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  • regulatory
  • These epigenetic regulatory mechanisms include covalent modifications of histones, ATP hydrolysis-dependent chromatin remodeling activities, substitutions of the core (major) histones with their related variant (minor) histones, and DNA methylation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These expression patterns correspond with their roles in the DNA replication cycle of their respective genomes, and thus indicate different regulatory mechanisms affecting each isoform. (wikipedia.org)
  • p21 interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA polymerase accessory factor, and plays a regulatory role in S phase DNA replication and DNA damage repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • Up to 10,000-fold of compaction of the chromatin is achieved during mitosis, allowing faithful segregation of mitotic chromosomes to daughter cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Neural bHLH genes have different functions depending on: the sensitivity to lateral inhibition, which determines if a cell becomes epidermal or neuronal, and whether the gene is expressed in the CNS before or after the terminal mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein directs dephosphorylation of cyclin B-bound CDC2 and triggers entry into mitosis. (nih.gov)
  • Experiments looking at CDK2 activity within single cells have also shown p21 to be responsible for a bifurcation in CDK2 activity following mitosis, cells with high p21 enter a G0/quiescent state, whilst those with low p21 continue to proliferate. (wikipedia.org)
  • When cells with nuclei divide, they divide in phases called G1 (growth), S (synthesis), G2 (growth), and M (mitosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other lesions induce potentially harmful mutations in the cell's genome, which affect the survival of its daughter cells after it undergoes mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDC2
  • CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S. pombe cdc2, and known as important cell cycle regulators. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beginning in 1976, Nurse identified the gene cdc2 in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe). (wikipedia.org)
  • Working in fission yeast, Nurse identified the gene cdc2, which controls the transition from G1 to S, when the cell grows in preparation for the duplication of DNA, and G2 to M, when the cell divides. (wikipedia.org)
  • A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • also found that γ-irradiation of fibroblasts induced a p53 and p21 dependent cell cycle arrest, here p21 was found bound to inactive cyclin E/CDK2 complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macrophages can also endocytose IgG-bound latent TGF-β complexes that are secreted by plasma cells and then release active TGF-β into the extracellular fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • however, the alterations in molecular pattern of functional genes during parathyroid tumorigenesis have not been unraveled. (deepdyve.com)
  • Conclusions The presented gene expression analysis provides a differential molecular characterization of PG adenoma and hyperplasia pathologies, advancing our understanding of their etiology. (deepdyve.com)
  • At the molecular level, in fact, a gradual weakening of the cellular processes regulating cardiovascular homeostasis occurs in aging cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Using molecular tools it was possible to isolate the first four genes of this complex: achaete (ac), scute (sc), lethal of scute (lsc) and asense (ase). (wikipedia.org)
  • Extensive studies have demonstrated that cell cycle states determine cell fates, because cells in different cell cycle states are characterized by distinct molecular features and functional outputs. (springer.com)
  • Cell Cycle Control: Methods in Molecular Biology (Methods and Protocols), Vol. 1170. (springer.com)
  • In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as radiation can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many as 1 million individual molecular lesions per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA damage, due to environmental factors and normal metabolic processes inside the cell, occurs at a rate of 10,000 to 1,000,000 molecular lesions per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • oncogenes
  • This process is influenced by the cumulative activation and inactivation of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and other genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In different types of cancer, a variety of epigenetic mechanisms can be perturbed, such as silencing of tumor suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes by altered CpG island methylation patterns, histone modifications, and dysregulation of DNA binding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic abnormalities resulting in cancer frequently occur in oncogenes (genes that cause the transformation of normal cells into cancerous tumor cells) or in tumor suppressor genes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Proto-oncogenes (e.g., ras , wnt , myc and erk ) code for proteins that help to regulate cell growth and differentiation and are often involved in the signal transduction and the execution of mitogenic signals. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • proteins
  • For example, the yeast SAGA complex recruits TATA-binding proteins to the promoter, and also contains a ubiquitin hydrolase that facilitates the cycling of protein (de)ubiquitinylation [ 8-10 ]. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Proneural genes encode a group of bHLH proteins that play crucial roles in controlling cell fate in a variety of tissue types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although proneural proteins are responsible for trigger neurogenesis, different proteins are required for different neural and/or glial cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • This implies that each of these proteins is capable of regulating both common target genes for neurogenesis and unique target genes for neuronal subtype characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tuberous sclerosis gene products hamartin and tuberin are multifunctional proteins with a wide spectrum of interacting partners. (nih.gov)
  • Proteasomes are part of a major mechanism by which cells regulate the concentration of particular proteins and degrade misfolded proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the discovery of the ubiquitin proteasome system, protein degradation in cells was thought to rely mainly on lysosomes, membrane-bound organelles with acidic and protease-filled interiors that can degrade and then recycle exogenous proteins and aged or damaged organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes four different isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 4, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFB4) and many other signaling proteins produced by all white blood cell lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins of this family may also be involved in non-cell cycle-related functions, such as neurocytoskeleton dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nurse, Hartwell and Hunt together discovered two proteins, cyclin and cyclin dependent kinase (CDK), that control the transition from one stage to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are called checkpoints, because they check whether the cell has divided properly. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the cell doesn't divide correctly, other proteins will attempt to repair it, and if unsuccessful, they will destroy the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Several observational studies indicate that individuals who do not maintain a normal sleep/wake cycle may be at increased risk for several cancer types, and after considering evidence from epidemiologic and experimental studies, the IARC recently concluded that shift work that involves circadian disruption is "probably carcinogenic to humans" ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, disruption of the circadian rhythms in NK cells and phagocytic activity has been observed in malignant melanoma cells, leading to a discoordination between the two immune system components that is not observed in healthy humans ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, epigenetic DNA methylation differs between normal cells and tumor cells in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin-G2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNG2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin-G1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNG1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tuberous sclerosis 1 (TSC1), also known as Hamartin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TSC1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein phosphatase 1A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PPM1A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • With his postdoc Melanie Lee, Nurse also found the corresponding gene, CDK1, in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • The amino acid sequence of cyclin G is well conserved among mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • They each have an N-terminal signal peptide of 20-30 amino acids that they require for secretion from a cell, a pro-region called latency associated peptide (LAP - Alias: Pro-TGF beta 1, LAP/TGF beta 1), and a 112-114 amino acid C-terminal region that becomes the mature TGF-β molecule following its release from the pro-region by proteolytic cleavage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without taking into account GAK's kinase domain, GAK is 43% identical to auxilin, a neuronal cell uncoating clathrin cofactor, in its amino acid composition. (wikipedia.org)