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  • spectra
  • The study and analysis of gamma-ray spectra for scientific and technical use is called gamma spectroscopy, and gamma-ray spectrometers are the instruments which observe and collect such data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Distinguishing between gamma-rays of slightly different energy is an important consideration in the analysis of complex spectra, and the ability of a GRS to do so is characterized by the instrument's spectral resolution, or the accuracy with which the energy of each photon is measured. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of investigations have been performed to observe the gamma-ray spectra of the Sun and other astronomical sources, both galactic and extra-galactic. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a configuration that included a wide-field collimator and blocking crystal mechanism, GRIS measured the diffuse galactic and cosmic gamma-ray spectra, yielding insight into the production of 26Al in the galaxy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (PCA and ASM) Swift provides data products not previously available from prior missions, including spectra, images, and lightcurves. (wikipedia.org)
  • spectroscopy
  • Little information was available to verify these models until the 1997 detection of the first X-ray and optical afterglows and direct measurement of their redshifts using optical spectroscopy, and thus their distances and energy outputs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The search for a gamma-ray laser is interdisciplinary, including quantum mechanics, nuclear and optical spectroscopy, chemistry, solid-state physics, metallurgy, as well as the generation, moderation, and interaction of neutrons, and involves specialized knowledge and research in all these fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that the short-wavelength high-energy end, of the atomic spectroscopy energy range (few eV to few hundred keV), generally termed X rays, overlaps somewhat with the low end of the nuclear gamma-ray range (~10 MeV to ~10 keV) so that the terminology used to distinguish X rays from gamma rays can be arbitrary or ambiguous in the overlap region. (wikipedia.org)
  • A log of natural gamma ray spectroscopy is usually presented as a total gamma ray log and the weight fraction of potassium (%), thorium (ppm) and uranium (ppm). (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural gamma ray spectroscopy logs were introduced in the early 1970s, although they had been studied from the 1950s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new generation of 4π Ge detectors has been developed to significantly improve the efficiency and resolving power of γ-ray spectroscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • detector
  • The quantity and energy of these gamma rays can be measured in a scintillation detector. (wikipedia.org)
  • Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) is a highly developed detector system to track gamma rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Correlating and constructing the multiple interactions of a single γ-ray in a segmented detector is the main technique of γ-ray tracking. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tracks of the γ-rays in the Ge-detector can be constructed in 3D. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to know the position of the γ-ray interaction inside the detector with high accuracy (1-2 mm) to get a high efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • By exploiting the spatial information contained in the detector signal we can more accurately localize the γ-ray interaction than is possible by the geometry of the segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ge-detector determines the pulse-shape of the γ-ray which contains the information about the three-dimensional position of each individual interaction within the detector with the released energy in the interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is done experimentally using tightly collimated γ-ray sources with an external collimated detector for the Compton scattered coincidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gamma-ray detected by Gamma-ray detector in an oil or gas wells, is not only a function of radioactivity of the formations, but also other factors as follows: Borehole Fluid: the influence of borehole fluid depends on its volume (i.e. hole size), the position of the tool, its density, and composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • A further barrel-shaped CsI shield, also in electronic anticoincidence, surrounded the central detector on the sides and provided coarse collimation, rejecting gamma rays and charged particles from the sides or most of the forward field-of-view (FOV). (wikipedia.org)
  • emission
  • In this phenomenon an incident gamma photon carries such an excess of the amount of energy required to induce the escape of an electron as a photoelectron, that the gamma photon's interaction induces release of the electron while the remainder of the photon's energy is emitted as a new, lower energy gamma photon with an emission direction different from that of the incident gamma photon. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • We think it's quite possible that the radio beam is narrower than the gamma-ray emission, but we don't yet know how gamma rays are produced in the pulsar," says Fermi project scientist Steve Ritz of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. (newscientist.com)
  • It later discovered lingering X-ray emission -- dubbed "afterglows" -- at burst locations. (innovations-report.com)
  • The problem of getting a sufficient concentration of resonant excited (isomeric) nuclear states for collective stimulated emission to occur turns on the broadening of the gamma-ray spectral line. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most familiar inhomogeneous broadening is Doppler recoil broadening from thermal motion of molecules in the solid containing the excited isomer and recoil from gamma-ray emission, in which the emission spectrum is both shifted and broadened. (wikipedia.org)
