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  • membrane
  • Gangliosides perform important functions through carbohydrate-specific interactions with proteins, for example, as receptors in cell-cell recognition, which can be exploited by viruses and other pathogens, and also by regulating signaling proteins, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), through lateral interaction in the membrane. (frontiersin.org)
  • Positioned in the plasma membrane, gangliosides interact with other lipids and proteins, both laterally in the membrane and via their head groups, acting as cellular receptors that can be recognized by antibodies and other ganglioside-binding molecules. (frontiersin.org)
  • interactions
  • Accumulating evidence indicates that many cellular events, including differentiation, growth, signaling, interactions, and immune reactions are highly influenced by gangliosides, and that these molecules may also cause malignancies. (frontiersin.org)
  • targets
  • Through both mechanisms, tumor-associated gangliosides may affect malignant progression, which makes them attractive targets for cancer immunotherapies. (frontiersin.org)
  • known
  • The large structural variability is related to developmental stage and cell type, and hundreds of gangliosides are known today ( 3 - 5 ). (frontiersin.org)