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  • receptors
  • It has been hypothesized that neuronal gangliosides are involved in receptors for biogenic amines (1-3) and certain neuro-toxins (4,5), and it is generally, although not universally (6), believed that, in the central nervous system, gangliosides are to be found concentrated in synaptic membranes. (springer.com)
  • At the cellular level, gangliosides influence cell growth and death, probably because they are involved in the lipid-mediated assembly of signaling molecules such as growth factor receptors or integrins on the membranes. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Gangliosides perform important functions through carbohydrate-specific interactions with proteins, for example, as receptors in cell-cell recognition, which can be exploited by viruses and other pathogens, and also by regulating signaling proteins, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), through lateral interaction in the membrane. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, the monosialylated GM1 ganglioside is a critical organizer of lipid rafts, which act as hubs for receptors and signaling complexes. (jneurosci.org)
  • 1973
  • LEDEEN R.W., YU R.K. and ENG L.F. (1973): Gangliosides of human myelin: Sialosylgalactosylceramide (G7) as a major component. (springer.com)
  • characterization
  • ISHIZUKA I., KLOPPENBURG M. and WIEGANDT H. (1970): Characterization of gangliosides from fish brain. (springer.com)
  • We successfully displayed a series of gangliosides on small bicelles with a uniform confined size, offering nanoscale standardized membrane mimics for spectroscopic characterization of weak encounter complexes formed between ganglioside clusters and amyloidogenic proteins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • moiety
  • Acquotti D, Sonnino S, Masserini M, Casella L, Fronza G, Tettamanti G (1986) A new chemical procedure for the preparation of gangliosides carrying fluorescent or paramagnetic probes on the lipid moiety. (springer.com)
  • transfection
  • The effect of changing the ganglioside composition of Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells on the function of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) was examined by studying the signalling pathway generated after the binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) both in cells depleted of glycosphingolipids by inhibiting glucosylceramide synthase activity and in cell lines expressing different gangliosides as the result of stable transfection of appropriate ganglioside glycosyltransferases. (biochemj.org)
  • structures
  • Based on the results presented here, we suggest that because of the similarity between N-linked sugars on LFA-1 and the structures of gangliosides, LtxA may have acquired the ability to lyse RBCs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A novel ganglioside bearing Neua2-3Gal and Neua2-6Gal structures as distal sequences was designed as a ligand for influenza A viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • micelles
  • Corti M, Degiorgio V, Sonnino S, Ghidoni R, Masserini M, iettamanti G (1981) GM1 ganglioside-Triton X-100 mixed micelles: changes of micellar properties studied by laser-light scattering and enzymatic methods. (springer.com)
  • Ganglioside GM1 (GM1) micelles have been studied by means of water proton T1 NMRD experiment. (diva-portal.org)
  • localisation
  • However, the localisation of sodium channels at the node of Ranvier and potassium channels at juxtaparanode was retarded in GalNAc T -/- mice lacking all complex gangliosides, suggesting that complex gangliosides modulate the formation of nodes of Ranvier. (gla.ac.uk)
  • fibroblasts
  • Chigorno V, Pitto M, Cardace G, Acquotti D, Kirschner G, Sonnino S, Ghidoni R, Tettamanti G (1985) Association of gangliosides to fibroblasts in culture: a study performed with GM1 ["C]-labelled at the sialic acid acetyl group. (springer.com)
  • phosphorylation
  • We have found that mice without the capacity to synthesize GM3 ganglioside had enhanced phosphorylation of the skeletal muscle insulin receptor after ligand binding. (pnas.org)
  • glycan
  • It remains unclear whether macrophages interact with immune complexes, formed by anti-glycan Ab binding to gangliosides on nodal and internodal axolemma and, if so, which molecules on macrophages are involved in this interaction. (jneurosci.org)
  • neurons
  • They were discovered by Ernst Klenk in the 1940s, who proposed the term "ganglioside" due to the abundance of these molecules in "Ganglionzellen" (neurons). (frontiersin.org)
  • To investigate whether injury-induced ganglioside processing is operative in CNS neurons, cultured retinal neurons were axotomized and analyzed for GM1 content. (jneurosci.org)