  • Work by Eugene Feenberg and Henry Primakoff in 1948, Sachio Hayakawa and I.B. Hutchinson in 1952, and, especially, Philip Morrison in 1958 had led scientists to believe that a number of different processes which were occurring in the universe would result in gamma-ray emission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measurement of natural emission of gamma rays in oil and gas wells are useful because shales and sandstones typically have different gamma ray levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium 40 decays directly to stable argon 40 with the emission of 1.46 MeV gamma-ray. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been known for many years that ejection of matter at relativistic velocities (velocities very close to the speed of light) is a necessary requirement for producing the emission in a gamma-ray burst. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resolve the gamma-ray sky: unidentified sources and diffuse emission. (wikipedia.org)
  • CGRO
  • CGRO was named after Arthur Holly Compton (Washington University in St. Louis), Nobel prize winner, for work involved with gamma ray physics. (wikipedia.org)
  • emits
  • In this type of decay, an excited nucleus emits a gamma ray almost immediately upon formation (it is now understood that a nuclear isomeric transition, however, can produce inhibited gamma decay with a measurable and much longer half-life). (wikipedia.org)
  • supernova
  • Second, there are now several observed cases where a supernova has immediately followed a gamma-ray burst. (wikipedia.org)
  • Possible challenges to this theory emerged recently, with the discovery of two nearby long gamma-ray bursts that lacked the signature of any type of supernova: both GRB060614 and GRB 060505 defied predictions that a supernova would emerge despite intense scrutiny from ground-based telescopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • During its first several flights, the instrument definitively measured the gamma ray lines from Supernova 1987A, including that of 56Co, and the positron annihilation line from the Galactic Center at 511 keV, elucidating the nature of these emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1991
  • With some brand new songs written, Gamma Ray entered the studio under the supervision of producer Tommy Newton and recorded their second album Sigh No More, which was released in September 1991. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the Japanese tour at the beginning of 1991, Gamma Ray underwent another personnel change: the rhythm section (Wessel and Kusch) left due to a personal disagreement and were replaced by Jan Rubach (bass) and Thomas Nack (drums), both from the Hamburg band Anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • thorium
  • In particular, shales usually emit more gamma rays than other sedimentary rocks, such as sandstone, gypsum, salt, coal, dolomite, or limestone because radioactive potassium is a common component in their clay content, and because the cation exchange capacity of clay causes them to absorb uranium and thorium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The characteristic gamma ray line that is associated with each component: Potassium : Gamma ray energy 1.46 MeV Thorium series: Gamma ray energy 2.61 MeV Uranium-Radium series: Gamma ray energy 1.76 MeV Another example of the use of spectral gamma ray logs is to identify specific clay types, like Kaolinite or Illite. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common sources of natural gamma rays are potassium, thorium, and uranium. (wikipedia.org)
  • radioactive elements
  • The "rays" emitted by radioactive elements were named in order of their power to penetrate various materials, using the first three letters of the Greek alphabet: alpha rays as the least penetrating, followed by beta rays, followed by gamma rays as the most penetrating. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantitative evaluation of shaliness: Since natural radioactive elements tend to have greater concentration in shales than in other sedimentary lithologies, the total gamma ray measurement is frequently used to derive a shale volume (Ellis-1987, Rider-1996). (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Gamma Ray Bursts were first detected in 1967 by a satellite monitoring compliance with the 1963 atmospheric nuclear test-ban treaty. (nrao.edu)
  • Gamma rays are also used for diagnostics in nuclear medicine and for performing what is called gamma-knife surgery to treat some types of cancer . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Gamma-ray bursts were discovered in 1967 by unclassified military satellites designed to look for clandestine nuclear tests. (innovations-report.com)
  • Gamma rays are produced by nuclear fusion in stars including the Sun (such as the CNO cycle), but are absorbed or inelastically scattered by the stellar material, reducing their energy, before escaping and are not observable from Earth as gamma rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • Due to their high energy content, gamma rays can cause serious damage when absorbed by living cells. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The total absorption coefficient of aluminum (atomic number 13) for gamma rays, plotted versus gamma energy, and the contributions by the three effects. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The total absorption coefficient of lead (atomic number 82) for gamma rays, plotted versus gamma energy, and the contributions by the three effects. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The kinetic energy of the resulting photoelectron is equal to the energy of the incident gamma photon minus the binding energy of the electron. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Most other pulsars have been found using radio telescopes, although some also beam energy in visible light and X-rays. (newscientist.com)
  • 16. A gamma ray collimator assembly according to claim 15 wherein said two dimensional collimator comprises apertures defined at their peripheries by a material which does not transmit gamma rays having an energy at which the second collimator portion is designed to operate. (google.com)
  • 19. A gamma ray collimator assembly according to claim 2 wherein the first collimator portion is designed to collimate gamma rays having an energy of between about 70 and 150 keV. (google.com)
