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  • Molecular
  • In vitro models of osteoclast differentiation are principally based on primary cell culture, which are poorly suited to molecular and transgene studies due to the limitations associated with the use of primary macrophage. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These osteoclast precursor RAW264.7 cell clones provide a valuable model for dissecting the cellular and molecular regulation of osteoclast differentiation and activation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the function of R genes are only understood for a small proportion of these, a clearer understanding of mechanisms is emerging and will be crucial for rational engineering and deployment of novel R genes. (plantcell.org)
  • In high-throughput demanding fields, such as biotechnology and structural biology, molecular cloning is an essential tool in obtaining high yields of recombinant protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To meet the demands in biotechnology and structural biology, high-throughput molecular cloning methods have been developed to obtaining sufficient amounts of recombinant protein in a parallel manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • His research centers on a molecular and cellular understanding of CD4 T cell responsiveness in mice and man. (wikipedia.org)
  • Johannes Carolus (Hans) Clevers (born 27 March 1957) is a professor in molecular genetics, a geneticist, physician, medical researcher who was the first to identify stem cells in the intestine and is one of the world's leading researchers on normal stem cells and their potential for regenerative therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, an allele of this gene may play a role in mediating nonhumoral immunity to Hemophilus influenzae type B. Uridine-cytidine kinase 2 is a tetramer with molecular mass of about 112 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • All PCR products including those that are difficult to clone by other PCR cloning methods or that may be unstable or code for potentially detrimental proteins can be cloned and maintained as single copy to ensure their stability. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The predicted gene product had a hydrophobic sequence near its amino terminus similar to the noncleavable signal sequences found in several other Fts proteins. (asm.org)
  • Expression of cytoplasmic CD3 epsilon proteins in activated human adult natural killer (NK) cells and CD3 gamma, delta, epsilon complexes in fetal NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The product of this gene belongs to a small family of adaptor proteins that are known to interact with a number of receptor tyrosine kinases and signaling molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Parallel work has allowed the characterisation of a novel human delayed- rectifier type K+ channel (hCDRl) from human chromosomal DNA, and an analysis of the hCDRl gene promoter region has been initiated. (le.ac.uk)
  • Finally, the establishment of a gene-activation library for the functional expression of novel and existing K+ channel genes has been attempted. (le.ac.uk)
  • mRNAs
  • After selection of the clones for nestin and musashi-1 mRNAs as neural progenitors, we obtained the cells which begin to express retinal progenitor transcripts, six3 and chx10 on the next day after culture. (arvojournals.org)
  • Clones capable of forming large TRAP positive multinuclear cells also expressed β 3 integrin and calcitonin receptor mRNAs and were capable of resorbing a mineralized matrix. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2002
  • Also in 2002 he became director of the Hubrecht Institute for Developmental Biology and Stem-Cell Research at the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2002, Tounson apologised for misleading members of the Australian Parliament by attributing the recovery of a crippled rat to embryonic stem cells, when in fact the cells were germ cells from a fetal rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • The human beta-globin LCR confers high levels of expression on cis linked cDNAs and genes under control of the beta-globin promoter, and certain genes under control of their native promoter elements. (le.ac.uk)
  • This heterologous expression is copy-number-dependent and position-independent in the nucleii of erythroid specific cells. (le.ac.uk)
  • Transcriptional silencing and insulation have been discussed as probable reasons for the lack of detectable expression from these 14 clones. (le.ac.uk)
  • cDNA expression profiling of osteoclast precursor RAW264.7 cell clones demonstrates appropriate expression of a large number of genes before and after osteoclastic differentiation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These transcription factors, and others, direct the expression or repression of the unique set of genes associated with osteoclast differentiation and activation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • ftsN was essential for cell division, since expression of a conditional null allele led to filamentation and cell death. (asm.org)
