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  • proliferation
  • In mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), Cdc7 is needed for proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deletion of an enhancer close to the GADD45G gene is correlated to increased proliferation of neuronal cells, which could account for part of the difference in neural development between humans and other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • GADD45G is involved with dental epithelial cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene modulates p21-mediated epithelial cell proliferation by activating the p38 MAPK pathway during the development of teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to driving mesenchymal proliferation, PDGFs have been shown to direct the migration, differentiation and function of a variety of specialised mesenchymal and migratory cell types, both during development and in the adult animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that in monocytes-macrophages and fibroblasts, exogenously administered PDGF stimulates chemotaxis, proliferation, and gene expression and significantly augmented the influx of inflammatory cells and fibroblasts, accelerating extracellular matrix and collagen formation and thus reducing the time for the healing process to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Human CDCA3 genome location and CDCA3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human CDCA8 genome location and CDCA8 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homology to the Drosophila gene female sterile homeotic suggests that this human gene may be part of a signal transduction pathway involved in growth control. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings indicate that deregulation of CDC6 expression in human cells poses a serious risk of carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • Though PDGF is synthesized, stored (in the alpha granules of platelets), and released by platelets upon activation, it is also produced by other cells including smooth muscle cells, activated macrophages, and endothelial cells Recombinant PDGF is used in medicine to help heal chronic ulcers and in orthopedic surgery and periodontistry as an alternative to bone autograft to stimulate bone regeneration and repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • The deletion of the enhancer reduces the expression of the gene in the forebrain allowing for more brain growth in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • GADD45G is expressed in enamel knots, where it regulates gene expression and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene has a low expression in the heart, brain, spleen, lung and testis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In esophageal cancer the expression level and methylation status of the gene are involved in the prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a loss of expression of the gene in many pituitary cancerous masses. (wikipedia.org)
  • were the first who determined that clustered genes have the same expression levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • They identified 27 clusters of genes with very high expression levels and called them RIDGEs. (wikipedia.org)
  • They determined that RIDGEs are very gene dense, have a high gene expression, short introns, high SINE repeat density and low LINE repeat density. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitosis
  • This gene encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme that is phosphorylated at the onset of mitosis and then dephosphorylated at the metaphase/anaphase transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • BRD2 is part of the Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal motif (BET) protein family that also contains BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT in mammals Early descriptions demonstrated that BRD2 gene product is a mitogen-activated kinase which localizes to the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The protein encoded by this gene responds to environmental stresses by mediating activation of the p38/JNK pathway via MTK1/MEKK4 kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • These duplicates can either became a functional part of the pathway of their parent gene, or (because they are no longer favored by natural selection) gain deleterious mutations and turn into pseudogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • overexpression
  • Overexpression of CCND2 increased growth and division of grafted heart muscle cells, resulting in better heart function and decreased size of dead tissue. (uab.edu)
  • Researchers first showed that overexpression of CCND2 in the human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived cardiomyocytes, or hiPSC-CMs, increased the proportion of cells that exhibited markers for the S and M phases of the cell-cycle, and for cytokinesis, as measured in cell culture. (uab.edu)
  • Overexpression also led to an increased number of engrafted hiPSC-CMs, as measured by bioluminescence and human cell markers. (uab.edu)
  • Overexpression of this gene product may be associated with neoplastic transformation for some tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of this gene is found to enhance the transformation of lymphoblastoid cells, and it complements a transformation-defective Myc Box II mutant, suggesting its involvement in c-Myc-mediated cell transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that overexpression of Cdc6p does not induce re-replication in cognate cells, probably due to inhibition through CDK that resets the cell cycle clock to G1. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1993
  • 1993). Nevertheless, under prolonged stress, the cell destiny may be diverted towards an apoptotic outcome. (wikipathways.org)
