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  • Histone
  • ZNF703 directly accumulates histone deacetylases at gene promoter regions but does not bind to functional DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that in addition to its role as a classical transcription factor, Myc also functions to regulate global chromatin structure by regulating histone acetylation both in gene-rich regions and at sites far from any known gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myc protein is a transcription factor that activates expression of many genes through binding enhancer box sequences (E-boxes) and recruiting histone acetyltransferases (HATs). (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • This model, termed adaptive radiation ( 10 ) or the innovation, amplification, and divergence (IAD) model ( 11 ), is rooted in the notion that many existing proteins display broad specificity and secondary activities in addition to the function that they evolved to carry out ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • UBA52 and RPS27A genes code for a single copy of ubiquitin fused to the ribosomal proteins L40 and S27a, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The UBB and UBC genes code for polyubiquitin precursor proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer cells are constantly using a variety of tools, involving genes, proteins and altered pathways, to ensure their survival against antineoplastic drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • repeats
  • The same large repeats were found after selection in cells with a low-copy-number lac amplification. (nih.gov)
  • Surprisingly, smaller repeats (average, 34 kb) were found in high-copy-number amplifications. (nih.gov)
  • Successful amplification was accomplished in 84% and each family had a specific LA-PCR amplified product that ranged from 5 to 15 kb in size in which one to four Kpnl repeated units were estimated that were different from the 10q specific repeats. (nii.ac.jp)
  • protein
  • Specifically, amplification occurs in a gene that codes for a protein that is able to selectively pump materials out of the cancerous cells. (wisegeek.com)
  • For example, rRNA genes are amplified about 4,000 times in oocytes of the clawed toad Xenopus laevis to assist in protein production during egg development. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 5 also known as P-glycoprotein ABCB5 is a plasma membrane-spanning protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCB5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • N-myc proto-oncogene protein also known as N-Myc or basic helix-loop-helix protein 37 (bHLHe37), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYCN gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MYCN gene is a member of the MYC family of transcription factors and encodes a protein with a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MYCN gene has an antisense RNA, N-cym or MYCNOS, transcribed from the opposite strand which can be translated to form a protein product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein CASC3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CASC3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The product of this gene is a core component of the exon junction complex (EJC), a protein complex that is deposited on spliced mRNAs at exon-exon junctions and functions in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Jun dimerization protein 2 (JUNDM2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JDP2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a multifunctional, nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a role in cell cycle progression, apoptosis and cellular transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myc protein belongs to Myc family of transcription factors, which also includes N-Myc and L-Myc genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • Genes determine the physical (structural genes), the biochemical (enzymes), physiological and behavioral characteristics of an animal. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, the relationship between gene duplication and the emergence of new biochemical functions is complicated, and it has been difficult to quantify the likelihood of evolving novelty in any systematic manner. (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, our work provides validation and biochemical insight into the innovation, amplification, and divergence model of gene evolution under continuous selection [Bergthorsson U, Andersson DI, Roth JR (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:17004- and also illustrates the high frequency at which novel traits can evolve in bacterial populations. (pnas.org)
  • However, the relationship between duplication and the emergence of new biochemical functions is complicated because gene duplications are generally expected to be either selectively neutral ( 5 ) or deleterious ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • telomere
  • If these rules operating in yeast can be extended to higher eukaryotes then we can propose that if the oncogene is located between the hairpin-capped break and the telomere, then the amplification event will result in a double minute. (innovations-report.com)
  • If the break occurs between the oncogene and the telomere, then the amplification would yield a homogenously-staining region. (innovations-report.com)
  • epigenetic
  • Lan J, Tai HC, Lee SW, Chen TJ, Huang HY, Li CF. Deficiency in expression and epigenetic DNA Methylation of ASS1 gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: negative prognostic impact and therapeutic relevance. (springer.com)
  • Methylation
  • DNA methylation is the process of adding methyl groups to DNA, usually in the upstream promoter regions, which stops DNA transcription at the region and effectively silences individual genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • prognosis
  • The incidence of coamplification of the hst-1 and int-2 genes was reported at 30%-50% and was correlated with poor prognosis and high incidence of postoperative recurrence in distal organs of esophageal carcinoma . (springer.com)
  • oncogene
  • c-Myc induces MTDH(AEG-1) gene expression and in turn itself requires AEG-1 oncogene for its expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene for Sox2 lies within this region, which effectively characterizes Sox2 as an oncogene. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • This occurs when a gene is overexpressed and the trait it codes for is expressed to a level that is unhealthy to the organism. (wisegeek.com)
  • Somatic recombination occurs physiologically in the assembly of the B cell receptor and T-cell receptor genes (V(D)J recombination), as well as in the class switching of immunoglobulins. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, DHFR amplification occurs in response to methotrexate, TYMS (involved in DNA synthesis) amplification occurs in response to 5-fluorouracil, and BCR-ABL amplification occurs in response to imatinib mesylate. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Quantification of the DNA was determined using the PicoGreen™ assay (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Gene amplification technology addresses applications in molecular biology research (DNA amplification), gene therapy, drug discovery, forensic identification, and diagnosis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Thus NCYM represents a rare example of a de novo gene that has acquired molecular function and plays a major role in oncogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • These three pluripotency factors contribute to a complex molecular network that regulates a number of genes controlling pluripotency. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • RNA SPRY4-IT1 is a non-coding gene responsible for preventing apoptosis and generating large tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Excess N-Myc is associated with a variety of tumors, most notably neuroblastomas where patients with amplification of the N-Myc gene tend to have poor outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • correlation
  • This study aimed to evaluate the amplification and expression status, correlation with clinicopathological features, and prognostic implications of CDK4 based on public domain dataset and in our well-defined cohort of NPC patients. (springer.com)
  • malignant
  • In this study, we examined whether or not the intensity of hst-1 amplification is associated with the grade of malignant potential, especially organ metastasis, of esophageal carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • transcription
  • In addition, JDP2 has been shown to directly associate with the progesterone receptor (PR) and functionally acts as a coactivator of progesterone-dependent PR-mediated gene transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myc (c-Myc) is a regulator gene that codes for a transcription factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the fates of duplicated genes within populations ( 7 - 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • significantly
  • Genes whose expression is already significantly upregulated in the absence of Myc are strongly boosted in the presence of Myc, whereas genes whose expression is low in the absence Myc get only a small boost when Myc is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • multiple
  • The multiple applications of Gene Amplification Machine in the ecumenical industrial scenario are profiled along with an explication of the industry supply and value chain developed around it. (medgadget.com)
  • dosage
  • A particularly appealing model identifies a mechanism by which selection can act continuously to favor both an increase in gene dosage, and divergence of one copy from the parental gene. (pnas.org)
  • The association between CDK4 transcript level and gene dosage was explored by analysis of an independent public domain dataset. (springer.com)
  • Quantitative
  • Quantitative real-time PCR amplifications were performed on an iCycler™ thermocycler (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) with SYBR ® Green dye (Cambrex BioScience Rockland, Rockland, ME) detection. (sigmaaldrich.com)