino-terminal domain of the Pyk2 tyrosine kinase (Pyk2 N-terminal domain-interacting receptor). (beds.ac.uk)
  • Cytoplasmic FLT3 undergoes glycosylation (G), which promotes localization of the receptor to the membrane. (diff.org)
  • Wild-type FLT3 remains as a monomeric, inactivated protein on the cell surface until FLT3 ligand (L), probably in a dimeric form, binds the receptor and induces receptor dimerization. (diff.org)
  • FLT3 dimerization promotes phosphorylation (P) of the tyrosine-kinase domains, thereby activating the receptor and downstream effectors. (diff.org)
  • In the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster , FGF signalling via the receptor tyrosine kinases Heartless (Htl) and Breathless (Btl) is particularly well studied. (mdpi.com)
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) were first discovered in mammals and the horizon of insect FGF research opened up with the discovery of the first FGF receptor (FGFR) gene in Drosophila melanogaster , suggesting that FGF signalling is evolutionary conserved [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • membrane
  • The recognition of antigen by membrane immunoglobulin M (mIgM) results in a complex series of signaling events in the cytoplasm leading to gene activation. (rupress.org)
  • Phosphorylation at Tyr-551 leads to BTK autophosphorylation at Tyr-223, membrane localization, and increased kinase activity ( 19 ). (rupress.org)
  • PtdIns-3,4,5-P 3 binding is necessary for the activation-dependent membrane localization of BTK ( 18 )( 21 ). (rupress.org)
  • This allows the translocation of both proteins to the cell membrane, followed by their activation [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • used fluorescence-based techniques to show that positively charged (basic) amino acids in the cytoplasmic domain of CD28 mediated its interaction with the negatively charged inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. (sciencemag.org)
  • We showed that the cytoplasmic domain of CD28 was bound to the plasma membrane in resting cells and that ligand binding to CD28 resulted in its release. (sciencemag.org)
  • Essential loci for myoblast fusion include the transcriptional regulator Mef2 , the membrane bound protein Rolling stone (Paululat, 1997), cytoplasmic proteins such as Blown fuse (Doberstein, 1997), and components of the Rac1 signaling pathway such as Myoblast city and Drac1 . (sdbonline.org)
  • Activation of B cells by various ligands is accompanied by Btk membrane translocation mediated by its PH domain binding to phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (3-5). (cellsignal.com)
  • PIP2 is a phospholipid located in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane that plays a pivotal role in several signaling processes, ranging from the regulation of cytoskeleton dynamics controlling cell migration and cell-cell adhesion to second messenger generation ( 2 , 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • They encode 3 closely related Ras proteins, H-Ras, K-Ras, and N-Ras, which are localized at the inner plasma membrane, bind GDP and GTP, and possess intrinsic GTPase activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These domains define two families of adaptor proteins which function in membrane traffic and whose interaction with membranes is regulated, in part, by phosphoinositides. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Ectopic expression of the protein disrupts the structure of the Golgi, suggesting that N4WBP5 forms part of a family of integral Golgi membrane proteins. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • inhibition
  • Once activated, AKT moves to the cytoplasm and nucleus, where it phosphorylates, activates, or inhibits many downstream targets to regulate various cellular functions including cell metabolism, protein synthesis, cell survival/inhibition of apoptosis, and cell cycle progression. (hindawi.com)
  • Small inhibitory RNA oligos are being designed tospecifically suppress expression of proteins that are traditionally considerednondruggable, and microRNAs are being evaluated to exert broad control of geneexpression for inhibition of tumor growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • signaling molecules
  • To identify the intracellular signals which increase the adhesiveness of leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1), we established an assay system for activation-dependent adhesion through LFA-1/intercellular adhesion molecule 1 ICAM-1 using mouse lymphoid cells reconstituted with human LFA-1 and then introduced constitutively active forms of signaling molecules. (asm.org)
  • Many cellular stimuli are channeled through a number of signaling molecules that result in alterations in the transcriptional and translational status of gene(s) to bring about the desired response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • roles
  • Another family of proteins that plays crucial roles in myoblast fusion in Drosophila is the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. (sdbonline.org)
  • Thousands of siRNA-related research articles have since been publishedthat demonstrate the essential roles of the individual genes in cell growth andviability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fes and Fer kinases play roles in haematopoiesis, inflammation and immunity, growth factor signaling, cytoskeletal regulation, cell migration and adhesion, and the regulation of cell-cell interactions. (umbc.edu)
  • Their activity is regulated by second messengers and by the binding of associated domains, which are also influential in translocating the catalytic component to their substrate sites, in mediating interaction with other proteins and carrying out their biological roles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Experimental verification of the predicted implications of these kinases could enhance our understanding of their biological roles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ENTH domain containing proteins have additional roles in signaling and actin regulation and may have yet other actions in the nucleus. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • sequence
  • This is accomplished by the conversation of the transcription factor with specific DNA elements that are usually located immediately upstream of the sequence that encodes the gene. (teannualconference2015.info)
  • Coordinated expression of these enzymes, such as glutathione S -transferase (GST), NAD[P]H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1 or quinone reductase), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), is under the transcriptional control of antioxidant response element (ARE), a cis -regulatory DNA sequence located in the promoter region of these genes ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We also describe 82 additional proteins that are predicted to be structurally similar to conventional protein kinases even though they share minimal primary sequence identity. (pnas.org)
