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  • rhodopsins
  • Parapinopsins are phylogenetically close to vertebrate visual opsins, which have bleaching properties, but interestingly, parapinopsins are bleach-resistant bistable pigments, which photo-convert to stable photoproducts that revert to their original dark state by subsequent light absorption, similar to invertebrate rhodopsins. (frontiersin.org)
  • axons
  • The X-shaped optic chiasm represents a major midline pathfinding site in the visual system in which retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons from specific regions of the retina project into the ipsilateral or contralateral optic tract. (jneurosci.org)
  • phyla
  • Sleep states are well characterized in mammals and birds, and there is convincing evidence for sleep in animals of "lower" phyla, including invertebrates [ 1 ]. (wellthychoices.net)
  • As in many other invertebrate phyla, endocrine integration within the nemerteans is thought to be accomplished by neurosecretory mechanisms. (pdx.edu)
  • responses
  • Fundamental responses to light are particularly well known in marine invertebrates and include orientation of the body, localized movement of appendages, withdrawal or "shadow reflexes" and locomotion (reviewed by Steven, 1963 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Cells
  • These data are in good agree- invertebrate ganglia, whereas the inhibition of NO release ment with the observation that cannabinoids act on princi- in granule cerebellar cells seems to result from inhibition pal glutamatergic circuits as well as modulate local GABAer- of voltage-activated Ca2 channels. (oldparn.com)
  • Jacobson, Gail H., "Localization of neurosecretory cells within the cerebral ganglia of Amphiphorus imparispinosus Griffin, 1898 (Hoplonemertea) and their possible regulatory role in the annual reproductive cycle" (1977). (pdx.edu)
  • skeleton
  • As invertebrates, they lack either an internal skeleton or exoskeleton , but maintain their structure with fluid-filled coelom chambers that function as a hydrostatic skeleton . (wikipedia.org)
  • According to this understanding, invertebrates do not possess a skeleton of bone, either internal or external. (wikipedia.org)