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  • inhibitor
  • Regarding the mechanisms of action, endogenous ER β was able to activate transcription via ERE during the S phase in a ligand-dependent manner, whereas no changes in AP1 and NF κ B transactivation were observed after exposure to estradiol or the specific inhibitor ICI 182,780. (hindawi.com)
  • Accordingly, we ectopically restricted UNG2 activity in vivo to predefined cell cycle phases by fusing a UNG2 inhibitor peptide to cell cycle-regulated degradation motifs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Expression
  • Both ER β 1 mRNA and protein expression increased from the G1 to the S phase and decreased before entering the G2/M phase, whereas ER β 2 levels decreased during the S phase and increased in the G2/M phase. (hindawi.com)
  • Over-expression of either wild type ER β 1 or ER β 1 mutated in the DNA-binding domain caused an arrest in early G1. (hindawi.com)
  • B, Rev3 protein expression peaked during S phase. (nih.gov)
  • The peak of Kpa1 (DNA polymerase κ) expression was observed at 140-160 min, indicating that Kpa1 was abundant during S/G2 phase. (nih.gov)
  • The results revealed that cholera toxin significantly induced G1 arrest and downregulated the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin‑dependent kinase 4/6 in the TCC cell lines, and this was rescued by KT5720. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Xenopus
  • We have examined the distribution of early replicating origins on stretched DNA fibers when nuclei from CHO cells synchronized at different times during G1 phase initiate DNA replication in Xenopus egg extracts. (rupress.org)
  • To investigate the spatial and temporal organization of mammalian replication origins, we have exploited a cell-free replication system in which nuclei from mammalian cells staged at various times during G1 phase are introduced into extracts from Xenopus eggs. (rupress.org)
  • regulator
  • However, it was later found that WHI1 was in fact a positive regulator of Start, as its deletion caused cells to delay in G1 and grow larger than wild-type cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • establish
  • These results highlight two distinct G1 steps that establish a spatial and temporal program for replication. (rupress.org)
  • Eco1 must be present in S phase to establish cohesion, but its continued presence is not required to maintain cohesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • and a high concentration of Cdk inhibitors is found during G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found that excision of AID-induced U by UNG2 occurs predominantly during G1 phase, inducing faithful repair, mutagenic processing, and class switching. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Furthermore, it was found, as shown in Figure 1, that Cln1 and Cln2 could activate their own transcription via SBF, completing a positive feedback loop that could contribute to rapid activation and S-phase entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • Unlike Rev7, Rev3, the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase ζ, was expressed at its highest level during S phase (Fig 1B). (nih.gov)
  • During S phase, Eco1 acetylates lysine residues in the Smc3 subunit of cohesin. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, with nuclei isolated later in G1 phase, the positions of many in vitro origins coincided with in vivo origin sites without further change in origin number or density. (rupress.org)
  • larger
  • With nuclei isolated in the first hour of G1 phase, in vitro origins were distributed throughout a larger number of DNA fibers and did not coincide with in vivo origins. (rupress.org)
  • Maximum number is reached in mid G1 phase and towards G2 they become larger and their number decreases. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • The role of positive feedback in this process has been challenged, but recent experiments have confirmed its importance for rapid inactivation and nuclear export of Whi5, which is the molecular basis of commitment to S-phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • necessary
  • Pds5 is not strictly establishment-specific, as Pds5 is necessary for maintenance of cohesion during G2 and M phase. (wikipedia.org)