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  • tumor
  • Therefore, SA is a leading candidate for the development of anticancer agents, and these mechanisms will be a key therapeutic target for pharmacologic and therapeutic intervention in HIF-1α-driven tumor growth and cell death. (nih.gov)
  • It is involved in determining cell survival fate in association with tumor suppressor protein p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Proposed signaling pathways underlying the effects of SA on the suppression of HIF-1α and the induction of cell death in human colorectal cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • While a complete understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism of this radiation response is not clear, our recent work has identified a connection between low-dose HRS survival, Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM)-mediated repair pathways and an "early" ATM-dependent G2 cell-cycle checkpoint. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These signaling pathways govern the expression of distinct sets of cell-cycle regulators, such as cyclin-dependent kinases and their suppressors. (pnas.org)
  • Chk1 is a central component of genome surveillance pathways and is a key regulator of the cell cycle and cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATR/ATM also activate p53, indicating that these pathways may act synergistically in regulating G2 arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • 14-3-3ζ is a major regulator of apoptotic pathways critical to cell survival and plays a key role in a number of cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic cell cycle
  • Proteolytic degradation of cell cycle regulators and corresponding effects on the levels of cyclin-dependent kinases were proposed as a mechanism that promotes eukaryotic cell cycle and metaphase-to-anaphase transition in particular. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clb2 degradation did shorten the Cdk1-inhibition period required for triggering irreversible mitotic exit indicating that cyclin proteolysis contributes to the dynamic nature of the eukaryotic cell cycle due to slower timescale of its action but is unlikely to be the major determining factor in triggering irreversible cell cycle transitions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discoveries were made which indicated the importance of the level of the inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases in regulating eukaryotic cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite different thresholds of Sic1 level that are required to trigger mitotic exit compared to G1-S transition, the level of Sic1 was shown to play a key role in regulating eukaryotic cell cycle by inhibiting the activity of CDKs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to the eukaryotic cell cycle, the prokaryotic cell cycle (known as binary fission) is relatively simple and quick: the chromosome replicates from the origin of replication, a new membrane is assembled, and the cell wall forms a septum which divides the cell into two. (wikipedia.org)
  • The eukaryotic cell cycle is very complex and is one of the most studied topics, since its misregulation leads to cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have recently produced a generic eukaryotic cell cycle model which can represent a particular eukaryote depending on the values of the parameters, demonstrating that the idiosyncrasies of the individual cell cycles are due to different protein concentrations and affinities, while the underlying mechanisms are conserved (Csikasz-Nagy et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclin-depende
  • Many factors including cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), ubiquitin ligases, inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases, and reversible phosphorylations regulate mitotic exit to ensure that cell cycle events occur in correct order with least amount of errors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, 14-3-3ζ can negatively regulate the G2-M phase checkpoint by binding and sequestering the cyclin-dependent kinases to the cytoplasm, thus inhibiting their activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, subsets of iNKT cells based on CD4 and CD8 expression that have distinct functional activities may differentially affect B cell functions. (jove.com)
  • Furthermore, multiple spheroids per well increase the statistical confidence sufficiently to discriminate compound mechanisms of action and generate EC 50 values for endpoints of cell death, architectural change, and size within a single-pass read. (cytoo.com)
  • Furthermore, Chk1 has been associated with three particular aspects of the S-phase, which includes the regulation of late origin firing, controlling the elongation process and maintenance of DNA replication fork stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • translocation
  • Conjugate inhibits androgen receptor transactivation and translocation in prostate cancer cells.Effect of conjugate on the transactivation of androgen receptor in presence/absence of 10 nM DHT in (A) androgen receptor positive LNCaP cells and (B) androgen receptor negative PC-3 cells. (nih.gov)
  • Nuclear translocation of Cyclin B1 marks the restriction point for terminal cell cycle exit in G2 phase. (cytoo.com)
  • Genetic
  • Other potential uses of embryonic stem cells include investigation of early human development, study of genetic disease and as in vitro systems for toxicology testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Precise and accurate DNA replication is necessary to prevent genetic abnormalities which often lead to cell death or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDK1
  • Biochemically, the end of G2 phase occurs when a threshold level of active cyclin B1/CDK1 complex, also known as Maturation promoting factor (MPF) has been reached. (wikipedia.org)
