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  • viral
  • Nucleocapsid protein p7: Encapsulates and protects viral dimeric unspliced genomic RNA (gRNA). (uniprot.org)
  • Recent advances in cryoelectron tomography (cryo-ET) have provided a new approach for determining the 3D structures of the intact virus, the HIV capsid, and the envelope glycoproteins located on the viral surface. (tmc.edu)
  • BACKGROUND: The Nef protein of Human Immunodeficiency Viruses optimizes viral spread in the infected host by manipulating cellular transport and signal transduction machineries. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • ESCRT components can also be recruited by enveloped viruses to sites of viral assembly where they have been proposed to mediate viral egress. (nih.gov)
  • Viral recruitment of ESCRT proteins could therefore impact on host cell processes such as receptor downregulation. (nih.gov)
  • The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) uses an enzyme, a so-called integrase, to carry out the integration of its viral DNA into the host chromosome thereby tricking the host cell machinery into making viral proteins. (abcam.com)
  • Importantly, Hrs222-777 can recruit Tsg101 and rescue the budding of virus-like Gag particles that are missing native late domains.These observations indicate that Hrs normally functions to recruit Tsg101 to the endosomal membrane.HIV-1 Gag apparently mimics this Hrs activity, and thereby usurps Tsg101 and other components of the MVB vesicle fission machinery to facilitate viral budding. (nih.gov)
  • HIV-1 Gag apparently mimics this Hrs activity, and thereby usurps Tsg101 and other components of the MVB vesicle fission machinery to facilitate viral budding. (nih.gov)
  • B) Model illustrating how HIV Gag mimics the Tsg101-recruiting function of Hrs and redirects Tsg101 and the ESCRT-I complex to the plasma membrane to facilitate viral budding. (nih.gov)
  • particles
  • RESULTS: Quantitative mass spectrometric lipidome analysis of highly purified HIV-1 particles revealed that the presence of Nef during virus production from T lymphocytes enforced their raft character via a significant reduction of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine species and a specific enrichment of sphingomyelin. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Further studies showed that TRIM22 inhibited budding of virus-like particles containing Gag only, indicating that Gag was the target of TRIM22. (nih.gov)
  • Importantly, Hrs222-777 can recruit Tsg101 and rescue the budding of virus-like Gag particles that are missing native late domains. (nih.gov)
  • residues
  • In chronic infection, the dominant HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL response is directed towards the epitope SLYNTVATL ("SL9") in p17 Gag (residues 77-85). (ox.ac.uk)
  • peptides
  • In this study, we have compared the effector functions and fate of a number of human CTL clones in vitro or ex vivo following contact with variant peptides presented either on the cell surface or in a soluble multimeric format. (ox.ac.uk)
  • TRIM22
  • We used transcriptional profiling to identify cellular genes that were induced by interferon treatment and identified TRIM22 as one of the most strongly up-regulated genes. (nih.gov)
  • The TRIM22 expressing cells were infected with different amounts of HIV-1/VSVG pseudotyped virus and analyzed by FACS for GFP expression. (nih.gov)
  • Gene chip data on TRIM22 induction was confirmed using Northern blot analysis (Figure 1A). (nih.gov)
  • TRIM22 interacts with Gag.HOS-CD4/CXCR4 cells were co-transfected with pGag-GFP and pFLAG-TRIM22 (or empty vector control pFLAG) and immunoprecipitated with anti-GFP or anti-FLAG. (nih.gov)
  • Precipitated Gag and TRIM22 were detected by Western blotting using p24CA or FLAG antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • We immunoprecipitated a Gag-GFP fusion protein expressed in the presence of FLAG-tagged TRIM22 with anti-GFP antibodies and then performed a Western blot with anti-Flag antibodies and detected co-precipitation of FLAG-TRIM22 (Figure 7). (nih.gov)
  • Reverse immunoprecipitation using anti-FLAG pulled down Gag-GFP only when FLAG-TRIM22 was co-expressed. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment of the samples with RNaseA prior to immunoprecipitation did not interfere with the association of TRIM22 with Gag, indicating that an RNA bridge did not mediate the interaction. (nih.gov)
  • Thus TRIM22 binds specifically to HIV Gag. (nih.gov)
  • TRIM22 alters the sub-cellular localization of Gag protein.A) Analysis of Gag localization by fluorescence microscopy. (nih.gov)
  • CXCR4
  • Differential control of CXCR4 and CD4 downregulation by HIV-1 Gag. (nih.gov)