  • The expression of LRPR1 mRNA in Sertoli cells is strongly and rapidly up-regulated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). (eur.nl)
  • The level of LRPR1 mRNA was very low in Sertoli cells isolated from 21-day-old rats and cultured for 3 days in the absence of FSH, but LRPR1 mRNA expression was markedly increased within 2 h after addition of FSH to these cultures. (eur.nl)
  • The presently available data indicate that LRPR1 mRNA expression is regulated specifically by FSH, since several other hormones and growth factors did not affect LRPR1 mRNA expression in the cultured Sertoli cells. (eur.nl)
  • Cell surface expression of HLA-A3, AW24 and CW3 gene products on P815 transfectants was demonstrated by radioimmune assay and by flow cytometry. (unil.ch)
  • The expression of the PMEL gene is regulated by the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, UCK2 has been detected mostly in cancerous cells and healthy placental tissue.The selective expression in target tissues has resulted in the identification of UCK2 as a target in anti-cancer therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmid
  • Finally, the amplified gene with overhangs is used as a megaprimer in the second PCR, where the insertion takes place during linear plasmid amplification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The complementary DNA products form a plasmid containing two single-stranded nicks, which is ready for transformation and clone screening. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To shorten the protocol, the gene-specific and the linear plasmid amplification can be combined in a single PCR reaction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • protein encoded by this gene
  • The protein encoded by this gene is the CD3-epsilon polypeptide, which together with CD3-gamma, -delta and -zeta, and the T-cell receptor alpha/beta and gamma/delta heterodimers, forms the T cell receptor-CD3 complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the phosphorylation of uridine and cytidine to uridine monophosphate (UMP) and cytidine monophosphate (CMP), respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Many of the molecules expressed on the surface membranes of thymic-dependent lineages have been defined using monoclonal antibodies, biochemical purification, or identification of the genes encoding them. (springer.com)
  • 6-9 More recently, the molecules that mediate biological functions of T cells have also become established. (springer.com)
  • The technology of T-cell cloning has facilitated the definition of these molecules. (springer.com)
  • sequences
  • 14 different nanolocus-based rabbit genomic cosmid library clones, shown to be homologues of voltage-activated K+ channel sequences, were isolated. (le.ac.uk)
  • Briefly, the insertion requires that the gene of interest is flanked by sequences complimentary to the insertion site of the vector. (biomedcentral.com)
  • differentiation
  • To induce fully differentiation, we cultured these cells in our original differentiation media. (arvojournals.org)
  • 1-5 This differentiation process has been characterized using gene products on cell surfaces to define the cellular stages of T-cell development. (springer.com)
  • Biochemical studies of osteoclast differentiation and function have been hindered because a tractable cell culture model of osteoclast differentiation has not been available. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Regulation
  • Furthermore, the 320 bp fragment no longer mediates the observed transcriptional regulation of the 1149 bp Nicsy;CycB1;1 promoter in BY-2 protoplasts isolated from synchronized cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • 2017
  • 2017 - Launches GenClone product line, a full line of cell culture media products centered around ultra-pure, high-performance fetal bovine sera. (wikipedia.org)
  • biotechnology
  • Trounson was the founder and executive vice-chairman of the National Biotechnology Centre of Excellence, Australian Stem Cell Centre, as well as Global Scientific Strategy Advisor. (wikipedia.org)
  • interact
  • The suppression of ftsA12(Ts), ftsI23(Ts), and ftsQ1(Ts) suggests that FtsN may interact with these gene products during cell division. (asm.org)
  • embryonic
  • In 2000, he again made international headlines when he led the team which discovered that nerve stem cells could be derived from embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • is dedicated to develop innovative tools for genetic engineering somatic and stem cells, and provides professional and licensed services to meet specific custom research needs. (cellomicstech.com)
  • Cellomics Technology provides a variety of products and custom services on somatic and stem cell genetic engineering to accelerate your research. (cellomicstech.com)
  • antigens
  • Cloned genes for human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens were introduced by DNA-mediated gene transfer into a high-efficiency transfection recipient (HTR) cell line previously derived from mouse mastocytoma P815. (unil.ch)
  • transplantation