  • To identify worm protein kinases, we first used an hmmer 2.1.1 ( http://hmmer.wustl.edu/ ) profile search against the 19,099 predicted worm proteins, the finished and unfinished C. elegans genomic sequence, and the worm chromosome assemblies. (pnas.org)
  • Scripts were written for reassembly of contiguous exons identified from genomic sequence to generate the predicted catalytic domain sequence of each kinase. (pnas.org)
  • These proteins share striking similarity in amino acid sequence and structural motifs, thereby suggesting conserved functional properties. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • translocation
  • We found greatly diminished IgM- but not CD40-mediated NF-κB/Rel nuclear translocation and DNA binding in B cells from X-linked immunodeficient (xid) mice that harbor an R28C mutation in btk , a mutation that produces a functionally inactive kinase. (rupress.org)
  • The bcr/abl chimeric oncogenes are generated from a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 (Philadelphia chromosome) which fuses a truncated bcr gene to sequences upstream of the second exon of c‐abl ( Epner and Koeffler, 1990 ). (embopress.org)
  • Together these second messengers promote Ca 2+ mobilization, protein kinase C (PKC) activation, and ultimately the nuclear translocation of NFκB transcription factors to drive B cell proliferation (Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • pathway
  • Genetic analysis shows that reln function depends on dab1 , and vice versa, as expected if both genes are in the same pathway. (sdbonline.org)
  • We show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking two of these UBA proteins, Dsk2 and Rad23, are deficient in protein degradation mediated by the UFD pathway and that the intact UBA motif of Dsk2 is essential for its function in proteolysis. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Inhibitors
  • Small molecule inhibitors targeting selected protein kinases and monoclonal antibodiestargeting cell-surface receptors have shown promising results in the fight againstcancer, including breast cancer, in the past decade. (biomedcentral.com)
  • lymphocytes
  • While the exact molecular mechanisms of how female hormones regulate the immune system are yet incompletely elucidated, studies show that they control development, homeostasis, gene expression, and signaling processes in T and B lymphocytes to influence their function in health and disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • murine
  • The administration of sulforaphane blocked 7,12-dimethylbenz( a )anthracene-induced mammary tumor formation in rats ( 4 ), retarded the growth of PC-3 xenografts in athymic nude mice ( 5 ), and reduced benzo( a )pyrene-induced murine forestomach tumor formation ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The murine hematopoietic cell line Ba/F3 was cultured in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% FCS and 10 ng/ml murine IL-3. (aacrjournals.org)
  • whereas
  • Different mutations spanning the human btk gene result in XLA, whereas in mice, a single missense mutation of BTK, R28C, results in x-linked immunodeficiency. (rupress.org)
  • H-Ras and Rac activated LFA-1 in a PI 3-kinase-dependent manner, whereas Rho and R-Ras had little effect. (asm.org)
  • genome
  • Using sensitive profile-search methods and manual analysis, the human genome has been surveyed for protein kinases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genome replication does not require the presence of the viral structural proteins enabling the establishment of subgenomic replicons that allow the analysis of genome replication in the absence of virion formation. (hindawi.com)
  • The Drosophila genome encodes only two FGFRs [Heartless (Htl) and Breathless (Btl)] and three FGF ligands (Pyramus (Pyr), Thisbe (Ths) and Branchless (Bnl)) that can combine into three functional interactions of FGFR/FGF-ligand pairs: Htl/Pyr, Htl/Ths and Btl/Bnl. (mdpi.com)
  • deficient
  • For example, aberrant migration of tracheal cells in embryos deficient for the btl locus implied a function of FGF signalling in cell motility [ 1 , 4 ] and Pyr and Ths were identified in screens for genes involved in mesoderm development [ 5 - 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • vivo
  • Since most naked molecules are notoptimized for in vivo applications, the gene silencing agents need to bepackaged into delivery vehicles in order to reach the target tissues as theirdestinations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • transcription
  • AP1 (jun/fos) transcription factors (genetic approaches have been used to study these proteins including targeted and conditional knockdown, overexpression, and expression of dominant-negative inactivating AP1 transcription factors in epidermis. (teannualconference2015.info)
  • Transcription of the FLT3 gene produces FLT3 mRNA, which is translated to FLT3 protein. (diff.org)
  • These downstream effectors activate cyclic adenosine monophosphate-response element binding protein (CREB), ELK and signal transducer and activators of transcription (STATs), which lead to the transcription of genes involved in proliferation. (diff.org)
  • Reversible protein phosphorylation plays a central role in regulating basic functions of all eukaryotes such as DNA replication, cell cycle control, gene transcription, protein translation, and energy metabolism. (pnas.org)
  • A more in-depth analysis has been performed on the 535 worm proteins containing zinc-binding domains, including the C4, C2H2, and C3HC4 ring finger types ( 3 ), and on the 83 worm homeobox transcription factors ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • sarcoma
  • The genes for Fes (feline sarcoma) and Fps (Fujinami poultry sarcoma) were first isolated from tumor-causing retroviruses. (umbc.edu)
  • Distinct
  • Distinct from H-Ras and Rac, Rap1 increased the adhesiveness independently of PI 3-kinase, indicating that Rap1 is a novel activation signal for the integrins. (asm.org)
  • structural
  • In fact, there are additional prominent structural features of the PTEN protein that are important in this regard. (biochemj.org)
  • After proteolytic processing of the amino terminal part of the polyprotein, the three structural proteins, core and the envelope proteins E1 and E2, are formed. (hindawi.com)
  • The pore forming p7 protein (for a recent review, see [ 3 ]) stands between the structural proteins and the nonstructural proteins (NS), NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, and NS5B [ 4 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)