  • HIV-1 Gag had no effect on this process.These results establish that the HIV-1 receptor, CD4, and co-receptor, CXCR4 are differentially regulated by ESCRT proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of HIV-1 Gag attenuated downregulation of CXCR4, resulting in accumulation of undegraded receptors within intracellular compartments. (nih.gov)
  • C) HOS-CD4/CXCR4 cells were co-transfected with pGag in the absence or presence of pTRIM22 and pulse-chase analysis of intracellular Gag protein was done. (nih.gov)
  • Cells
  • This novel activity represents a previously unrecognized mechanism by which Nef could manipulate HIV-1 target cells to facilitate virus propagation in vivo. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • We found HLA-B cytoplasmic domains were more resistant to Nef-mediated down-regulation than HLA-A cytoplasmic domains and demonstrated that these differences affect CTL recognition of virus-infected cells in vitro. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Forty-eight hours after release of the cycloheximide block, the localization of the Gag-GFP protein was visualized by fluorescence microscopy by taking optical slices through the center of cells (Figure 5A). (nih.gov)
  • Fragments
  • The vaccine containing human autologous HCC fragments showed essentially no adverse effect in a phase I/IIa clinical trial and 8/12 patients developed a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response against the fragments. (jove.com)
  • Binding
  • This activation event might also involve the ubiquitin-binding site on the UEV domain interacting with ubiquitin modifications on protein cargos, which would provide a cooperative binding mechanism for insuring that activation occurs only in the presence of both Hrs and ubiquitylated protein cargos. (nih.gov)
  • autologous
  • Despite using the highly sensitive peptide-major histocompatibility complex tetramer and intracellular cytokine assays, responses to the SL9 epitope were not detectable in any of 11 HLA-A*0201-positive subjects with acute HIV-1 infection (P = 2 x 10(-6)), even when assays were repeated using the SL9 peptide variant that was encoded by their autologous virus. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Autologous Fixed Tumor Vaccine: a Formulation with Cytokine-microparticles for Protective Immunity Against Recurrence of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Japanese Journal of Cancer Research : Gann. (jove.com)
  • annotation
  • p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. (uniprot.org)
  • be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein. (uniprot.org)
  • A detailed annotation of the protein, which combines structural, functional and IMR data illustrates these associations. (nih.gov)
  • indicates
  • p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. (uniprot.org)
  • The frequency and distribution of IMRs in HIV-1 Gag indicates that DNA symmetry is a fundamental property of protein coding DNA and that different levels of symmetry are associated with different functional aspects of the gene and its protein. (nih.gov)
  • interaction
  • Note that our data allow the possibility that other proteins might bridge or contribute to the interaction between the COOH-terminal regions of Tsg101 and Hrs. (nih.gov)
  • data
  • Most studies in human infections have focused on CTL specificities in chronic infection and few data exist regarding the specificity of the initial CTL response induced in acute infection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Molecular
  • The distribution of IMRs and their relationship to structural and functional motifs in the protein that they translate, suggest that DNA-driven processes, including the selection of mirror repeats, may be a constraining factor in molecular evolution. (nih.gov)
  • reverse
  • The numbers below the Western blots correspond to the amounts of virus added to each well, quantified according to the amount of reverse transcriptase activity. (nih.gov)
  • beta
  • or = 50% symmetry are common in the protein coding DNA of monomeric proteins and their distribution has been found to coincide with protein structural elements - helices, beta sheets and turns. (nih.gov)
  • different
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • Western
  • After 72 hours, virus released into the supernatant was pelleted and assayed for p24CA levels by Western blot. (nih.gov)
  • techniques
  • p>Describes annotations that are concluded from looking at variations or changes in a gene product such as mutations or abnormal levels and includes techniques such as knockouts, overexpression, anti-sense experiments and use of specific protein inhibitors. (uniprot.org)
  • create
  • Although this model remains to be tested rigorously, we note that analogous autoinhibition/conformational switching mechanisms are used by other classes of proteins, such as protein kinases, to create directionality in other cellular pathways (Francis et al. (nih.gov)
  • Note
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)