  • At later phase, downregulation of Cdk1 and activation of Cdc14, a Cdh1-activating phosphatase, promotes formation of APC in association with Cdh1 (APC-Cdh1) to degrade Clb2s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pulse of G1/S cyclins causes CLN3-Cdk1 to activate Cln1/2 (start point), as well as Clb5/6 at the initiation of S-phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitotic spindle
  • Like CSE1, it is essential for the mitotic checkpoint in the cell cycle (CAS depletion blocks the cell in the G2 phase), and has been shown to be associated with the microtubule network and the mitotic spindle, as is the protein MEK, which is thought to regulate the intracellular localization (predominantly nuclear vs. predominantly cytosolic) of CAS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microtubules are one type of fibre which constitutes the cytoskeleton, and the dynamic microtubule network has several important roles in the cell, including vesicular transport, forming the mitotic spindle and in cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • transition
  • It plays a major role in the G1/S transition, and functions in the p53-dependent DNA damage checkpoint. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concentration of Dbf4 at the G1/S transition of the cell cycle is higher than the concentration at the M/G1 transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chk1 impacts various stages of the cell cycle including the S phase, G2/M transition and M phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, the level of Sic1, a stoichiometric inhibitor of Clb-CDK complexes in budding yeast, was shown to be particularly important in irreversible G1-S transition by irreversibly activating S phase kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Working in fission yeast, Nurse identified the gene cdc2, which controls the transition from G1 to S, when the cell grows in preparation for the duplication of DNA, and G2 to M, when the cell divides. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • The DDR of mammalian cells is made up of kinases, and mediator/adaptors factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • discovered a third DNA polymerase activity in mammalian cells that was called polymerase delta (δ). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three isoforms of Cdc25 (A, B, and C) in mammalian cells, all of which have been shown to have roles in regulation of G2 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The G1 checkpoint, also known as the restriction point in mammalian cells and the start point in yeast, is the point at which the cell becomes committed to entering the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells, derived from the blastocyst stage early mammalian embryos, are distinguished by their ability to differentiate into any cell type and by their ability to propagate. (wikipedia.org)
  • accumulation
  • In the present study, we demonstrate that SA efficiently inhibits the hypoxia-induced accumulation of HIF-1α in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in various human cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • Salternamide A was identified for the first time as an inhibitor of HIF-1α accumulation under hypoxic conditions in cancer cells (Figure 6). (nih.gov)
  • flavonoids that, on accumulation (ununiformly) along inner surface of mesophyll cell, restrain (partially) UV entry into cells thereby conferring UV acclimation under high intensity UV radiation in plants. (springer.com)
  • Together, these results suggest that ATV can modulate tregs in peripheral tissue and favor their accumulation in the brain, where they can exert neuroprotective actions maybe by the reduction of glial cell activation. (anoxia.info)
  • The S phase delay of the csn1 mutant is caused by Spd1 accumulation and can be suppressed by overexpression of RNR or by deletion of Spd1. (biologists.org)
  • While degradation of Sic1 to a certain low level triggered the onset of S phase, accumulation of Sic1 to a certain high level was required to trigger irreversible mitotic exit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defects
  • Inhibition or loss of MDC1 protein through studies with siRNA on human cells or knockout studies in mice have shown several defects at both the cellular and organismal level. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle checkpoints play an important role in the control system by sensing defects that occur during essential processes such as DNA replication or chromosome segregation, and inducing a cell cycle arrest in response until the defects are repaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • prophase
  • In addition, kinetochore localization of Bub1 early during G2 or prophase is another aspect of SAC functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • The POLD1 gene promoter is regulated via the cell cycle machinery and mRNA expression of POLD1 reaches a peak in late G1/S phase during DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often ssDNA can be a result of abnormal replication during S phase through the uncoupling of replication enzymes helicase and DNA polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin B1 transcription begins at the end of S phase after DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following entry to S-phase and initiation of DNA replication, S-phase cyclin A, a transcriptional target of E2F1-3, forms a complex with CDK2 which phosphorylates E2F1-3 and prevents its ability to bind to DNA, thus forming a negative feedback loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is also a check point in s phase(proved from research) The major event in S-phase is DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell prevents more than one replication from occurring by loading pre-replication complexes onto the DNA at replication origins during G1 phase which are dismantled in S-phase as replication begins. (wikipedia.org)