  • Neural cell transplantation is considered to be a potential therapeutic approach which may repair or sustain the functions of damaged retinal neurons. (arvojournals.org)
  • We have discovered that targeting a protein called CD83 that is present on activated dendritic cells with antibody can remove these cells and prevent or delay the onset on Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD), a major complication of bone marrow transplantation. (dcresearch.org.au)
  • Allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) commonly referred to as bone marrow transplantation, is a potentially curative therapy for blood cancers such as leukemia. (dcresearch.org.au)
  • The scientific team from DCR recently published a landmark paper entitled Immunosuppressive human anti-CD83 monoclonal antibody depletion of activated dendritic cells in transplantation in a prestigious journal - Leukaemia. (dcresearch.org.au)
  • Importantly, it shows that it works in preclinical models of human stem cell transplantation to prevent GVHD and maintain an intact immune system without the need for powerful immunosuppressive drugs. (dcresearch.org.au)
  • stem
  • Each year, more than 550 stem cell transplants are performed in Australia and over 50,000 for patients worldwide with life threatening haematological malignancies. (dcresearch.org.au)
  • To receive news and publication updates for Stem Cells International, enter your email address in the box below. (hindawi.com)
  • In 2007 he received a grant of two million euros from the Dutch Cancer Society (KWF) to study the function of stem cells in the normal intestines and in colon cancer, and in 2008 and 2015 he received ERC Advanced Investigator Grants. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was the first to link Wnt signaling with adult stem cell biology, when he showed that TCF4 gene disruption leads to the abolition of crypt stem cell compartments of the gut. (wikipedia.org)
  • He went on to show that the Tcf4-driven target gene program in colorectal cancer cells is the malignant counterpart of a physiological crypt stem cell program. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the creation of several ingenious Lgr5-based transgenic mice, he established the intestinal crypt as one of the pre-eminent models to visualize and study adult stem cells in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • He described several counter-intuitive characteristics for crypt stem cells: Lgr5 stem cells are abundant, they cycle rapidly, they divide symmetrically, and utilize their Paneth cell-daughters as their niche. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alan Osborne Trounson (born 16 February 1946) is an Australian embryologist with expertise in stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trounson was the President of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine between 2007 and 2014, a former Professor of Stem Cell Sciences and the Director of the Monash Immunology and Stem Cell Laboratories at Monash University, and retains the title of Emeritus Professor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This announcement led to a dramatic increase in interest in the potential of stem cells to cure a range of currently incurable diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2003 he was appointed a Personal Chair as Professor of Stem Cell Sciences at Monash University, was awarded a Doctor Honoris Causa by the Faculties of Medical Sciences and Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium, and was named Australian Humanist of the Year. (wikipedia.org)
  • He serves on the Science Advisory Board of the Genetics Policy Institute and was a founder of the Australian Stem Cell Centre. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • Dendritic Cell Research (DCR) has a major interest in Dendritic Cell (DC) biology and the translation of our knowledge into diagnostics and therapeutics to enhance the benefits immune therapies for treating haematological malignancies. (dcresearch.org.au)
  • Coli
  • The ftsN gene was located at 88.5 min on the E. coli genetic map just downstream of the cytR gene. (asm.org)
  • human
  • hCDR15.2 has been linked to the human beta-globin LCR and activation of native hCDRl promoter elements in MEL-cell nucleii and subsequent detection of expressed hCDRl homotetramers was achieved by patch-clamp analysis. (le.ac.uk)
  • The human MHC class I gene products were apparently expressed on P815 transfectants in a form recognized by human cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL). (unil.ch)
  • Human CTL generated in unidirectional mixed lymphocyte culture against AW24+ donor lymphocytes clearly lysed P815-HLA-AW24+ transfectant target cells, but not untransfected P815(HTR) controls. (unil.ch)
  • Lysis of P815-HLA transfectant target cells by human CTL was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody directed against human MHC class I gene products. (unil.ch)
  • These mouse cell transfectants may be useful for the study of human T cell responses. (unil.ch)
  • Human ADK genome location and ADK gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragment
  • By producing stably transformed cells of a synchronized culture with the Nicsy;CycB1;1 promoter/β-glucuronidase (gus) reporter gene fusion, we demonstrate that the 1149 bp promoter fragment mediates a gus transcriptional oscillation, indistinguishable from that of endogenous Nicsy;CycB1;1 cyclin B transcripts. (deepdyve.com)
  • markers
  • After 4 days in culture, the cells also expressed immature neuronal and RGC-related markers, such as betaIII tubulin (Tuj-1), neurofilament middle chain (NFM), Islet1, brn3a, brn3b, Thy1 and melanopsin. (arvojournals.org)
  • cDNA
  • Multiple cloning sites are sometimes used to ensure that the fragments are inserted in all three possible reading frames so that the cDNA fragment is translated in the proper frame. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • Cells had been transfected with hCOX2 by Lipofectamine 2000. (cancercurehere.com)
  • 2000 ). Because GadA and GadB are intracellular enzymes, and most MSG are out of the cells, the recombinant E. coli cells have to be specially treated by sonication, ethyl acetate, toluene, and thermal activation to increase the permeability (Zhao et al. (springeropen.com)
  • Organism
  • Found in the nucleus of every cell, building blocks from which every organism is built, gene information, & can act as receptors for drug molecules. (cram.com)
  • Among the many methods used to genetically modify an organism is gene insertion, which is injecting an organism with a gene it does not originally possess. (macalester.edu)
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • skeletal muscle
  • Using high-density DNA microarrays and Northern analyses, we demonstrated that the activation of a nutrient-sensing pathway, the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP), rapidly decreased the expression of a cluster of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes involved in skeletal muscle oxidative phosphorylation. (jci.org)
  • CAD leads to the initiation of the DNA strand breakage, which occurs during terminal differentiation of some cell, such as skeletal muscle cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosomal
  • The apoptotic process is accompanied by shrinkage and fragmentation of the cells and nuclei and degradation of the chromosomal DNA into nucleosomal units. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a key enzyme in glycogen metabolism and its gene localizes to a chromosomal region (15q15) that is associated with susceptibility to diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic
  • The CLINT1 gene has been shown to be involved in the genetic aetiology of schizophrenia in four studies It is known that the antipsychotic drugs chlorpromazine and clozapine stabilise clathrin coated vesicles and this may be one reason why antipsychotic drugs are effective in treating delusions, auditory hallucinations and many of the other symptoms of schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymes
  • Motor enzymes play essential roles in diverse biological processes ranging from muscle contraction to neuronal development to mitosis to gene transcription. (searlescholars.net)
  • Enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene shares similarity with the product of Drosophila syd gene, required for the functional interaction of kinesin I with axonal cargo. (wikipedia.org)
  • found for this gene
  • Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene, but the biological validity of some variants has not been determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • It breaks up the DNA during apoptosis and promotes cell differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis is a cell death process that removes toxic and/or useless cells during mammalian development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase 3 is responsible for cellular differentiation, although it is unclear how this kind of protein can promote the cell apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organisms
  • Organisms that have new genes inserted into them are called transgenic or genetically modified organisms (GMOs). (macalester.edu)
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • of TRPC decreased the cell routine S stage and cell migration, implicating an operating function for TRP-mediated Ca2+ entrance in cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • nuclear
  • Nuclear factor 1 X-type is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFIX gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been associated with heterochromatin and PML-NBs (Promyelocytic Leukaemia nuclear bodies) and has been implicated in many nuclear processes including transcription and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptotic
  • Per usual in non-apoptotic growing cells caspase activated dnase is held in check inactivated in the cytoplasm thanks to the association with its inhibitor, inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD) also known as DNA fragmentation factor 45 kDa (DFF45). (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase-3 is activated in the apoptotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • All HAP1 knockout cell lines are validated by PCR amplification and Sanger Sequencing to confirm the mutation at the genomic level. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Customers obtain a clonal HAP1 cell line, bearing a frameshift mutation in an exon of the gene of interest. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Typically, the mutation is placed closed to the 5'end of the gene, ie. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • The mutation is described in the clone datasheet enclosed upon shipment and can be verified by a PCR on genomic DNA followed by Sanger sequencing. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Rabbits with e J / e J genotype were non fixed at the non-agouti mutation we previously identified in the ASIP gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mutation in the TENM3/ODZ3 gene in humans has been associated with the eye condition, microphthalmia. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli cells
  • The yield and productivity of gamma-aminobutyric acid might be significantly improved if the overexpressed GadB in E. coli cells can be excreted outside, where it can directly transforms monosodium glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid. (springeropen.com)
  • If a "phagemid" vector is used (a simplified display construct vector) phage particles will not be released from the E. coli cells until they are infected with helper phage, which enables packaging of the phage DNA and assembly of the mature virions with the relevant protein fragment as part of their outer coat on either the minor (pIII) or major (pVIII) coat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • It is involved in the regulation of adenine nucleotide composition within a cell by catalyzing the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate group between ATP and AMP. (mybiosource.com)
  • tissues
  • The expression of these Src family members are not the same throughout all tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • HeLa
  • WIPI2 mRNA is readily detectable in several commonly used laboratory cell lines (HEK293A, HeLa, A431) and several cancer cell lines, while WIPI1 expression is limited to cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely
  • Conversely, the expression of uncoupling protein-1 and of the same mitochondrial genes was increased in brown adipose tissue. (jci.org)
  • viral
  • There are many methods used for gene insertion: transformation, injection, viral infection or bombardment with DNA-coated tungsten or gold particles. (macalester.edu)
  • This discovery changed the current thinking about cancer from a model wherein cancer is caused by a foreign substance (a viral gene) to one where a gene that is normally present in the cell can cause cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diabetes
  • This gene encodes one of several forms of glutamic acid decarboxylase, identified as a major autoantigen in insulin-dependent diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A pathogenic role for this enzyme has been identified in the human pancreas since it has been identified as an autoantibody and an autoreactive T cell target in insulin-dependent diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • The heterodimer also stimulated cAMP production and thymidine incorporation by cultured thyroid cells and increased serum thyroxine levels in TSH-suppressed rats in vivo. (jci.org)
  • HAP1 cells are grown in Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium (IMDM) in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum and penicillin/ streptomycin. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • expression
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Your choice of any inventoried TaqMan® Gene Expression Assays preloaded and dried in microfluidic card format. (thermofisher.com)
  • 9kD granulysin is also a chemoattractant for T lymphocytes, monocytes, and other inflammatory cells and activates the expression of a number of cytokines, including RANTES, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-1α, IL-10, IL-1, IL-6 and IFNα. (wikipedia.org)
  • variants
  • Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • grown
  • Then the cells are grown on a dish with the medium that the antibiotic is resistant to and if the insertion was successful, then cells will grow. (macalester.edu)
  • Coat
  • Coat colour in mammals is determined by the presence, distribution and biochemical activity of the melanocytes, which are specialized cells where eumelanins (black/brown pigments) and pheomelanins (yellow/red pigments) are synthesized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the case of M13 filamentous phage display, the DNA encoding the protein or peptide of interest is ligated into the pIII or pVIII gene, encoding either the minor or major coat protein, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells such as TG1, SS320, ER2738, or XL1-Blue E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of a helper phage can be eliminated by using 'bacterial packaging cell line' technology. (wikipedia.org)