Loading...
  • Signaling
  • Mouse anti-human monoclonal primary antibodies for β-actin, Bax, cytochrome c , apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), p21, p27 and horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG antibodies were purchased from Cell Signaling (Beverly, MA, USA). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • induces cell
  • Disruption of p300/p53-dependent growth control may be part of the mechanism by which E1A induces cell transformation. (nih.gov)
  • In prostate cancer cells, piperine induces cell cycle arrest and autophagy by increasing levels of p21 and p27 and decreasing levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin A. In animal models, piperine decreases blood glucose levels. (lktlabs.com)
  • regulates
  • In this study, we demonstrate that miR-421 targets the 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR) of ATM and down-regulates its expression, whereas miR-421 expression is driven by the N-Myc transcription factor, an oncogene that is frequently amplified in neuroblastoma cells. (pnas.org)
  • DSBs
  • Simultaneous or prior IGF-1Ri caused less effective chemo-sensitization, associated with increased G1 population and reduced accumulation of TMZ-induced DSBs. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • Amongst them, double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most toxic to the cells, leading to cell death or permanent cell cycle arrest if unrepaired. (springer.com)
  • In particular, the Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) kinase is activated by DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and triggers the G1 checkpoint by phosphorylating and activating the Checkpoint Kinase 2 (Chk2) [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genomic
  • Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a high molecular weight protein serine/threonine kinase that plays a central role in the maintenance of genomic integrity by activating cell cycle checkpoints and promoting repair of DNA double-strand breaks. (pnas.org)
  • cancer
  • However, their research also showed that treating breast cancer cells with a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) inhibitor can reverse letrozole resistance. (scienceblog.com)
  • After confirming that the LMW forms of cyclin E suppress the anti-proliferative effects of letrozole, the researchers examined whether a CDK2 inhibitor could reverse the drug resistance in the unresponsive breast cancer cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • Subsequently, evidence that integrins also control crucial signaling cascades in cancer cells is discussed. (hindawi.com)
  • Lastly, the important role of integrin signaling in tumor cells as well as in stromal cells that support cancer growth, metastasis, and therapy resistance indicates that integrin signaling may be an attractive target for (combined) cancer therapy strategies. (hindawi.com)
  • Correction: Novel Hybrid Phenotype Revealed in Small Cell Lung Cancer by a Transcription Factor Network Model That Can Explain Tumor Heterogeneity. (nih.gov)
  • Its function and loss-of-function have been described in normal and cancer cells and tissues. (nih.gov)
  • miR-211 is known to be dysregulated in ovarian cancer: however, its function and the downstream effect of its loss-of-function in ovarian cancer have not been described before.We found that the expression of miR-211 is downregulated in EOC tissues and cell lines compared to normal epithelial ovarian tissue and human ovarian surface epithelial cells, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Cancer cells are typically anchorage independent as a result of the disruption of these checkpoint mechanisms. (biologists.org)
  • The Human Protein Atlas project can be subdivided into three efforts: Human Tissue Atlas, Cancer Atlas, and Human Cell Atlas. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The antibodies that have been generated in support of the Tissue and Cancer Atlas projects have been tested by immunohistochemistry against hundreds of normal and disease tissues and through the recent efforts of the Human Cell Atlas project, many have been characterized by immunofluorescence to map the human proteome not only at the tissue level but now at the subcellular level. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • However, cancer cells with an immature stem-like phenotype are hypothesised to play a role in radioresistance. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Although cancer cells appear to be advantageously defective in some aspects of checkpoint physiology, recent acquisitions on the biochemical mechanisms of the various checkpoints are offering new therapeutic approaches against cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Indeed, chemical manipulation of these mechanisms is providing new therapeutic strategies and tools to increase the killing efficacy of major cancer therapeutics as well as to directly promote cancer cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review we summarize developing concepts on how targeting cell cycle checkpoints may provide substantial improvement to cancer therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cancer cells are often defective in these checkpoint mechanisms [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nevertheless, the actual information on checkpoint biochemistry and its deregulation in cancer, along with the development of relative pharmacologic tools, is now offering new opportunities for cancer treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present study, the anti-cancer effect of flavonioids isolated from Citrus aurantium L. in human gastric cancer AGS cells has been investigated. (hindawi.com)
  • mediates
  • Blocking the interaction between miR-421 and ATM 3′UTR with an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide rescued the defective phenotype caused by miR-421 overexpression, indicating that ATM mediates the effect of miR-421 on cell cycle checkpoint and radiosensitivity. (pnas.org)
  • Stem Cells
  • Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a key molecule for maintaining water and ion homeostasis in the central nervous system, is expressed in adult neural stem cells (ANSCs) as well as astrocytes. (biologists.org)
  • In addition to providing structural and trophic supports for neurons, astrocytes are known to modulate the local environment around neural stem cells ( Doetsch, 2003 ). (biologists.org)
  • Genetically-modified neural stem cells (NSCs) transfected with the Escherichia coli (E. coli) suicidal gene cytosine deaminase (CD), with potential antineoplastic adjuvant activity. (cancer.gov)
  • physiology
  • In mammals, individual clocks in most cells are synchronized by a brain "master clock" in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus to orchestrate all rhythmic physiology ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • mechanism