  • S phase index (SPI) S-fraction or S-phase fraction (oncology/pathology prognosis) Bell, S.P. and Dutta, A.: DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • G2 checkpoint checks for damaged DNA and DNA replication completeness. (wikipedia.org)
  • In replicating cells, such as cells lining the colon, errors occur upon replication of past damages in the template strand of DNA or during repair of DNA damages. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • During a normal embryologic processes, or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and strokes) or during developments and processes in cancer, an apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, and fragmentation of the DNA and nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactive oxygen
  • In addition to specific photoreceptor mediated signaling, for upregulating cell protective events, mechanisms for nonspecific signaling mediated by a range of reactive oxygen species (ROS) also exist in cells. (springer.com)
  • It is well recognized that the induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes provides significant biological mechanisms for protection against toxic effects of endogenous reactive oxygen species and exogenous carcinogens and/or their reactive intermediates ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • mechanism
  • De-regulation of CK2 has been linked to tumorigenesis as a potential protection mechanism for mutated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, beneficial modulation of metabolizing enzymes has been suggested as another set of chemopreventive mechanism that can block carcinogen activation (inhibition of cytochrome P450s) or enhance the detoxification of activated carcinogen (activation of phase II detoxifying enzymes). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Xanthatin, a natural sesquiterpene lactone, has significant antitumor activity against a variety of cancer cells, yet little is known about its anticancer mechanism. (mdpi.com)
  • It plays an important role during embryonal development as programmed cell death and accompanies a variety of normal involutional processes in which it serves as a mechanism to remove "unwanted" cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arabidopsis
  • In this study, we found that Arabidopsis cells treated with DSB inducers displayed increased cell size and DNA ploidy without a concomitant change in chromosome number. (pnas.org)
  • nuclei
  • The increase in nuclei in sub-G1 phase induced by miR-34c suggests that high expression of miR-34c can lead to induction of cell death. (nih.gov)
  • regulatory
  • Additionally, CD4(+) iNKT cells induced expansions of cells with phenotypes of regulatory B cells. (jove.com)
  • CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have diverse immune stimulatory/regulatory activities through their ability to release cytokines and to kill or transactivate other cells. (jove.com)
  • Regulatory T cells (tregs) inhibit the activation of the immune response which could down-regulate the systemic and focal activation observed during ischemic stroke. (anoxia.info)
  • The IL-2/anti-IL-2 complex attenuates cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion injury through expansion of regulatory T cells. (anoxia.info)
  • Regulatory T cells ameliorate tissue plasminogen activator-induced brain haemorrhage after stroke. (anoxia.info)
  • Distinct
  • Moreover, distinct temporal differences in G2 checkpoint response were observed between these two cell lines within the low dose radiation range (0-1 Gy). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Biphoton imaging confirmed that micropatterned spheroids exhibit characteristic cell heterogeneity with distinct microregions. (cytoo.com)
  • cytotoxic
  • is a potent cytotoxic agent against a variety of human cancer cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • DN iNKT cells expressed the cytotoxic degranulation marker CD107a upon exposure to B cells. (jove.com)
  • We sorted and expanded iNKT cells from healthy donors and compared the phenotypes, cytotoxic activities and cytokine profiles of the CD4(+), CD8? (jove.com)
  • Cerebral malaria induced by plasmodium berghei ANKA infection is dependent on the sequestration of cytotoxic T cells within the brain and augmentation of the inflammatory response. (anoxia.info)
  • We aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of NC and the effectiveness of combinatorial treatment including NC and doxorubicin in breast cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • A549
  • In this study, we demonstrated that xanthatin had obvious dose-/time-dependent cytotoxicity against the human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line A549. (mdpi.com)
  • Xanthatin also had pro-apoptotic effects on A549 cells as evidenced by Hoechst 33258 staining and annexin V-FITC staining. (mdpi.com)
  • Survival
  • Proper CK2 function is necessary for survival of cells as no knockout models have been successfully generated. (wikipedia.org)
  • An increased concentration of substrates in cancerous cells infers a likely survival benefit to the cell, and activation of many of these substrates requires CK2. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found that the MR4 cells exhibited a pronounced HRS cell survival response that was exaggerated in a G2-phase enriched cell population but was absent in the isogenic 3.7 cell line. (aacrjournals.org)
  • genome
  • the outer layer of epidermal cell to the genome, fluencing UV radiation takes recourse to the process of signal transduction either by UV induced damaged DNA or by wavelength specific photoreceptors. (springer.com)
  • The 2 copies of the genome move towards opposite ends of the cell. (coursehero.com)
  • Remarkably
