• The development of A. japonicus includes six major phases: fertilized oocytes, early development (including cleavage, blastula and gastrula), auricularia (including early auricularia, middle auricularia and late auricularia), metamorphosis (including doliolaria and pentactula), juvenile, young sea cucumber and adult (Figure 1). (fao.org)
  • Various studies suggest that mechanical disturbances such as shaking of the blastomeres, exposure of the embryo to cold or insufficient oxygen during the early process of cleavage, grafting organizer onto gastrula or half a gastrula together, or constricting the blastula or early gastrula can cause the incomplete separation of monozygotic twins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, we show that Xbra expression in isolated gastrula mesoderm cells is maintained by eFGF, suggesting that eFGF continues to regulate the expression of Xbra in the blastopore region. (nih.gov)
  • During the gastrula stage, once the blastopore has formed, the PMCs are localized within the prospective ventrolateral (from front to side) region of the blastocoel. (wikipedia.org)
  • From this moment the embryo is called a gastrula, and the concave, visible from outside, is the emerging blastopore. (wikipedia.org)
  • The defining characteristic of the deuterostome is the fact that the blastopore (the opening at the bottom of the forming gastrula) becomes the anus, whereas in protostomes the blastopore becomes the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • When we divide the earliest gastrula organizer, a region measuring 20 cells high by 25 cells wide, into stereotyped anterior (vegetal) and posterior (animal) halves, each half not only has a distinct fate and state of specification, but also induces a unique set of region-specific neural genes. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, based on the expression of gsc, Xbra, and Xnot, we show that the organizer is patterned both at the early gastrula stage and prior to the appearance of bottle cells. (nih.gov)
  • The dorsal gastrula organizer plays a fundamental role in establishment of the vertebrate axis. (biologists.org)
  • These studies provide genetic evidence for an essential function of a homeodomain protein in beta-catenin-mediated induction of the dorsal gastrula organizer and place boz at the top of a hierarchy of zygotic genes specifying the dorsal midline of a vertebrate embryo. (biologists.org)
  • A range of projects relating to the induction of the primary germ layers, formation of the Spemann organizer, patterning of the body axis, and transcriptional networks of the gastrula are being pursued using biochemical, molecular, genomic and embryological approaches. (upenn.edu)
  • A scanning electron microscopic study in early gastrulae of Ambystoma maculatum showed that migrating presumptive mesodermal cells were strongly oriented toward the animal pole. (biologists.org)
  • The relative abundance of msp130 transcripts is uniform among the 32 cells of this lineage in secondary mesenchyme blastulae and in gastrulae. (davidson.edu)
  • As primary mesenchyme cells detach from the vegetal pole in the gastrula and enter the fluid filled cavity in the center (the blastocoel), the remaining cells at the vegetal pole flatten to form a vegetal plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The term refers to the order of organization of cells in the gastrula leading to development of the coelom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drawing upon the recent work of Warren H. Lewis and Ethel Browne Harvey, he turned his skills to the gastrula, grafting a "field" of cells (the Primitive knot) from one embryo onto another. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the first day the larvae develop into a blastulae (mass of cells with a center cavity), on day two they develop into a gastrulae (hollow two layered sac), on the third day they develop into trochophore (free-swimming, conciliated larvae), on the fourth day the valves on the dorsal surface become defined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using existing databases, we identified brittle star transcripts that correspond to 3,385 genes, including 1,863 genes shared with the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus gastrula transcriptome. (unh.edu)
  • The brittle star expresses genes representing all functional classes at the gastrula stage. (unh.edu)
  • f) Longitudinal section of gastrula showing expression of the dorsoventral axis patterning genes. (els.net)
  • During its planktic period the larva proceeds through several developmental phases going from gastrula to bipinnaria to brachiolaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result is a flattening of the differentiating neural plate which is particularly obvious in salamanders when the previously round gastrula becomes a rounded ball with a flat top. (wikipedia.org)
  • A transcriptome data base was generated from this RNA and was analyzed using a variety of methods to identify transcripts expressed and to compare those transcripts to those expressed at the gastrula stage in other organisms. (unh.edu)
  • In the 19th century, the Mesozoa were a wastebasket taxon for multicellular organisms which lacked the invaginating gastrula which was thought to define the Metazoa. (wikipedia.org)