  • 20. A gamma ray collimator assembly according to claim 19 wherein the second collimator portion is designed to operate with gamma rays having an energy of between 400 and 600 keV. (google.com)
  • 21. A gamma ray collimator assembly according to claim 20 wherein the second collimator portion is designed to operate at an energy of about 511 keV. (google.com)
  • 22. A gamma ray collimator assembly according to claim 20 wherein the energy at which the second collimator portion is designed to operate is at least twice that at which the first collimator portion is designated to operate. (google.com)
  • The bright object in the center of the false color image above is quasar 3C279 viewed in gamma-rays , photons with more than 40 million times the energy of visible light. (nasa.gov)
  • Their analysis has revealed key details about the initial "prompt" phase of gamma-ray bursts and the evolution of the large jets of matter and energy that form as a result. (spacedaily.com)
  • Gamma-ray bursts are the brightest objects in the entire universe, sending out as much energy in a fraction of a second as our sun will give off during its entire lifespan, the study authors explained. (redorbit.com)
  • Because gamma rays are the highest-energy form of light, the brief but brilliant blasts represent a colossal energy release. (innovations-report.com)
  • The gamma photon energy is discerned from the intensity of the flash of the scintillator, a number of low-energy photons produced by the single high-energy one. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technique of measuring the spectrum, or number and energy, of gamma rays emitted as natural radioactivity by the formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order of increasing spectral energy coverage: The Burst and Transient Source Experiment, (BATSE) by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center searched the sky for gamma ray bursts (20 to >600 keV) and conducted full sky surveys for long-lived sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the relativistic matter ejected from an explosion slows and interacts with ultraviolet-wavelength photons, some photons gain energy, generating gamma-rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • The GBM consists of 14 scintillation detectors (twelve sodium iodide crystals for the 8 keV to 1 MeV range and two bismuth germanate crystals with sensitivity from 150 keV to 30 MeV), and can detect gamma-ray bursts in that energy range across the whole of the sky not occluded by the Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Determine the high-energy behavior of gamma-ray bursts and transients. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • This is an important achievement because, despite decades of investigation, the physical mechanism that drives gamma-ray bursts had not yet been unambiguously identified. (spacedaily.com)
  • Burst Monitor
  • The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), Fermi's secondary instrument, can see the entire sky at any instant, except the portion blocked by Earth. (nasa.gov)
  • electrons
  • This means that the assumptions we've been making about Gamma-ray Bursts need to be completely reconsidered - assumptions of how electrons are accelerated to the incredible speeds we observe. (redorbit.com)
  • particle
  • This image shows the most common type of gamma-ray burst, thought to occur when a massive star collapses, forms a black hole, and blasts particle jets outward at nearly the speed of light. (spacedaily.com)
  • RHESSI
  • First, the spectrum of the gamma-rays seen by RHESSI matches very well to the prediction of relativistic runaway at 15-20 km. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium
  • Sandstone can contain uranium mineralization, potassium feldspar, clay filling, or rock fragments that cause it to have higher-than usual gamma readings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gamma ray logs are also used in mineral exploration, especially exploration for phosphates, uranium, and potassium salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium chloride (KCl) in mud, for example, flows into permeable sections, resulting in an increase in gamma ray activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Queens of
  • He changed the name of the project to Queens of the Stone Age, and both of the Gamma Ray tracks were re-released the following year by Man's Ruin on the Kyuss / Queens of the Stone Age split EP, which featured some of the final studio recordings by Kyuss and debuted the "Queens of the Stone Age" moniker for Homme's new project. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both tracks from the Gamma Ray EP were later re-recorded by Queens of the Stone Age. (wikipedia.org)
  • spectral
  • Spectral Gamma ray is used to provide an individual reading for each element so anomalies in concentration can be found and interpreted. (wikipedia.org)
  • When this is the case, spectral gamma ray logging can be done to identify these anomalies. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • May also be involved in BCR (B-cell antigen receptor)-mediated signaling in B-cells and FCGR1 (high affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc receptor I)-mediated signaling in myeloid cells. (uniprot.org)
  • However
  • An encoder problem led to the Spectrometry of Celestial X-rays experiment not being run during the first survey, however this was activated in time for the second survey, and was still completed successfully. (wikipedia.org)
  • material
  • Since muons are much more deeply penetrating than X-rays, muon tomography can be used to image through much thicker material than x-ray based tomography such as CT scanning. (wikipedia.org)
  • main
  • Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in human cortex, it has been considered as a food constituent in Europe and a dietary supplement in USA (Boonstra et al. (springeropen.com)
  • The song "Blood Religion", with lyrics about vampires, became a trademark song of Gamma Ray, with fans in concert chanting some of the main chorus lines during the song similar to how fans recited the main chorus to "Future World", a Helloween song. (wikipedia.org)