  • Remarkably, treatment with ATV induced an increase in the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells, in particular of those expressing CTLA-4, in brain samples. (anoxia.info)
  • induction
  • and DN iNKT cells can differentially promote and regulate the induction of Ab and T cell responses by B cells. (jove.com)
  • Additionally, the dose response pattern for the induction of the "early" G2-phase cell cycle checkpoint in MR4 cells was concordant with ATM autophosphorylation on serine 1981, which further implicates the "early" checkpoint in the HRS response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Exposure of sulforaphane to HepG2 cells increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression by activating antioxidant response element (ARE) through induction of Nrf2 and suppression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Induction of HO-1 by sulforaphane was attenuated by overexpression of mutant Nrf2 plasmid in HepG2 cells and totally abolished in Nrf2 knockout mouse embryonic keratinocytes and fibroblasts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • control
  • cell division control. (bioportfolio.com)
  • MDA-MB-231 (A), MDA-MB-468 (B) and BT-549 (C) breast cancer cells were transiently transfected with either miR-34c mimic or negative control for 96 h. (nih.gov)
  • 0.05, Student's t-test) compared to control cells. (nih.gov)
  • Checkpoint kinases (Chks) are protein kinases that are involved in cell cycle control. (wikipedia.org)
  • As nocodazole affects the cytoskeleton, it is often used in cell biology experiments as a control: for example, some dominant negative Rho small GTPases cause a similar effect as nocodazole, and constitutively activated mutants often reverse or negate the effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • One hypothesis is that the growth in G2 phase is regulated as a method of cell size control. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with Leland Hartwell and Tim Hunt for their discoveries of protein molecules that control the division (duplication) of cells in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • All living organisms are products of repeated rounds of cell growth and division. (wikipedia.org)
  • This conservation makes the study of S-phase in model organisms such as Xenopus laevis embryos and budding yeast relevant to higher organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two research groups have produced several models of the cell cycle simulating several organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • double-negative (DN) iNKT cells with autologous peripheral B cells in vitro. (jove.com)
  • Comparison of in vitro activities of camptothecin and nitidine derivatives against fungal and cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • If the pluripotent differentiation potential of embryonic stem cells could be harnessed in vitro, it might be a means of deriving cell or tissue types virtually to order. (wikipedia.org)
  • restriction
  • As the cell progresses through G1, depending on internal and external conditions, it can either delay G1, enter a quiescent state known as G0, or proceed past the restriction point. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathway
  • In cells, FANCA involvement in this 'FA core complex' is required for the activation of the FANCD2 protein to a monoubiquitinated isoform (FANCD2-Ub) in response to DNA damage, catalysing activation of the FA/BRCA DNA damage-response pathway, leading to repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is known that intracellular proteases called caspases degrade the cellular contents of the cell by proteolysis upon activation of the death pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) commonly report the nonfunctional p53-p21 axis of the G1/S checkpoint pathway, and its relevance for cell cycle regulation and the DNA damage response (DDR). (wikipedia.org)
  • This pathway contains 2 positive feedback loops, allowing for rapid, unidirectional movement into S-phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metaphase
  • Metaphase is the stage in cell division when the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell by MTOCs ( microtubule organizing center) by pushing and pulling on centromeres of both chromatids which causes the chromosome to move to the center. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • Timely destruction of cell cycle regulators by the proteasome is integral to successful cell division in all eukaryotes. (biologists.org)
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • We now report the identification and characterization of APC16, a conserved subunit of the APC/C. APC16 was found in association with tandem-affinity-purified mitotic checkpoint complex protein complexes. (biologists.org)
  • APC16 is a bona fide subunit of human APC/C: it is present in APC/C complexes throughout the cell cycle, the phenotype of APC16-depleted cells copies depletion of other APC/C subunits, and APC16 is important for APC/C activity towards mitotic substrates. (biologists.org)
  • mutations
  • After DNA damage, the cell cycle is arrested to avoid propagation of mutations. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Daughter cells that inherit these wrong bases carry mutations from which the original DNA sequence is unrecoverable (except in the rare case of a back mutation, for example, through gene conversion). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations involving the FANCA gene are associated with many somatic and congenital defects, primarily involving phenotypic variations of Fanconi anaemia, aplastic anaemia, and forms of cancer such as squamous cell carcinoma and acute myeloid leukaemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • DNA damage, due to environmental factors and normal metabolic processes inside the cell, occurs at a rate of 10,000 to 1,000,000 molecular lesions per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • When DNA damage occurs, or when the cell detects any defects which necessitate it to delay or halt the cell cycle in G1, arrest occurs through several mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell division usually occurs as part of a larger cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome segregation
