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  • Neurons
  • To localize these GABAergic neurons, we combined immunohistochemical detection of Fos with non-radioactive in situ hybridization of GAD67 mRNA (GABA synthesis enzyme) in control rats, rats deprived of PS for 72 h and rats allowed to recover after such deprivation. (nih.gov)
  • Dopaminergic neurons inhibit striatal output through non-canonical release of GABA. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show that activation of dopamine neurons in striatal slices rapidly inhibits action potential firing in both direct- and indirect-pathway striatal projection neurons through vesicular release of the inhibitory transmitter GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid). (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, VMAT2 expression in GABAergic neurons lacking VGAT is sufficient to sustain GABA release. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, these findings expand the repertoire of synaptic mechanisms used by dopamine neurons to influence basal ganglia circuits, show a new substrate whose transport is dependent on VMAT2 and demonstrate that GABA can function as a bona fide co-transmitter in monoaminergic neurons. (nih.gov)
  • However, neurons may also release insulin, and compelling evidence have been provided for a brain-centered glucoregulatory system that work in concert with the islet cells to regulate plasma levels of glucose ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • For instance, in the central nervous system, the inhibitory action of glycine and some of the action of GABA relies on the entry of Cl- into specific neurons. (hmdb.ca)
  • Synapses
  • Extensively characterized as pivotal enzyme controlling cell proliferation and differentiation, the prolyl-isomerase activity of Pin1 has been shown to regulate protein synthesis necessary to sustain the late phase of long-term potentiation at excitatory synapses, which suggests its involvement at synaptic sites. (frontiersin.org)
  • inhibit
  • Vigabatrin ([gamma]-amino-5-hexenoic acid) is known to irreversibly inhibit GABA-T activity of bacterial origin (17). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The activity of this receptor is mediated by G-proteins that inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity, stimulates phospholipase A2, activates potassium channels, inactivates voltage-dependent calcium-channels and modulates inositol phospholipids hydrolysis. (abcam.com)
  • neuron
  • How a neuron integrates incoming signals will depend not only on the cellular geometry and intrinsic membrane properties of the cell, but also on the shape and size of the synaptic current. (jneurosci.org)
  • concentration
  • On the other hand for conductive systems operating in cells and vesicles, isotopic techniques can still be very useful when used under conditions where a large chemical gradient of the ion is established across the membrane and a radio-labeled tracer of the ion is placed at the low concentration side (Garty et al . (springer.com)
  • muscimol
  • Low dose of muscimol, ineffective by itself, completely antagonized the isoniazid, bicuculline and picrotoxin-induced decrease in GABA-modulin activity. (muscimol.xyz)
  • transmembrane
  • Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by alterations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTCR) gene that result in deranged sodium and chloride ion transport channels. (hmdb.ca)
  • The linker region between the transmembrane domain 3 (TM3) and the transmembrane domain 4 (TM4) probably play a role in the specificity for G-protein coupling. (abcam.com)
  • substrate
  • Amino acids are taken up by different transport systems with overlapping substrate specificity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This method is, however, limited by the space available to the substrate, its specific activity and total radioactivity, the efficiency and speed of separation relative to the actual transport rates, as well as by the capacity of the biological system to retain its structural integrity during separation steps. (springer.com)
  • affinity
  • Low-affinity choline transports are broadly detected, and it is believed that they primarily supply choline for phospholipid synthesis ( 27 ). (physiology.org)
  • To investigate the difference in affinity of GABA-T for both substrates, we incubated lymphoblast lysates with 400 nmol of [[sup. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Finally, from the experiment with unlabeled substrates, we conclude that GABA-T has higher affinity for [[sup. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Biological
  • For charge-conducting transport systems, the classical and most straightforward approach is the electrophysiological one, which is used in various forms according to the level of information required and the nature of the biological system. (springer.com)
  • Transgenic
  • Affected subpopulations of interneurons included basket interneurons evident in NCAM-EC transgenic mice intercrossed with a reporter line expressing green fluorescent protein and by parvalbumin staining. (duke.edu)
  • regulation
  • This study is first to investigate the regulation of human CTL1 and its participation in choline transport in monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. (physiology.org)
  • activity
  • We have developed a stable-isotope dilution method for measuring GABA-T activity in homogenates of lymphoblasts and lymphocytes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In comparison with other nanoparticles studied with similar methodological approach, NCs start to exhibit their effects on neurotransmitter transport at concentrations several times higher than those shown for carbon dots, detonation nanodiamonds and an iron storage protein ferritin, whose activity can be registered at 0.08, 0.5 and 0.08 mg/ml, respectively. (deepdyve.com)