  • indicate
  • The results indicate that GM3 ganglioside has an important role in regulating insulin sensitivity. (pnas.org)
  • Further analyses by comparative 2D-TLC with adult fish and chick embryo brains indicate the pentasialilated ganglioside GP1c as the possible structure of XI. (biomedsearch.com)
  • chromatographic
  • Gazzotti G, Sonnino S, Ghidoni R (1985) Normal-phase high performance liquid chromatographic separation of non-derivatized ganglioside mixtures. (springer.com)
  • MOMOI T., ANDO S. and NAGAI Y. (1976): High resolution preparative column chromatographic system for gangliosides using DEAE-Sephadex and a new porous silica, Iatrobeads. (springer.com)
  • composition
  • The elucidation of the chemical composition of sialic acid was accompanied by the recognition that it has specific biological properties and that the gangliosides are frequently the glycoconjugate carrier. (springer.com)
  • Gazzotti G, Sonnino S, Ghidoni R, Orlando P, Tettamanti G (1984b) Preparation of the tritiated molecular forms of gangliosides, separated with homogeneous long chain base composition. (springer.com)
  • regeneration
  • Regeneration of the olfactory system in ganglioside knockout mice was similar to that of wild-type mice. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Although there is evidence to support a role for sialidase in axon regeneration, the underlying mechanisms are unclear and a role for endogenous regulation of gangliosides in axon regeneration has not been clearly defined. (jneurosci.org)
  • their Fig. 2), suggesting that Neu3-mediated ganglioside processing is a critical injury-induced mediator of peripheral axon regeneration. (jneurosci.org)
  • preparative
  • Gazzotti G, Sonnino S, Ghidoni R, Kirschner G, Tettamanti G (1984a) Analytical and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography of gangliosides. (springer.com)
  • membrane
  • Gangliosides are typically found as membrane constituents in brain, a finding that suggests a specific functional role in the central nervous system (CNS). (springer.com)
  • More recently, it has become evident that gangliosides are ubiquitous, i.e., occurring not only in the nervous system, and should be considered important constituents of the surface membrane of most, perhaps all, animal cells of Deuterostomia . (springer.com)
  • However, in order to provide a plausible working hypothesis for any specific roles of gangliosides in brain function, a more precise knowledge on the contribution given by gangliosides to the local environment of the membrane, in terms of capability and quality of interactions with both the lipid and protein components of the membrane itself, is required. (springer.com)
  • Ando S., Tanaka Y., Kon K. (1986) Membrane Aging of the Brain Synaptosomes with Special Reference to Gangliosides. (springer.com)
  • Ganglioside-embedding small bicelles for probing membrane-landing processes of intrinsically disordered proteins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • brain
  • For further information, we have prepared purified intact and hypoosmotically ruptured synaptosomes from beef brain in order to probe the structural disposition of gangliosides in these preparations by surface labelling techniques for sialosyl and galactosyl components, and we have made preliminary observations on the modifying influence of calcium ions. (springer.com)
  • AVROVA N.F. (1971): Brain ganglioside patterns of vertebrates. (springer.com)
  • The persistence of polysialo-gangliosides in the brain and spinal cord of adult amphibians could serve to guarantee a proper functioning of the central nervous system at low body temperature. (biomedsearch.com)
  • mice
  • Although they are abundant in the central nervous system (CNS), the complete loss of gangliosides in mice does not result in gross morphological abnormalities of the CNS. (eurekaselect.com)
  • However, mutant mice develop neurodegenerative diseases and die soon after birth, suggesting that gangliosides are required for the maintenance and development of a stable CNS and are crucial to sustain life. (eurekaselect.com)
  • However, proliferation of olfactory ensheathing cells grown on collagen and the migration of Schwann cells grown on laminin or collagen was increased in Sia T -/- mice, which lack b-series gangliosides but have increased levels of a-series gangliosides. (gla.ac.uk)
  • In addition, GalNAc T -/- mice had significantly lower numbers of NG2 positive early oligodendrocyte progenitors compared to wild-type and Sia T -/- mice, suggesting that complex gangliosides may affect early progenitor differentiation, proliferation or survival. (gla.ac.uk)