  • Error-free chromosome segregation depends on timely activation of the multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase APC/C. Activation of the APC/C initiates chromosome segregation and mitotic exit by targeting critical cell-cycle regulators for destruction. (biologists.org)
  • cytokinesis
  • Microtubules are one type of fibre which constitutes the cytoskeleton, and the dynamic microtubule network has several important roles in the cell, including vesicular transport, forming the mitotic spindle and in cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rest of the cell may then continue to divide by cytokinesis to produce two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the cell proceeds successfully through the M phase, it may then undergo cell division through cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • In particular, it has been shown that cerebellum cells exhibit low levels of NADPH ( Stern et al , 2002 ), a major cofactor of anti‐oxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase and cytochrome p450 reductase, which, together with superoxide dismutase and catalase, are essential to maintain the cellular redox balance ( Kultz, 2005 ). (embopress.org)
  • Overexpression
  • Overexpression of p185ErbB2 in MDA-MB-435 cells by transfection transcriptionally upregulates p21Cip1, which associates with p34Cdc2, inhibits Taxol-mediated p34Cdc2 activation, delays cell entrance to G2/M phase, and thereby inhibits Taxol-induced apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • Wee1
  • An increasingly stable wee1 further inhibits cdc2 activity, while an inactive cdc25 prevents removal of this inhibition, resulting in a strong G2 arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • oncogenic
  • Interestingly, nocodazole has been shown to decrease the oncogenic potential of cancer cells via another microtubules-independent mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • progresses
  • As the cell progresses through G1, depending on internal and external conditions, it can either delay G1, enter a quiescent state known as G0, or proceed past the restriction point. (wikipedia.org)
  • microtubules
  • Movement of sister chromatids to opposite poles of a dividing cell requires attachment to spindle microtubules of opposing orientation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect in cells by interfering with the polymerization of microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • These functional Golgi ministacks remain distributed about the cell, unable to track forward to form a perinuclear Golgi since nocodazole has depolymerized the microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vinca alkaloids work by causing the inhibition of the polymerization of tubulin into microtubules, resulting in the G2/M arrest within the cell cycle and eventually cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, the taxanes arrest the mitotic cell cycle by stabilizing microtubules against depolymerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • We have shown that nitric oxide, in a cell type selective manner, inhibits the DNA damage response (DDR) and, in doing so, protects β-cells from DNA damage-induced apoptosis. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • 2001
  • Ataxia is caused by neurodegeneration and, in particular, by death of the Purkinje cells ( Humar et al , 2001 ). (embopress.org)
  • discriminate
  • The concurrent measurement of cellular DNA and RNA content, or DNA susceptibility to denaturation at low pH using the metachromatic dye acridine orange, reveals the G1Q, G1A, and G1B cell cycle compartments and also makes it possible to discriminate between S, G2 and mitotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These data suggest survivin might provide a new target for cancer therapy that would discriminate between transformed and normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • division
  • In humans, the normal physiological temperature is around 37 °C (98.6 °F). G1 phase is particularly important in the cell cycle because it determines whether a cell commits to division or to leaving the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before a cell can enter cell division, it needs to take in nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nocodazole is frequently used in cell biology laboratories to synchronize the cell division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The centrosome cycle is important to ensure that daughter cells receive a centrosome after cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each daughter cell inherits two centrioles (one centrosome) surrounded by pericentriolar material as a result of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell division was first discovered by the German botanist Hugo von Mohl in 1835 as he worked with the green alga Cladophora glomerata. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both of these cell division cycles are used in the process of sexual reproduction at some point in their life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • For simple unicellular microorganisms such as the amoeba, one cell division is equivalent to reproduction - an entire new organism is created. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary concern of cell division is the maintenance of the original cell's genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclins
  • Cdk1 phosphorylation also leads to the activation of the ubiquitin-protein ligase APCCdc20, an activation which allows for chromatid segregation and, furthermore, degradation of M-phase cyclins. (wikipedia.org)