  • Human
  • Atienzar FA, Novik EI, Gerets HH, Parekh A, Delatour C, Cardenas A, MacDonald J, Yarmush ML, Dhalluin S (2014) Predictivity of dog co-culture model, primary human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells for the detection of hepatotoxic drugs in humans. (springer.com)
  • Finally, direct reversal of DNA damage, an unusual form of DNA repair, is also present in human cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Like many of the other DNA repair pathways in human cells, the processing of such breaks involves a series of coordinated, sequential reactions in which the damage is detected and processed and any gaps generated are filled and religated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The UAB team used cardiomyocytes that were derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells, as they work toward a goal of eventual clinical treatment for human heart attack patients. (uab.edu)
  • Human CDCA3 genome location and CDCA3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human CDCA8 genome location and CDCA8 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homology to the Drosophila gene female sterile homeotic suggests that this human gene may be part of a signal transduction pathway involved in growth control. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings indicate that deregulation of CDC6 expression in human cells poses a serious risk of carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • developmental
  • A DNA-binding protein, Cut interprets and transcribes the developmental signals sent through the "Notch" gene, which regulates a layer of epithelial cells as they replicate and divide. (redorbit.com)
  • apoptosis
  • Three concentrations (7.5, 15, 30 µg/mL) were chosen for assessment of apoptosis (AO/EB), mutagenicity (micronucleus), and cell cycle kinetics (flow cytometry). (springer.com)
  • Cells counteract the deleterious effects of damaged DNA through different repair pathways and strategies, including cell cycle control and apoptosis induction ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • phenotypes
  • Blue squares indicate phenotypes directly attributed to mutations/alleles of this gene. (jax.org)
  • mitosis
  • The timing of gene expression by using such data and methods, therefore, is not interpretable beyond assigning transcripts to main cell cycle phases in which their expression peaks: G 1 (gap 1), S (DNA synthesis), G 2 (gap 2), M (mitosis), and M/G 1 ( 1 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • and an endochitinase, crucial for cell separation after mitosis ( CTS1 ). (pnas.org)
  • When Cut accurately transcribed the Notch signals, the cells progressed appropriately from the conventional mitosis (replication and division) to the specialized endocycle, where cells cease division but still replicate their DNA. (redorbit.com)
  • induce
  • However, it did not induce micronucleus and a reduction of apoptotic and micronucleated cells was observed in treatments that included the extract and B[ a ]P. The protective effect is attributable to the presence of flavonoids, described as antioxidants, inhibitors of DNA adduct and activators of detoxifying enzymes. (springer.com)
  • embryonic
  • Most of these genes have been shown to be upregulated in the embryonic and neonatal heart (Walsh et al, 2010), which are known to be capable of cardiomyocyte hyperplasia and robust regeneration post-injury (Porrello et al, 2011). (nih.gov)
  • microarray
  • Previous whole-genome studies of the yeast cell cycle relied on microarray data from artificially synchronized cultures grown under nutrient-rich laboratory conditions ( 1 , 3 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Upregulation of cell-cycle associated genes in resident cardiomyocytesA, B. Representative scatter plots of PCR microarray analysis of RNA isolated from GFP+ FACS-sorted cardiomyocytes for cell-cycle associated genes showing increased expression of positive cell-cycle regulators post-MI (red dots) compared to sham-operated animals (A), changes which are further upregulated after CDC therapy (B).C. Quantitative analysis of PCR microarray data. (nih.gov)
  • deleterious
  • These duplicates can either became a functional part of the pathway of their parent gene, or (because they are no longer favored by natural selection) gain deleterious mutations and turn into pseudogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their scarcity in RIDGEs can be explained by the fact that natural selection favors the scarcity of LINE repeats in ORFs because their endonuclease sites can cause deleterious mutation to the genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDK1
  • In our study, noncultured HCEC neither express associated CCNA2 and CCNB1 nor CDK1, while G1/S related genes are expressed. (arvojournals.org)
  • endogenous
  • GXD's primary emphasis is on endogenous gene expression during development. (jax.org)
  • After MI, new cardiomyocytes arise from both progenitors as well as pre-existing cardiomyocytes.Transplantation of CDCs upregulates host cardiomyocyte cycling and recruitment of endogenous progenitors, while boosting heart function and increasing viable myocardium.The observed phenomena cannot be explained by cardiomyocyte polyploidization, bi/multinucleation, cell fusion or DNA repair. (nih.gov)
  • distinct
  • Our results reveal distinct subphases of the cell cycle undetectable by morphological observation, as well as the precise timeline of macromolecular complex assembly during key cell cycle events. (pnas.org)
  • cardiomyocytes
  • Up to now, an extremely low amount of engraftment of cardiomyocytes has been a stumbling block in hopes to use grafted cells to repair hearts after a heart attack. (uab.edu)