  • The basic mechanism of this clock is cell-autonomous in all studied species possessing a circadian clock. (pnas.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • We analyzed miR-211 expression in clinical samples of primary EOC tissues compared to normal epithelial ovarian tissues and in the EOC cell lines: OVCAR3, Caov3, OVCA429, SKOV3 and A2780 compared to human ovarian surface epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • We found that the expression of miR-211 is downregulated in EOC tissues and cell lines compared to normal epithelial ovarian tissue and human ovarian surface epithelial cells, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • endothelial cells
  • Integrins participating in cell-cell adhesion bind counter receptors such as a disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs), or immunoglobulin-type receptors such as intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and vascular cell adhesion molecules (VCAMs) that are expressed on leukocytes and endothelial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • This allows, for instance, muscle cells to anchor firmly to the tendon but platelets to start coagulation only when needed and leukocytes to temporarily attach to endothelial cells only when stimulated to extravasate. (hindawi.com)
  • E7820 inhibits angiogenesis by suppressing integrin alpha 2, a cell adhesion molecule expressed on endothelial cells. (cancer.gov)
  • control
  • The cyclin-CDK-complex inhibitors were on the other side absent from most MPNSTs, confirming the suspicion of lost control of the cell cycle checkpoint at G1-phase. (uio.no)
  • Finally, OVCAR3 stably expressing miR-211 or control cells were injected subcutaneously into mice to determine in vivo effect of miR-211 on tumorigenesis. (nih.gov)
  • OVCAR3 cells stably expressing miR-211 or control cells were injected subcutaneously into mice in each group. (nih.gov)
  • For the PAX6 knock out cells, the percentage of cells in G2/M phase increased compared to PAX6 control cells, indicating that PAX6 keeps U251 N cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, the cell has an impetus for maintaining tight regulatory control over how and when division takes place. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Finally, the authors report reduced G2 checkpoint control following treatment with DNA-damaging agents (ultraviolet radiation and methyl methane sulphonate). (beds.ac.uk)
  • Mice
  • miR-211 reduces EOC tumorigenesisin vivo.A. Nude mice were implanted with OVCAR3 cells stably expressing miR-Ctrl or miR-211. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show that it also conveys circadian gating to the cell cycle, a connection surprisingly important for wound healing in mice. (pnas.org)
  • Specifically, although fibroblasts from NONO-deficient mice showed approximately normal circadian cycles, they displayed elevated cell doubling and lower cellular senescence. (pnas.org)
  • activation
  • Moreover, there was a reduction of glial cell activation, which correlated with decreased circulating tregs. (anoxia.info)
  • Together, these results suggest that ATV can modulate tregs in peripheral tissue and favor their accumulation in the brain, where they can exert neuroprotective actions maybe by the reduction of glial cell activation. (anoxia.info)
  • Initial assessment in 10 melanoma cell lines revealed that TMZ resistance correlated with MGMT expression (r = 0.79, p = 0.009), and in MGMT-proficient cell lines, with phospho-IGF-1R (r = 0.81, p = 0.038), suggesting that TMZ resistance associates with IGF-1R activation. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • In LPS-treated dendritic cells, piperine inhibits expression of CD40 and CD86, suppresses production of IL-12 and TNF-α, and prevents activation of ERK and JNK. (lktlabs.com)
  • Piperine inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced maturation of bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells through inhibition of ERK and JNK activation. (lktlabs.com)
  • Loss of either NONO or PER abolished this activation and circadian expression of p16-Ink4A and eliminated circadian cell cycle gating. (pnas.org)
  • Activation of specific cyclin-CDK complexes are characteristic for the different cell cycle phases, and drive production of specific molecules associated with, and necessary for that phase of division. (antibodies-online.com)
  • tumour cells
  • Quantification of NG2 expression in 74 GBM biopsies from newly diagnosed and untreated patients revealed that 50% express high NG2 levels on tumour cells and associated vessels, being associated with significantly shorter survival. (biomedsearch.com)
  • NG2 was frequently co-expressed with nestin and vimentin but rarely with CD133 and the NG2 positive tumour cells harboured genetic aberrations typical for GBM. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CDK2
  • We challenged the aromatase-overexpressing cells with either the wild-type or the low forms of cyclin E and then treated them with the CDK2 inhibitor roscovitine," Keyomarsi said. (scienceblog.com)
  • mutations
  • We find evidence that there is genetic heterogeneity among metastasis-initiating cells, that seeding metastasis may require driver mutations beyond those required for primary tumours, and that phylogenetic trees across metastases show organ-specific branches. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • sensitivity
  • Cell cycle distribution and sensitivity to H 2 O 2 induced oxidative stress were further studied, as well as the effect of different chemotherapeutic agents. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We discovered interesting differences in the sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs (Temozolomide, Withaferin A and Sulforaphane) between the PAX6 expressing and non-expressing cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ectopic expression of miR-421 resulted in S-phase cell cycle checkpoint changes and an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation, creating a cellular phenotype similar to that of cells derived from ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) patients. (pnas.org)
  • process
  • However, consistent with the complexity and redundancy of the anchorage-checkpoint process, several oncogenic changes are required to confer anchorage independence on normal cells. (biologists.org)
  • During each round of this process, the cell cycles through an ordered series of events in which its genetic information is duplicated and then divided among two daughter cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The multiplication of cells proceeds through consecutive phases of growth and division (G1, S, G2 and M phases), in a process known as the cell cycle. (sun.ac.za)