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  • Akt1
  • Three highly conserved genes encode the forms of Akt, Akt1, Akt2, and Akt3 ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Inhibition mechanism(s) of protein kinase B/Akt1 and its consequences on related cell signaling were investigated in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (4-HNE), one of the most reactive aldehyde by-products of lipid peroxidation. (edu.au)
  • In silico data indicate that 4-HNE interacts with kinase domain of Akt1 with the total docking score of 6.0577 and also forms H-bond to Glu234 residue similar to highly potent Akt1 inhibitor imidazopiperidine analog 8b, in which the protonated imidazole nitrogen involves in two hydrogen bonds between Glu234 and Asp292. (edu.au)
  • The strong hydrogen bonding with Glu234 and hydrophobic interactions with several residues, namely Leu156, Gly157, Val164, Ala177, Tyr229, Ala230, Met281 and Thr291, at the vicinity which is normally occupied by the ribose of ATP, appear to be the main causes of Akt1 inhibition and lead to the significant conformational change on this region of protein. (edu.au)
  • In silico data on Akt inhibition were further validated by observing the down-regulated levels of phosphorylated (Thr308/Ser493) Akt1 as well as the altered levels of the downstream targets of pAkt, namely downregulated levels of pGSK3ß (Ser9), ß-catenin, Bcl2 and upregulated levels of pro-apoptotic markers, namely Bad, Bax, P53 and caspase-9/3. (edu.au)
  • We identified that 4-HNE-mediated Akt1 inhibition was due to the competitive inhibition of ATP by 4-HNE at the kinase domain of ATP binding sites. (edu.au)
  • cellular
  • The ATM protein, encoded by the gene responsible for the human genetic disorder ataxia telangiectasia (A-T), regulates several cellular responses to DNA breaks. (sciencemag.org)
  • This similarity places ATM within a family of proteins that share the PI 3-kinase-related domain and function in maintenance of genome stability, in cell cycle control, and in cellular responses to DNA damage ( 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • It then further phosphorylates different downstream proteins in response to various extracellular signals and thus plays a pivotal role in mediating a variety of cellular processes, such as glucose metabolism, glycogen biosynthesis, protein synthesis and turn over, inflammatory response, cell survival (anti-apoptosis) and development. (origene.com)
  • N-cadherin cooperates with the FGF receptor, leading to overexpression of MMP-9 and cellular invasion (3). (cellsignal.com)
  • Once activated, AKT moves to the cytoplasm and nucleus, where it phosphorylates, activates, or inhibits many downstream targets to regulate various cellular functions including cell metabolism, protein synthesis, cell survival/inhibition of apoptosis, and cell cycle progression. (hindawi.com)
  • Assays
  • Use the PrimePCR lookup tool to find assays and panels for your genes of interest. (bio-rad.com)
  • Bio-Rad collaborated with Biogazelle, leaders in real-time PCR research, to design and experimentally validate PCR primers for gene expression assays across the human and mouse transcriptomes. (bio-rad.com)
  • Available for probe- and dye-based assays in ROX- dependent or ROX-independent real-time PCR detection systems. (bio-rad.com)
  • 3) specific biochemical assays, RTPCR(Reversed Transcriptase PCR) or western blotting [ 40 , 41 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • cell survival
  • The AKT2 gene was chosen as a candidate for PCOS because its product affects glucose metabolism and mitogenic signaling, interacts with GSK3β, and mediates cell survival in the ovary. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In this review I also propose a model for regulating the amplitude of BCR signaling by a signal amplification loop downstream of the BCR involving Btk and NF-κB that may facilitate BCR-dependent B cell survival as well as its functional coupling to BR3 for the growth and survival of B lymphocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • When it was found that the antibiotic rapamycin was a potent inhibitor of the proliferation of virtually every eukaryotic cell type examined (e.g., fungi, T cells, and tumor cells) [ 1 , 2 , 3 ], it became clear that the molecular target of rapamycin must be highly conserved and its function critical for cell survival. (mdpi.com)
  • receptor
  • Physiologic and genetic data currently implicate post-insulin receptor signaling defects in substrates such as glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 2,3 In 1997, vertebrate homologs of the Drosophila spp transmembrane pattern recognition receptor "Toll" were identified and termed TLRs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Tonic as well as BCR-induced signals, together with B cell-activating factor (BAFF) 3 receptor (BR3) signals, facilitate the production and maintenance of immunocompetent pools of mature follicular (Fo)BI and FoBII cells and marginal zone (MZ) B cells while remaining self-tolerant ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Since protein kinase C (PKC) can be activated by DAG and promotes receptor desensitization, we also examined functional interactions between PKC and DGK η . (aspetjournals.org)
  • Dysregulation of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activity is involved in the pathology of many psychiatric disorders, including BPD ( Catapano and Manji, 2007 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • effector
  • We have also identified PI4KIIIβ as a downstream effector of eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha 2 (eEF1A2), a transforming gene that is amplified and highly expressed in breast and ovarian cancer ( 12-15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • mammalian cells
  • Molecular basis of autophagy was established through identification of 35 ATG (AuTophaGy related) genes [ 1 , 2 ], in the past decade of intensive research in yeasts and mammalian cells. (mdpi.com)
  • roles
  • A systematic exploration of genes essential for viability in yeast for their potential roles in signaling indicates that perhaps we do not. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cadherins mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion and play critical roles in normal tissue development (1). (cellsignal.com)
  • thus
  • The ubiquitin ligase complex SCFCdc4 and Cdc34 appear to function in promoting pheromone signaling by enhancing degradation of Gpa1, thus preventing it from sequestering G protein β-γ subunits. (sciencemag.org)
  • domain
  • The C2 domain of this protein was shown to bind phospholipids but not Ca2+, which suggests that this enzyme may function in a calcium-independent manner. (nih.gov)
  • This domain occurred 395 times on human genes ( 899 proteins). (umbc.edu)
  • ILK is a widely expressed modular protein composed of three major domains: an N-terminal domain that contains four ankyrin repeats, a central pleckstrin homology (PH)-like domain and a C-terminal kinase domain. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The N-terminal DBD-F and DBD-A domains of RPA1 have been implicated in the recruitment of other factors during DNA replication, repair or recombination [ 7 - 9 ], whereas the C-terminal DBD-C domain is essential for RPA trimerization [ 3 , 4 , 10 , 11 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • The encoded protein does not contain a coiled coil region, like some family members, but does contain a SRC homology domain near its N-terminus. (genecards.org)
  • sequence
  • The molecular sequence of this clone aligns with the gene accession number as a point of reference only. (origene.com)